Formica Linnaeus

Ward, P. S., 2005, A synoptic review of the ants of California (Hymenoptera: Formicidae), Zootaxa 936, pp. 1-68: 29

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Formica Linnaeus


Genus Formica Linnaeus 

In California the members of this genus are most prevalent in montane habitats, although a few species occur in drier, low elevation sites. Formica  species are ground­nesting ants with generalist foraging habits. Francoeur’s (1973) authoritative revision of the Formica fusca  ­group allows the species in that group to be relatively easily identified. Taxonomic difficulties still plague the Formica rufa  ­group, which contains most of the remaining species in California.

Species identification: keys in Francoeur (1973), Wheeler and Wheeler (1986g), Snelling and Buren (1985) and Mackay and Mackay (2002). Additional references: Agosti (1994 b), Agosti and Bolton (1990 b), Buren (1968 a), Cole (1956 d, 1956 f, 1956g), Creighton (1940 a, 1950 a), Dlussky (1967), Francoeur and Snelling (1979), Gösswald (1989, 1990), Savolainen (1998), Smith (1979), Trager et al. (2005), Wilson and Brown (1955).