Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948,

Silva, Fernando A. B. & Valois, Marcely, 2019, A taxonomic revision of the genus Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948 (Coleoptera Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilini), Zootaxa 4629 (3), pp. 301-341: 307-308

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4629.3.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:1D47B452-0A40-4BC5-9BBA-C06DEB298C9A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/9D12E557-3A5F-FF99-95F1-FB29FA6CC0C1

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948
status

 

Key to adult male Scybalocanthon Martínez, 1948 

1. Femora completely black.............................................................................. 2

- Femora bicolored, central portion pale yellow, with dark spots at least on the tips ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 E–F)........................ 4

2(1). Pronotum uniformly colored, completely orange ( Fig. 1CView FIGURE 1). Brazil (Acre, Mato Grosso), Bolivia and Peru........................................................................... Scybalocanthon aereus ( Schmidt, 1922)  (in part)

- Pronotum bicolored, with yellow and black areas ( Figs. 1LView FIGURE 1, N–O).............................................. 3

3(2). Elytra black. Pronotum usually with three or five black spots ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 N–O). In some individuals from Loja ( Ecuador), spots are missing. Ecuador................................................... Scybalocanthon maculatus ( Schmidt, 1920) 

- Elytra brown. Pronotum with transverse black spot of butterfly or bat shape ( Fig. 1LView FIGURE 1). Colombia and Ecuador....................................................................... Scybalocanthon kelleri Pereira & Martínez, 1956 

4(1). Pronotum with a longitudinal dark band on midline ( Figs. 1GView FIGURE 1, 2BView FIGURE 2).............................................. 5

- Pronotum uniformly colored or, if bicolored, lacking longitudinal dark band on midline............................. 6

5(4). Elytra bicolored, with black spot on the anterior portion ( Fig. 1GView FIGURE 1). Eighth elytral stria lacking carina at the anterior portion. Brazil (Amapá, Pará), French Guiana, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago..... Scybalocanthon cyanocephalus ( Harold, 1868) 

- Elytra brown or dark yellow, with black spot almost inconspicuous on its margin ( Fig. 2BView FIGURE 2). Eighth elytral stria with thin carina at the anterior portion ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3). Brazil (Amazonas, Amapá, Roraima), Venezuela, Suriname, and French Guyana.......................................................................... Scybalocanthon pygidialis ( Schmidt, 1922) 

6(4). Black spots on the tips of femora covering approximately 1/15 length of femora ( Fig. 3EView FIGURE 3)............................ 7

- Black spots on the tips of femora covering approximately 1/5 length of femora, central portion with elliptical yellow spot ( Fig. 3FView FIGURE 3)................................................................................................ 16

7(6). Pronotum with four black spots, two central spots with triangular shape, and one rounded spot on each side ( Fig. 1KView FIGURE 1). Ecuador................................................................. Scybalocanthon kaestneri ( Balthasar, 1939) 

- Pronotum uniformly colored, lacking spots, or with one elliptical spot on the central portion......................... 8

8(7). Eighth elytral stria lacking carina at the anterior portion....................................................... 9

- Eighth elytral stria with very fine and sharp carina at the anterior portion ( Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3)................................ 11

9(8). Elytral striae impressed, punctures conspicuous ( Fig. 3AView FIGURE 3). Ecuador.............. Scybalocanthon chamorroi  new species

- Elytral striae weakly impressed, punctures inconspicuous ( Fig. 3BView FIGURE 3)............................................ 10

10(9). Ventral margin of parameres with an excavation at the basal portion extending one-half of the paramere length. Apex of parameres arrow shaped ( Fig. 4AView FIGURE 4). Brazil (Acre) and Bolivia....................... Scybalocanthon acrianus  new species

- Ventral margin of parameres straight, lacking excavation. Apex of parameres subrectangular ( Fig. 4BView FIGURE 4). Brazil (Amazonas) and Ecuador.................................................................. Scybalocanthon adisi  new species

11(8). Left paramere lacking acute projection on dorsal margin and lacking bilobate excavation on ventral margin ( Figs. 4E, SView FIGURE 4).. 12

- Left paramere with acute projection on dorsal margin and bilobate excavation on ventral margin ( Figs. 4I, O, R, WView FIGURE 4)..... 13

12(11). Ventral margin of parameres curved outward on its apical one-half ( Fig. 4EView FIGURE 4). Peru, Ecuador, and Colombia.................................................................................... Scybalocanthon arnaudi  new species

- Ventral margin of parameres straight on its apical one-half ( Fig. 4SView FIGURE 4). Peru...... Scybalocanthon pinopterus ( Kirsch, 1873) 

13(11). Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere wide and deep, extending at least one-half of the paramere margin in the lateral view ( Fig. 4OView FIGURE 4). Ecuador and Colombia................................ Scybalocanthon martinezi  new species

- Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere short, not reaching one-half of paramere margin in the lateral view ( Figs. 4I, WView FIGURE 4)............................................................................................. 14

14(13). Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere extending along one-third of the paramere margin ( Fig. 4WView FIGURE 4). Brazil (Acre, Amazonas, Mato Grosso, Rondônia, Pará)....................... Scybalocanthon uniplagiatus ( Schmidt, 1922)   

- Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere extending along one-fourth of the paramere margin ( Figs. 4I, RView FIGURE 4)... 15

15(14). Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere deeper than wide in lateral view ( Fig. 4IView FIGURE 4). Colombia............................................................................. Scybalocanthon federicoescobari  new species

- Bilobate excavation of ventral margin of left paramere wider than deep in lateral view ( Fig. 4RView FIGURE 4). Brazil (Pará, Tocantins) ........................................................................ Scybalocanthon papaxibe  new species

16(6). Pronotum uniformly colored, or with faint brown spot close to anterior or posterior margin (as Figs. 1C, E, MView FIGURE 1).......... 17

- Pronotum bicolored, with distinct and variable spots........................................................ 21

17(16). Elytra uniformly colored, completely dark brown or black ( Figs. 1D, MView FIGURE 1)........................................ 18

- Elytra bicolored, with yellow and black areas (as Figs. 1D, E, SView FIGURE 1)............................................... 19

18(17). Elytra usually dark brown or black ( Fig. 1MView FIGURE 1). Ventral margin of parameres with an excavation on basal half.Apex of parameres arrow-shaped ( Fig. 4MView FIGURE 4). Brazil (Minas Gerais and São Paulo)................... Scybalocanthon korasakiae Silva, 2011   

- Elytra usually light brown ( Fig. 1CView FIGURE 1). Ventral margin of parameres straight, lacking excavation. Apex of parameres subrectangular ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 C–D). Brazil (Acre, Mato Grosso), Bolivia and Peru........ Scybalocanthon aereus ( Schmidt, 1922)  (in part)

19(17). Elytra with horizontal yellow spot only on the central portion ( Fig. 1EView FIGURE 1). Brazil (Bahia)......................................................................................... Scybalocanthon batesi  Vaz-de-Mello & Silva, 2017

- Most of elytral surface yellow, brown or black spot only on elytral margin and anterior portion of elytra ( Figs. 1J, SView FIGURE 1)..... 20

20(19). Body surface with metallic sheen ( Fig. 1JView FIGURE 1). Parameres subrectangular, lacking excavation on the ventral margin ( Fig. 4JView FIGURE 4). Venezuela................................................................. Scybalocanthon haroldi  new species

- Body surface opaque or with silky sheen ( Fig. 2SView FIGURE 2). Parameres arrow-shaped, with an excavation on the ventral margin ( Fig. 4QView FIGURE 4). Argentina, Brazil (São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro, Paraná), and Paraguay....... Scybalocanthon nigriceps ( Harold, 1868) 

21(16). Elytral disk bicolored, with yellow and black spots on disk ( Fig. 1HView FIGURE 1). Colombia.................................................................................................... Scybalocanthon darlingtoni ( Paulian, 1939) 

- Elytra unicolored, completely dark brown or black, or light colored with narrow black margin....................... 22

22(21). Central portion of dorsal surface of head yellow ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 C–G) or completely silky brown. Pygidium bicolored, central portion with elliptical black spot ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3). Bolivia, Brazil (Amazonas, Pará, Rondônia, Roraima), Colombia, Venezuela, and Peru......................................................... Scybalocanthon sexspilotus ( Guérin-Méneville, 1855) 

- Head completely dark brown or black. Pygidium unicolored.................................................. 23

23(22). Eighth elytral stria with very fine and sharp carina on anterior portion (as in Fig. 3DView FIGURE 3). Elytral surface opaque. Pronotum usually with three spots along midline (anterior spot triangular in shape; posterior spots rounded in shape) and one rounded spot on each side of midline ( Fig. 1NView FIGURE 1). In some individuals, anterior and posterior spots fused on midline ( Fig. 1OView FIGURE 1). Parameres narrowed at the central portion in the lateral view ( Fig. 4NView FIGURE 4). Ecuador................... Scybalocanthon maculatus ( Schmidt, 1920) 

- Eighth elytral stria lacking carina. Elytra with metallic sheen. Pronotum differently colored. Parameres not narrowed at the central portion in the lateral view ( Figs. 4V, PView FIGURE 4)............................................................. 24

24(23). Pronotum with three black spots (two rounded spots on each side of midline anteriorly and one quadrate spot on midline posteriorly) ( Fig. 2JView FIGURE 2). In some individuals, anterior spots are missing, in others spots are fused and two smaller additional spots are present laterally ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 H–I), endophallus with microbristles right beside the FLP sclerite ( Fig. 5VView FIGURE 5). Colombia and Ecuador............................................................... Scybalocanthon trimaculatus ( Schmidt, 1922) 

- Pronotum with two black spots along midline (anterior spot irregular in shape with three angular projection posteriorly; posterior spot quadrate in shape with three small angular projection anteriorly) ( Fig. 1QView FIGURE 1). In some individuals, anterior spot absent or reduced ( Fig. 1RView FIGURE 1), endophallus lacking microbristles right beside the FLP sclerite ( Fig. 5OView FIGURE 5). Costa Rica, Nicaragua, and Panama............................................................ Scybalocanthon moniliatus ( Bates, 1887)