Hypsophrys Agassiz

Juan J. Schmitter-Soto, 2007, A systematic revision of the genus Archocentrus (Perciformes: Cichlidae), with the description of two new genera and six new species., Zootaxa 1603, pp. 1-78: 62-63

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Hypsophrys Agassiz


Genus Hypsophrys Agassiz  ZBK 

Hypsophrys Agassiz, 1859  ZBK  : 408 (original description).

Heros  ZBK  , Günther 1864: 153 (part.).

Neetroplus  ZBK  Günther, 1867: 603 (junior synonym).

Cichlasoma  ZBK  , Pellegrin 1904: 167 (part.)

Copora Fernandez-Yepez  ZBK  , 1969: 3 (junior synonym).

Type species. Hypsophrys unimaculatus Agassiz, 1859  ZBK  = Heros nicaraguensis Guenther, 1864  ZBK  (see Remarks).

Diagnosis. No strict synapomorphies, but unique characters in combination: total number of gill rakers on first arch modally 11 (also in Parachromis  ); posterior end of dentigerous arm of dentary rounded or squarish (also in Parachromis  , Archocentrus  , and others); no parhypurapophysis (also not in Amphilophus  ZBK  ); secondary caudal pores forming rows (also in Cr. spilurus  + cutteri  ); caudal emarginate (a unique reversal); peritoneum only anterodorsally pigmented (also in Rocio  ).

Description. D. XVIII-XIX, modally 10 rays; A. VII-VIII, modally 7 or 8 rays. First dorsal-fin ray not divided. Just one row of interradial scales in dorsal and anal fins, up to 5 or 6 (dorsal) and 7 or 8 (anal) scales long. Predorsal scales 15-20; pored lateral-line scales (not counting scales overlapping between the two segments of the lateral line) 30-33, prolonged by two pored scales on caudal fin; scales from lateral line to first dorsal fin ray always 2.5; circumpeduncular scales modally 17. Small to medium-sized heroines, to 165 mm SL (Kullander 2003). Body fusiform to rather oval, depth 38-46% of SL; caudal peduncle slender, longer than deep, least depth 13-15% of SL. Maxilla and premaxilla falling short of orbit. Lower jaw receding (contra Günther 1869, who considered the jaws of both H. nicaraguensis  and H. nematopus  “equal in front”); frenum present in lower lip. Dorsal and anal fins bearing filaments. Anal loop and rostral esophageal loop of gut, adjacent. Genital papilla oval, in females opening oval and not much crenulated. Gill rakers trapezoidal, denticulate, with no basal process. Secondary pored scales on caudal fins forming rows between the rays. Four or more procurrent rays of caudal fin. Caudal vertebrae modally 16, total vertebrae 29-30. Stripe from snout to eye absent or diffuse; no interorbital bands; suborbital streak present; no speckles on cheek; no dorsal ocellus or abdominal black blotch in mature females; absent or diffuse longitudinal band on side of body; 6-7 bars on sides, diffuse, except for 3rd bar; 4th bar and sometimes also 3rd bar medially more intense, forming a lateral spot, round or vertically oval; no bars on fins; base of pectoral fin whitish or of same color as breast.

Distribution. Río Santa Clara, Costa Rica, through Great Lakes of Nicaragua north to Río Putkrukira-Coco, Nicaragua (Fig. 27).

Species composition. Two species, H. nicaraguensis  and H. nematopus  .

Remarks. Neetroplus  ZBK  is hereby synonymized, so Hypsophrys  ZBK  is no longer monotypic. The other species assigned to Neetroplus  ZBK  by some recent authors, Cr. panamensis  , is here regarded to belong in Cryptoheros  ZBK  (see above).

The availability of the name, the identity of the type species, the status of Copora  ZBK  and other issues were dealt with by Kullander and Hartel (1997). Further comments below.