Leptoclinides latus F. Monniot, 1983,

Oliveira, Livia M., Carvalho, João Paulo & Rocha, Rosana M., 2019, Leptoclinides (Ascidiacea, Didemnidae) from Brazil: new records and two new species, European Journal of Taxonomy 572, pp. 1-16: 6-8

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Leptoclinides latus F. Monniot, 1983


Leptoclinides latus F. Monniot, 1983 

Fig. 2View Fig

Leptoclinides latus F. Monniot, 1983: 15  , fig. 4, pl. 1B.

Leptoclinides latus – Rocha et al. 2005: 468  , figs 6–8.

Material examined BRAZIL • 1 colony; Bahia, Salvador, São Marcelo Fort ; 12º58′6″ S, 38º31′5″ W; 1 Aug. 1999; R.M. Rocha leg.; DZUP DID-185, slides DZUP DID3.32, DZUP DID3.33GoogleMaps  1 colony; Espírito Santo , Guarapari, Escalvada Island; 20º41′59″ S, 40º24′82″ W; 13 m depth; 12 Feb. 2011; R.M. Rocha leg.; under rocks; DZUP LEP-008, slide DZUP DID3.79  2 colonies; same locality as preceding but 20°42′00″ S, 40°24′30″ W; 10 m depth; 26 Jan. 2012; G.A. Gamba leg.; DZUP LEP-010, DZUP LEP-021, slide DZUP DID3.80GoogleMaps  2 colonies; same locality as preceding but 20°41′58.77″ S, 40°24′27.82″ W; 27 Jan. 2012; 11 m depth; G.A. Gamba leg.; DZUP LEP-013, DZUP LEP-015GoogleMaps  1 colony; Guarapari , Beluccia shipwreck; 20º40′41″ S, 40º21′41″ W; 20 m depth; 28 Mar. 2017; R.M. Rocha leg.; DZUP LEP-014GoogleMaps  1 colony; Rio de Janeiro , Arraial do Cabo, Saco do Cordeiro; 22º57′54″ S, 41º59′57″ W; 7–9 m depth; 10 Apr. 2001; R.M. Rocha leg.; under rock; DZUP DID-145GoogleMaps  1 colony; Cabo Frio , Comprida Island; 22º53′23″ S, 41º57′17″ W; 29 Mar. 2011; R.M. Rocha leg.; DZUP LEP-012GoogleMaps  1 colony; same locality but 31 Mar. 2011; DZUP LEP-022GoogleMaps  1 colony; Papagaio Island ; 22º53′55″ S, 41º58′42″ W; 9 May 2014; L.F. Skinner leg.; DZUP LEP-011GoogleMaps  1 colony; São Paulo , São Sebastião, Alcatrazes Island; 24º06′33″ S, 42º12′28″ W; 8 m depth; 29 Jun. 2012; G.A. Gamba leg.; DZUP LEP-023GoogleMaps  1 colony; Paraná , Pontal do Paraná, Currais Island; 25º44′12″ S, 48º21′58″ W; 14 May 2005; R.M. Rocha leg.; DZUP LEP-006GoogleMaps  1 colony; Santa Catarina , São Francisco Sul, Graças Archipelago; 26º10′51″ S, 48º28′55″ W; 2 Apr. 2008; R.M. Rocha leg.; DZUP LEP-004GoogleMaps  1 colony; Tamboretes Archipelago ; 26º23′03″ S, 48º31′25″ W; 3 Mar. 2008; R.M. Rocha leg.; DZUP LEP-003GoogleMaps  1 colony; Bombinhas , Lagoinha Beach; 27º08′43″ S, 48º28′50″ W; 14 Feb 1996; R.M. Rocha leg.; intertidal zone; DZUP LEP-007GoogleMaps  .


Colonies in situ are orangish or salmon in color, with a variation of darker or lighter forms ( Fig. 2View Fig A–B), becoming white after fixation. Colonies are encrusting, with an irregular or somewhat oval outline, 3–5 cm wide and 2–4 mm thick and are more often found on the underside of rocks. Common cloacal apertures are large and abundant, round with a smooth border that when not well relaxed is somewhat wavy. The tunic is firm and easily broken due to abundant spicules that tend to be absent in the middle and base of the colony. In fixed colonies, the surface appears wrinkled and the oral siphons tend to become more salient. Spicules are globular, 15–30 µm in diameter, with cylindrical, relatively short, blunt, irregularly pointed rays (numbering about 14 in cross section, Fig. 2CView Fig).

Zooids, about 0.8–1.2 mm in length, have equally long thorax and abdomen. The oral siphon is short, tubular, with six rounded lobes around the margin. The atrial siphon is small, circular and smooth, in the middle of the thorax, between the second and third rows of stigmata. Some zooids have a bifurcate, wide, muscular, dorsal languet. The pharynx has 14 stigmata on each side of the first row and 13 stigmata in the remaining rows. There are six to eight muscle fibers in each side of the thorax. The thoracic organ is small, circular and between the second and third rows of the stigmata ( Fig. 2DView Fig). The abdomen is vertical. The esophagus is short and narrow. The stomach is globular and is not overlapped by the intestinal loop. The testis has 3–4 small, oval follicles surrounded by two and a half or three, widely separated, turns of the sperm duct ( Fig. 2EView Fig). Oocytes, present in the zooids of specimens DZUP DID-185 (Bahia) and DZUP LEP-014 (Espírito Santo), are 0.20–0.33 mm in diameter.

Larvae are oval-shaped, with a trunk 0.70–0.85 mm in length. Larvae have three adhesive papillae in a row, with long, slender, equally spaced peduncles, and eight pairs of elongated, ectodermal ampullae ( Fig. 2FView Fig). The tail curves around ¾ of the trunk. Larvae were found in specimens collected in November in Santa Catarina and in January to March (in immature state) in Espírito Santo.


Leptoclinides latus  was first reported in the Caribbean in Guadalupe ( Monniot 1983). In Brazil, it was first found at the island Arvoredo, in the state of Santa Catarina ( Rocha et al. 2005). Today, the species is known to have a much wider distribution in Brazil, from Bahia to Santa Catarina, and is the most common Brazilian species in the genus Leptoclinides  .

A few specimens had singular variations in characters when compared to most others. For example, the specimen from Bahia (DZUP DID-185) had a more open aperture and a longer rather than globular stomach, than is usually seen in most zooids. The colony collected in Cabo Frio (DZUP LEP-011) had five testicular follicles and the sperm duct with two turns only. Despite the variability described above, the remaining characters, including colony color, spicule size and shape, bifurcated atrial languet (where observed), and testis and larval shape and size, together clearly identify this species.


Type locality: Guadeloupe ( Monniot 1983). Other localities: Brazil: Bahia, Espírito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, São Paulo and Paraná (this study), Santa Catarina ( Rocha et al. 2005).


Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure














Leptoclinides latus F. Monniot, 1983

Oliveira, Livia M., Carvalho, João Paulo & Rocha, Rosana M. 2019

Leptoclinides latus F. Monniot, 1983: 15

Monniot F. 1983: 15

Leptoclinides latus –

Rocha R. M. & Moreno T. R. & Metri R. 2005: 468