Dario huli , Britz, Ralf & Ali, Anvar, 2015
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Dario huli , new species
Holotype. BNHS FWF 121, 23.7 mm SL; India: Karnataka: from a small unnamed stream between Balehalli and Agumbe, a tributary of the Tunga river, 13 ° 30 ' 44 "N 75 °08' 44 "E, 635 m asl; A. Ali et al., 17 March 2014.
Paratypes. BNHS FWF 122 -124, 3, 17.7–22.5 mm SL, same data as holotype, one cleared and stained.
Diagnosis. Dario huli differs from all other species of the genus Dario , except D. urops , by the presence of a conspicuous black blotch on the caudal-fin base and by the anterior dorsal-fin lappets in males not being produced beyond the fin spines. It is distinguished from D. urops by lacking the horizontal suborbital stripe (vs. having the suborbital stripe); and possessing a series of up to 8 black bars on the body (vs. 2–3 black bars restricted to the caudal peduncle); an oval caudal-fin blotch with a lighter bar in front of it, sometimes inconspicuous (vs a round blotch with a curved, halo-like lighter area); 25 scales in a lateral row (vs. 28); 13 + 13 = 26 vertebrae (vs. 14 + 14–15 = 28–29); 3–5 tubed lateral-line scales (vs. tubed lateral-line scales completely absent); and teeth on hypobranchial 3 (vs. absence of teeth).
In percent of head length
Snout length 24.2–26.3 (24.6) 25.0 ± 1.1 Eye diameter 29.9–32.2 (32.7) 31.6 ± 1.5 Body elongate, moderately compressed laterally. Predorsal and prepelvic contour convex, giving head a rounded appearance. Eye situated in anterior half of head, snout short. Mouth terminal. Angle of jaws situated at vertical through anterior third of eye. Dorsal contour of body slightly arched, convex; ventral contour convex anteriorly up to pelvic-fin origin, then straight to anal fin, converging towards dorsal contour forming caudal peduncle. Caudal peduncle only slightly attenuated posteriorly.
Lateral-line canal pores on head comprise: dentary pores 3 (d 2 –d 4), anguloarticular pores 2 (aa 1 –aa 2), preopercular pores 5 (p 1, p 3 –p 5, p 7), nasal pores 2 (n 1 –n 2), supraorbital pores 3 (f 1 –f 4), extrascapular pores 3 (ex 1 –ex 3), posttemporal pores 2 (po 1 –po 2), coronalis pore 1 (cor), lachrymal pores 2 (l 1, l 3); no infraorbital pores.
Scales ctenoid on sides, cycloid on top of head. Predorsal scales 5 anterior to coronalis pore, 9 posteriorly. Three to four rows of scales on cheek. Circumpeduncular scales 16. Tubed lateral-line scales almost entirely absent and replaced by scales with shallow central depression for superficial neuromasts; however, 3–5 tubed scales in anterior part of body at level of anterior dorsal-fin spines. Scales in lateral row 25. Scales in transverse row 10 (including small scales at dorsal- and anal-fin bases).
Dorsal-fin rays XIII+ 9 (3) or XIII+ 10 (1). Anal-fin rays III+ 7 (1) or III+ 8 (3). Pectoral-fin rays 13. Pelvic-fin rays I+ 5. Principal caudal-fin rays 7 + 7, dorsal and ventral procurrent rays 4. Vertebrae: 13 + 13 = 26. Teeth present on vomer, palatine and hypobranchial 3 in addition to those on circular patch on posterior parasphenoid and on upper and lower pharyngeal jaws, but absent from basihyal. Eight elongate and pointed gill rakers on lateral face of lower limb of first branchial arch.
Interradial membranes of spinous dorsal fin projecting as short fin lappets that do not extend much beyond tips of spines. Soft dorsal and anal fins with rounded to slightly pointed tips, extending beyond base of caudal fin. Pectoral fin reaching to vertical through base of seventh dorsal-fin spine. Pelvic fin not reaching posteriorly to anus or anterior base of anal fin. Caudal fin rounded.
Colouration in alcohol. Background colour beige to light brown with up to eight black zig-zagging bars ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1). Preorbital stripe faint to absent. Horizontal suborbital stripe absent. Postorbital stripe dark brown, orientated obliquely, anteroventral beginning at 13 h slightly removed from orbit and separated by a narrow light-brown area. Dark blotch on opercle, extended posterodorsally towards the supracleithral area. Cleithral spot absent. Caudal-fin blotch present, usually well developed as vertically elongate, oval aggregation of melanophores, separated from caudal peduncle bars by narrow lighter bar. Pectoral fin mostly translucent with few melanophores along fin rays and on fin membrane; all other fins dusky. Dorsal-fin and anal-fin membranes in spinous portions with dense aggregations of melanophores, less densely developed on soft fin membranes. Caudal fin with similar densities of melanophores on both fin rays and interradial membranes.
Coloration in life. Similar to colouration in alcohol. Background colour more yellowish beige ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Bars prominent, expressed not only on caudal peduncle but also on abdominal part of body. Opercle with golden-green iridescence. Caudal-fin blotch present, not always conspicuous. Rim of soft-dorsal and anal fin tipped with whitishblue.
Geographical distribution. Dario huli has been collected so far only from a small tributary of the Tunga River in southern Karnataka ( Fig. 3).
Etymology. The species name huli is derived from the Kannada word ಹುϬ, ‘Huli’, for tiger and alludes to the vertical bars on its body, which reminded us of the stripes of a tiger. A noun in apposition.
Remarks. The unnamed stream in southern Karnataka from which D. huli was collected is a small, clearwater stream, up to 5 m wide and 2 m deep, with a sandy bottom and larger rocks and boulders. There was no aquatic vegetation except a few stands of Lagenandra . Dario huli was collected from among vegetation hanging down into the water along the edges of the stream. Despite our fishing effort of several hours we were able to collect only four specimens. Associated species comprised: Devario malabaricus , Rasbora dandia , Danio rerio , Lepidocephalichthys thermalis , Acanthocobitis cf. mooreh , Pterocryptis wynaadensis , Mastacembelus cf. armatus , Channa cf. gachua , and Pseudosphromenus cupanus .
|In percent of standard length||mean ± SD|
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