Crossopalpus aliceae, Freitas-Silva & Ale-Rocha, 2019

Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly, 2019, New South American species of Crossopalpus Bigot (Diptera: Hybotidae: Tachydromiinae), including biogeographical insights and a reinterpretation of female abdominal tergite 10 in Drapetidini, Zootaxa 4559 (1), pp. 111-135 : 116-119

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Crossopalpus aliceae

sp. nov.

Crossopalpus aliceae sp. nov.

( Figs 6–9 View FIGURES 6–9 , 25, 26 View FIGURES 23–30 , 32 View FIGURES 31–35 , 36 View FIGURE 36 )

Diagnosis. Black species with legs yellow, except hind femur shiny brown with base and apex yellow. Antenna with scape and pedicel dark brown, postpedicel light brown. Shiny on upper 1/2 of frons, ocellar triangle, wide area on upper 1/2 of postocular area, lacking tomentum; patch of tomentum on vertex absent. Acrostichal bristles biserial, extended posteriorly to horizontal plane of notopleural setae; dorsocentrals triserial, series complete.

Description. Holotype male. Body length: 1.81 mm; wing length: 1.50 mm, wing width: 0.57 mm. Head. Shiny black; bare on ocellar triangle, upper 1/2 of frons, vertex ( Fig. 26 View FIGURES 23–30 ), and wide area on upper 1/2 of postocular area; other parts covered with white tomentum, denser and silvery tomentum on lower 2/3 of postocular area and postgena just behind this area; bristles yellow, setae coppery. One pair of strong, parallel, upturned ocellar setae, stronger than vertical setae; postocellar setae minute, about 1/5 length of ocellars. Inner vertical setae short, 1/2 length of ocellar setae, convergent; outer vertical seta slightly weaker than inner pair, upturned. Antenna ( Figs 25, 26 View FIGURES 23–30 ) with scape and pedicel dark brown, postpedicel light brown. Pedicel circled with almost uniformly short apical bristles, 1 long ventral seta 2 x longer than pedicel; postpedicel lanceolate, more rounded ventrally, 2 x longer than pedicel, 1.4 x longer than wide. Stylus brown, 8.3 x longer than pedicel, short pubescent, bare near base. Gena short ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 23–30 ), about 1/7 eye height. Proboscis yellow with some brown irregular markings, clypeus black, palpus dark brown, covered with yellow bristles and bearing 1 long and strong, dark brown apical seta. Thorax ( Figs 25, 26 View FIGURES 23–30 ). Shiny black, postalar callus brownish; white tomentum on posterior margin of scutum, lower margins of katepisternum and pleural suture, on margin of scutellum and postalar callus, all of katepimeron, katatergite and mediotergite, absent on meron. Bristles yellowish, reclinate, anterior ones slightly shorter, setae coppery. Proepisternum bearing 1 long upturned seta on lower margin. Acrostichal bristles biserial, extended posteriorly to horizontal plane of notopleural setae; dorsocentrals triserial, series complete, median-most dc series slightly longer than surrounding ones. Prominent setae: 1 posterior dorsocentral 0.8 x length of apical scutellar, 1 notopleural, 1 anterior supra-alar, and 1 postalar 0.6 x length of apical scutellar, and 1 posterior supra-alar 0.5 x length of apical scutellar. Scutellum with 1 apical and 1 lateral pairs of subequally long setae, and 1 very short pair of basal scutellar setae, about 1/5 length of apical setae. Legs ( Figs 25, 26 View FIGURES 23–30 ). Coxae yellow with some diffuse brown infuscation; fore femur, tibiae, fore and mid tarsi and hind tarsomeres 2–5 yellow with some light brown infuscation; mid femur yellow dorsally brown infuscate; hind femur shiny brown with base and apex yellow; hind tarsomere 1 brown. Covering bristles on legs coppery, setae brown; tarsi ventrally covered with dense white setulae. Coxae and trochanter with ordinary chaetotaxy, except fore coxa bearing 1 strong dorsobasal seta. Fore femur thickened near base with 1 anterior and 1 posterior thin subapical seta. Fore tibia as long as fore femur with covering bristles longer and denser on distal 2/3 of anterior surface, with 1 long, hair-like basal anterodorsal bristle proximal to tibial gland, and bearing 1 anteroventral and 1 posteroventral strong subapical seta. Fore tarsomeres: 15/6/6 /5/8; fore tarsomere 1 with several short anteroventral and posteroventral spine-like bristles, continuing from tibia. Mid femur slender; dorsal bristles near base somewhat erect, 1 erect dorsobasal seta differentiated, 1 strong anterior subapical seta, not densely setose ventrally. Mid tibia little shorter than mid femur, bristles not erect, bearing 1 anteroventral and 1 posteroventral strong subapical seta. Mid tarsomeres: 15/7/7 /5/10; mid tarsi lacking prominent bristles. Hind femur strongly thickened throughout, straight, with 6 erect dorsobasal bristles, bristles not denser ventrally, 2 long and strong anteroventral subapical setae. Hind tibia thickened, 0.8 length of femur; ventral bristles undifferentiated, bearing four setae near apex: 1 stronger anteroventral seta, and 1 thinner anterodorsal, both subapical setae, inserted into different levels, and 1 stronger anterior and 1 long and thin anterodorsal apical seta; posteroventral lappet long, strongly pointed, covered with pale yellow dense tomentum, with dorsal comb of short setae. Hind tarsomeres: 30/11/ 11/5/8; hind tarsomere 1 thickened with some short ventral spine-like setae near base and 1 anteroventral and 1 posteroventral short spine-like apical seta. Wing ( Figs 25, 26 View FIGURES 23–30 , 32 View FIGURES 31–35 ). Wide, anal lobe developed. Hyaline with some slight brown infuscation near base and some iridescent reflections throughout; covered with microtrichia; veins brown to pale-yellow. Vein C with 1 very long black seta near base; bristles on first costal section somewhat longer than in further sections. Costal sections: 29/ 18/20/6. Vein Rs as long as first sector of R 4+5; M 1 gently bowed near apex; M 4 straight, evanescent apically; CuA+CuP indistinct. Crossvein br-m as long as vein Rs; crossvein bm-m oblique, 2.7 x longer than crossvein br-m. Cell br wider on medial part, narrowed apically, 2/3 length of cell bm. Halter pale yellow. Abdomen ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 23–30 ). Tergites striated, tergites 1–3 and 6–7, and all sternites shiny light brown, tergites 4–5 pale dark brown, covered with some pruinescence. Tergites 1 and 5 narrower. Bristles on tergites short, yellow, sparse, denser laterally on tergite 4; squamiform setae absent; sternites with ordinary chaetotaxy. Terminalia reflexed to right, globose, shiny brown ( Fig. 25 View FIGURES 23–30 ). Left cercus very wide, curved towards phallus, medial 1/2 covered with numerous long bristles, lacking deep apical concavity, medial part longer with rounded apex ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 6–9 ). Epandrial lamellae not fused dorsally ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 6–9 ). Left epandrial lamella short, fused to hypandrium. Left surstylus ( Fig. 8 View FIGURES 6–9 ) reduced, divided into two lobes: left dorsal lobe strong, elongate, apical 1/2 curved, apex positioned behind left cercus, bearing short bristles on apical 1/2; left ventral lobe rounded, minute, with numerous long apical setae. Right epandrial lamella wide, evenly covered with short bristles, shorter than left cercus ( Fig. 16 View FIGURES 16–19 ). Right surstylus ( Fig. 7 View FIGURES 6–9 ) divided into three lobes: right dorsal lobe shortest, finger-like, with 1 short apical seta; right medial lobe longest, quadrangular, positioned over other lobes, with medioventral callus, bearing only minute setulae on apical 1/2; right ventral lobe about 1/2 length of right mid lobe, finger-like, fused to right dorsal lobe behind right medial lobe, with short apical bristles. Hypandrium elongate, ejaculatory and ventral apodemes present ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 6–9 ).

Female. Similar to male, except tergites paler, sternites more setose, each one with 1 very long and thin lateroventral seta on posterior margin of each side. Terminalia ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 6–9 ) shortened; tergite 8 short, widely darkened except apical margin yellow, anterior margin not concave, but shorter on ventral margin, only slightly sunken mediodorsally; sternite 8 elongate, darkened except dorsal margin yellow, dorsal margin elevated in profile, widened towards apex, apical 1/2 deeply divided ventrally, lateral strongly bent upwards. Epiproct fused to cercus, hypoproct elongate, narrow in lateral view. Cercus bent downwards, bearing numerous very long apical setae.

Variation. Tomentum on thorax, mainly along pleural suture, may be absent. Some darker yellow parts may be observed on legs and tergites when compared with the holotype. Brown infuscation on legs, particularly femora, may be less diffused and more concentrated on dorsal surface. Fore coxa can have 1 additional strong dorsobasal seta, distal to slightly weaker seta. Male tergites can be also darker, particularly tergites 2 and 3, which may have the lateral area almost as dark as tergites 4 and 5. One specimen from Umuarama, collected in 1980, is mainly brown and much paler than the holotype, probably due to preservation methods. Males and females from Mato Grosso have antennae darker, almost black, including the postpedicel; tarsi are also darker, particularly fore and mid tarsomeres 3–5 which may be almost brown, contrasting with the widely yellow tarsi on holotype (except hind tarsomere 1).

Type material. HOLOTYPE GoogleMaps ♂ (INPA). BRASIL: Paraná / Malaise / Umuarama   GoogleMaps [Dr. Alice Kumagai, formerly A. Yamamoto and collector of the holotype, kindly provided further details on type locality of this species: Estrada Vermelha, 23°51′14.2″S 53°20′56.8″W, over small stream]/ 10-x-1980 / A. Yamamoto [col.] [white, typeset/ manuscript]; Holótipo ♂ / Crossopalpus / aliceae sp. nov. / Freitas-Silva & Ale-Rocha [red, typeset/handwritten]. Holotype condition: in excellent condition, a few scutal bristles lost; mounted on minuten on right side, not passing through to opposite side, not dissected. PARATYPES. Brazil. Paraná: same data as holotype (3♂, 2♀) GoogleMaps ; idem, except 7–13.ix.1980 (1♂); idem, except 28.ix.–4.x.1980 (3♀); idem, except 24–30.viii.1980 (2♀). Mato Grosso: [Poconé, Pousada Piuval, formerly Fazenda Ipiranga , 16°22′42.2″S 56°37′19.0″W (J.A. Rafael, pers. comm.)] Pantanal, Arm. Cola, 14–, J.A. Rafael & J. Vidal, cols (1♂, 3♀) GoogleMaps . Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, UFMS, R[io] Miranda, Passo do Lontra [19°34′36.3″S 57°01′08.1″W], 21–25.viii.2016, Paratudal, Pitfall fezes, Zequi et al., cols (alcohol 1♀) GoogleMaps . All housed at INPA .

Distribution. Brazil (Mato Grosso, Mato Grosso do Sul, Paraná). Crossopalpus aliceae sp. nov. has a relatively wide distribution in Southern and Mid-Western regions of Brazil, with most records of the species apparently occupying savannah-like and wetland biomes, extending north to Mato Grosso into a transitional zone with the Amazonian Forest ( Fig. 36 View FIGURE 36 ).

Etymology. The species is named after Dr. Alice Fumi Kumagai, who collected the holotype and several paratypes of the species and kindly provided precious information about the type locality, even 38 years after collecting the series.

Remarks. Crossopalpus aliceae sp. nov. is similar to C. xanthogaster sp. nov.: the species are similar in size, similar in coloration of legs and antennae, and bearing relatively few scutal bristles. However, in C. xanthogaster sp. nov. the frons is covered with a fine tomentum, the shiny area on the upper part of postocular area is very narrow, scutal bristles are almost entirely presutural (except postsutural dorsocentrals), and the scutellum bears a single pair of long setae, with lateral setae short, while C. aliceae sp. nov. bears tomentum only on lower 1/2 of the frons, the shiny area on the upper part of postocular area is wider than in C. xanthogaster sp. nov., dorsocentral series extents to the posterior margin of scutum, scutellum bears apical and lateral pairs of long setae and the basal pair is short.

Originally, we believed the specimens from Paraná belonged to a different species from that of Mato Grosso due to some of the variation outlined above. However, the morphology of male and female terminalia indicated they are conspecific, and those differences are variations of a single species.

The type locality is an open, very anthroposized vegetation landscape, with no native wooded forest and surrounded by small subsistence plantations (beans, corn, rice, etc.), swine breeding, and crossed by an approximately two meters wide freshwater stream with some riparian vegetation, where the malaise trap was set up (A. Kumagai, pers. comm., February 8, 2018).


Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia