Alphamenes richardsi Giordani Soika, 1978,

Hermes, Marcel G., 2017, Contributions to the taxonomy of Minixi Giordani Soika and Alphamenes Van der Vecht (Hymenoptera, Vespidae, Eumeninae), with an identification key to the species of the latter, Zootaxa 4317 (3), pp. 530-540: 535

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Alphamenes richardsi Giordani Soika, 1978


Alphamenes richardsi Giordani Soika, 1978 

( Fig. 12–15View FIGURES 12 – 17. 12, 18, 22View FIGURES 18 – 23. 18 – 19, 25View FIGURES 24 – 29. 24 – 25)

Alphamenes insignis richardsi Giordani Soika, 1978: 333  , 357. Carpenter & Van der Vecht, 1991: 224 (distinction of the nominotypic subspecies is dubious).

Type data: female holotype (NHM) (examined).

Type locality: Mato Grosso, 12°50’S, 51°47’W, BrazilGoogleMaps 

Alphamenes insignis loquax Giordani Soika, 1978: 333  , 357. Carpenter & Van der Vecht, 1991: 224 (distinction of the nominotypic subspecies is dubious); Garcete- Barrett, 2001: 38 (probably male of Alphamenes richardsi  ). New synonym.

Type data: male holotype (MSNVE) (examined).

Type locality: “ San Louis ”, Paraguay 

Alphamenes richardsi  ; Garcete-Barrett, 2001: 38 (change of taxonomic status).

Remarks. Giordani Soika (1978) recognized three subspecies for Alphamenes insignis  : A. insignis insignis  , A. insignis richardsi  and A. insignis loquax  . Distinction of these subspecies was based solely on color patterns, which is a recurring practice in the works of Giordani Soika ( Carpenter 1987; Hermes & Ferreira 2016) and in the taxonomic tradition of Vespidae  , in general. The differences listed by the author refer to the variation of coloration in the mesosoma, which is black and yellow in A. insignis insignis  and largely ferruginous in A. insignis richardsi  and A. insignis loquax  . The latter two are separated by the presence or absence of numerous yellow spots on the mesosoma.

It has already been shown for Vespidae  that characters related to the color of the integument are variable due to environmental factors ( Maclean et al. 1978). Geographical variation may also play an important role in color patterns ( Bequart, 1944). In addition, characters related to the color of the integument are more variable than structural characters, since the latter are less influenced by environmental factors during the life of the individual ( Bequart 1944).

Carpenter and Vecht (1991) have mentioned that A. insignis richardsi  and A. insignis loquax  may be synonymous with A. insignis  . Garcete- Barrett (2001), however, when examining the type series of A. insignis richardsi  and comparing it with specimens of A. insignis insignis  , recognizes that these subspecies actually corresponded to distinct species. This author proposed a set of morphological characters that support the delimitation of these two species, and the subspecies that until then were recognized by Giordani Soika (1978) were raised to species level by Garcete-Barrett (2001). Garcete-Barrett (2001) also left open the possibility that A. insignis loquax  could be considered a junior synonymy of A. richardsi  .

Here, A. insignis loquax has its status reevaluated, being considered a junior synonym of A. richardsi, corroborating what was suggested by Garcete-Barrett (2001). This proposition was based on the examination of the holotypes of Alphames richardsi and Alphamenes insignis loquax (examined material below). After the comparison between these specimens, the matching of the following set of features was recognized to justify the synonymy: vertex with strong punctation ( FigView FIGURES 24 – 29. 24 – 25. 25); pronotum ferruginous with deep punctures ( Figs. 12–13View FIGURES 12 – 17. 12); sulcus between scutellum and metanotum evident ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 12 – 17. 12); tegulae ( Fig. 15View FIGURES 12 – 17. 12) and T1 strongly punctured ( Fig. 18View FIGURES 18 – 23. 18 – 19); and S7 without carina.

Examined material. Paraguay, St. Louis (probably San Luis in Concepción Department): ♂ (CMNH), ‘Paraguay\ ST- Louis’ ‘84\’(yellow label) ‘HOLOTYPUS\ insignis  \ loquax  \ A. Giordani Soika’(partially handwriten orange label) ‘COLL. AGS’(yellow label). Brazil, Mato Grosso: ♀ (NHM)`Campo``BRAZIL: Mato Grosso \ 12°50’S., 51°47’W. \ 30.IX.1968 \ O.W.Richards.``R.S. & R.G.S. \ Expedition \ B.M. 1968-260``HOLOTYPUS \ Alphamenes  \ insignis  \ richardsi  \ A. Giordani Soika``B.M. Type \ HYM \ 18.1138`.














Alphamenes richardsi Giordani Soika, 1978

Hermes, Marcel G. 2017

Alphamenes richardsi

Garcete-Barrett 2001: 38

Alphamenes insignis richardsi

Vecht 1991: 224
Giordani 1978: 333

Alphamenes insignis loquax

Barrett 2001: 38
Vecht 1991: 224
Giordani 1978: 333