Macrophyes pacoti Brescovit, Oliveira, Sobczak & Sobczak

Brescovit, Antonio D., Villanueva-Bonilla, German A., Sobczak, Jullyana Cristina M. S. M., De Sousa Nóbrega, Francisco A., Olive, 2019, Macrophyes pacoti n. sp. (Araneae: Anyphaenidae) from Brazilian Atlantic Forest, with notes on an araneopathogenic fungus, Zootaxa 4629 (2), pp. 294-300: 295-297

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4629.2.12

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2ABB4332-91D5-49F2-B50B-3B361E274B5C

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/B746677B-DA55-0926-FF3C-16A5FD4DFE23

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Macrophyes pacoti Brescovit, Oliveira, Sobczak & Sobczak
status

new species

Macrophyes pacoti Brescovit, Oliveira, Sobczak & Sobczak  , new species

( Figures. 1View FIGURE 1 A−F, 2A−D, 3A−B, 4)

Types. Male holotype from Reserva Florestal Particular Empresa Arvoredo Floricultura (4°18’40’’S, 38º58’05’’W, 840 m alt.), Pacoti, Ceará, Brazil, V-VI/2017, J.F. Sobzak leg., sample 9.13, deposited in IBSP 213909; female paratype from same locality, sample 9.19, deposited in IBSP 213910  .

Other material examined. Brazil. Ceará: Pacoti (04°13’03”S; 38°55’22”W), Reserva Florestal Particular Empresa Arvoredo Floricultura, fungus covering spider’s bodyGoogleMaps  , 1♀ ( IBSP 213905View Materials)  , 1♀ ( IBSP 213908View Materials)  , 1♀ ( IBSP 213904View Materials, photo)  , 1♀ j ( IBSP 213907View Materials)  , 1♀ j ( IBSP 213906View Materials)  , V-VI/2017, J.F. Sobzak leg.; not covered by fungus: 1♀, V–VI.2017, sample 9.20, J.F. Sobczak leg. ( IBSP 213913View Materials, draw internal epigynum)  ; 1♀, sample 9.15 ( IBSP 213913View Materials)  ; 1♀, sample 3.5 ( IBSP 213914View Materials)  ; 1♀, sample 5.9 ( IBSP 213911View Materials, photo)  ; 1♂, sample 9.16 ( IBSP 213915View Materials; photo); V-VI/2017, J.F. Sobzak leg.  ; Paraíba: Areia (06°57’46”S; 35°41’31”W), Mata do Guarim GoogleMaps  , 1♂, 12/IV/1997, A.D. Brescovit leg. ( IBSP 10280View Materials)  ; Areia, Reserva da Mata do Pau Ferro , (06°57’28”S; 35°44’4”W)GoogleMaps  , 1♂, 23-29/IX/1999, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 138952View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138936View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138951View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138955View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139959View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138957View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138947View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138935View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138948View Materials)  , all same locality and collector  ; Pernambuco: Recife , (08°03’14”S; 34°52’51”W), Horto Dois IrmãosGoogleMaps  , 4♂, 4♀, 30/V−02/VI/2001, Equipe Biota leg. ( IBSP 138511−138512View Materials; IBSP 138514−138519View Materials), all same locality and collectorGoogleMaps  ; Alagoas: Murici, Estação Ecológica de Murici (09°15’S, 35°51’W)GoogleMaps  , 1♂, 13-22/IX/2003, Equipe Biota leg. ( IBSP 139920View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139869View Materials)  ; 1♂, 1♀ ( IBSP139875View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139901View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139916View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139866View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139906View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139885View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139896View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139922View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139878View Materials)  ; 2♂ ( IBSP 139912View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139891View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139889View Materials)  ; 1♂, 1♀ ( IBSP 139870View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139881View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139871View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139867View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139892View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139918View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139877View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139879View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 139923View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139909View Materials)  , 1♂ ( IBSP 139917View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 139863View Materials)  , all same locality and collector  ; Sergipe: Santa Luzia do Itanhy, Mata do Crasto (11°21’03”S 37°26’52”W)GoogleMaps  , 1♂, 09−13/IX/1999, A.D. Brescovit et al. leg. ( IBSP 138553View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138555View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138556View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138557View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138558View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138559View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138560View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 138561View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138562View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 138563View Materials)  , all same locality and collector  ; Bahia: Mata de São João (12°31’48”S, 38°17’56”W), Fazenda CamurujipeGoogleMaps  , 1♂, 2006, C. Machado leg. ( IBSP 91317View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 91318View Materials)  ; ♂ 1 ( IBSP 91319View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 91320View Materials)  ; 1♂ ( IBSP 91321View Materials)  ; 1♀ ( IBSP 91322View Materials)  , all same locality and collector; Jussari, Reserva Natural da Fazenda Teimoso (15°09’S 39°31’W)GoogleMaps  , 1♀, 21/XI/1998, F. Dias leg. ( IBSP 35171View Materials)  ; Espírito Santo: Conceição da Barra, Parque Estadual de Itaúnas (18°25.5’97”S; 39°42’25.68”W)  , 1♀, 15/XII/2002 − 06/III/2003, Equipe Biota leg. ( IBSP 138696View Materials)  ; Rio de Janeiro: Petrópolis (22°30’18”S; 43°10’44”W), Fazenda Ranchinho da Roça GoogleMaps  , 1♀, 08–15.II.2000, Equipe Biota leg. ( IBSP 139959View Materials)  .

Etymology. The noun in apposition refers to the type locality.

Diagnosis. Males of Macrophyes pacoti  n. sp. resembles those of M. jundiai  (see Brescovit, 1993, figs. 1−2) by the long tibiae and vestigial tibial retrolateral apophysis but differ by the palp having a sinuous spermatic duct and elongated, bent embolus ( Figs. 1C, DView FIGURE 1; 2AView FIGURE 2). Females are readily recognizable by the epigynum with triangular atrium and slightly sclerotized lateral borders ( Fig. 1EView FIGURE 1, 2CView FIGURE 2).

Description. Male (IBSP 213909). Carapace yellow with gray cephalic area and paramedian bands. Chelicerae, endites and labium brown. Sternum white. Abdomen white with dorsal median gray band dorsally, ventrally white. Legs I-II orange with green bands in the femora I, and other legs white ( Fig. 1AView FIGURE 1, 3AView FIGURE 3). Total length 4.8, carapace length 1.8, width 1.6. Clypeus height 0.08. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.16, PME 0.18, PLE 0.16; AME– AME 0.06, AME–ALE 0.06, PME–PME 0.10, PME–PLE 0.10, ALE–PLE 0.06. Chelicerae 1.0 long, with 5 promarginal teeth and 5 retromarginal denticles. Leg measurements: Leg I—femur 2.1/ patella 0.75/ tibia 2.4/ metatarsus 2.0/ tarsus 0.75/ total 8.0; II—2.0/ 0.7/ 2.0/ 1.8/ 0.8/ 7.3; III— 1.5/ 0.45/ 1.1/ 1.4/ 0.5/ 4.95; IV—2.2/ 0.55/ 1.8/ 2.3/ 0.65/ 7.5. Leg spination: I−II—tibia v2-2 -0, p0, r0, metatarsus v2 -0-0, p0, r0; III—tibia v1 p-2-0, p1-1-0, r1-1-0, metatarsus v2-2 -2, p1- 1-1, r1-1-1; IV—tibia v1 p-1p-2, p1-1-0, r1-1-0, metatarsus v2-2 -2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1. Palp: tibia almost as long as cymbium ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A−B); short and rounded retrolateral tibial apophysis ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2); median apophysis subapical, short, curved at tip ( Figs.1CView FIGURE 1, 2AView FIGURE 2). Abdomen: length 3.0, epigastric furrow 1.0 from tracheal spiracle, spiracle 1.0 from base of spinnerets.

Female (IBSP 213910). Coloration as in male, except carapace dorsally with inconspicuous bands and abdomen totally cream ( Fig. 1BView FIGURE 1). Total length 4.8, carapace length 1.7, width 1.4. Clypeus height 0.06. Eye diameters and interdistances: AME 0.08, ALE 0.12, PME 0.12, PLE 0.12; AME–AME 0.06, AME–ALE 0.04, PME–PME 0.10, PME–PLE 0.4, ALE–PLE 0.06. Chelicerae 0.7 long, with 5 promarginal teeth and 7 retromarginal denticles. Leg measurements: Leg I—femur 2.1/ patella 0.75/ tibia 2.4/ metatarsus 2.0/ tarsus 0.75/ total 8.0; II—2.0/ 0.7/ 2.0/ 1.8/ 0.8/ 7.3; III—1.5/ 0.45/ 1.1/ 1.4/ 0.5/ 4.95; IV—2.2/ 0.55/ 1.8/ 2.3/ 0.65/ 7.5. Leg spination: I−III—tibia and metatarsus as in male; IV—tibia v1 p- 1p-2, p1-1-0, r1-1-0, metatarsus v2-2 -2, p1-1-1, r1-1-1. Abdomen: length 3.1, epigastric furrow 1.0 from tracheal spiracle, spiracle 1.1 from base of spinnerets. Epigynum: oval spermathecae, short copulatory ducts between the spermathecae, with oval seminal receptacles in the basal third and elongate, posterior fertilization ducts ( Figs. 1E, FView FIGURE 1; 2View FIGURE 2 C−D).

Variation. Males (n = 10): total length 4.5−4.8; carapace 1.7−1.8; femur I 2.7−2.8; females (n = 10): total length 4.1−4.9; carapace 1.5−2.0; femur I 1.8−2.4.

Distribution. Known from the states of Ceará, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia in northeast Brazil and state of Espírito Santo and Rio de Janeiro, in southeast Brazil ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4).

Remarks. In the area of the Reserva Florestal Particular Empresa Arvoredo Floricultura at least 10 specimens of M. pacoti  n. sp. were collected. Among these specimens, five individuals were infected with fungi (1 male and 4 females) and five were not infected. Infected specimens were attacked by a species of araneopathogenic fungus of the genus Gibellula  sp. ( Cordycipitaceae  ), which is the most common genus to infect spiders in South America ( Evans 2013). Some specimens showed white coloration and others orange coloration ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3), the latter being more abundant. The hyphae of the fungus attack the specimens from the exoskeleton into the hemocele, ultimately covering the whole body of the spider. These infected spiders usually die on the abbatial surface of green leaves, with their legs stretched and fixed to leaf ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3), which possibly helps in fixing the host to the plant. In addition, spiders, after killed by the parasitic fungus, have developed fungal reproductive structures in their bodies.