Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903

Fukushima, Caroline Sayuri & Bertani, Rogerio, 2017, Taxonomic revision and cladistic analysis of Avicularia Lamarck, 1818 (Araneae, Theraphosidae, Aviculariinae) with description of three new aviculariine genera 01, ZooKeys 659, pp. 1-185: 48-51

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/zookeys.659.10717

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79A6393D-8021-41B8-BF1A-2A3723AFECFB

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/926D69AD-0B59-C09E-03F0-1D3DC752AA03

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scientific name

Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903
status

 

Avicularia minatrix Pocock, 1903  Figs 19, 78-79, 80-87, 88-89, 90, 312

Avicularia minatrix  Pocock, 1903: 81 (holotype female, Venezuela, Lara, Duaca [10°17'N, 69°09'W], BMNH 1903.7.1.120, examined); Petrunkevitch 1911: 50; Mello-Leitão 1923: 377; Roewer 1942: 255; Bonnet 1955: 832; Smith 1992: 22, figs 1-11; Tinter 1993: 10, figs 1-3, World Spider Catalog 2016.

Diagnosis.

Females and males of Avicularia minatrix  can be distinguished from all other Avicularia  species by the abdominal pattern, vivid orange lateral spots over black background (Figs 88-89). Additionally, females of Avicularia minatrix  resemble females of Avicularia avicularia  , Avicularia rufa  , Avicularia purpurea  , Avicularia hirschii  and Avicularia merianae  sp. n. by the spermathecae midwidth as wide as its base (Fig. 78). They can be distinguished from Avicularia avicularia  and Avicularia rufa  by leg IV as long as leg I; from Avicularia purpurea  and Avicularia merianae  sp. n. by the spermathecae weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area, and from Avicularia hirschii  by the non-twisted spermathecae (Fig. 78). Males of Avicularia minatrix  resemble those of Avicularia hirschii  , Avicularia lynnae  sp. n. and Avicularia caei  sp. n. by the tibia I with a discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Fig. 86), and can be distinguished from all of them by lacking process on retrolateral lobe of the cymbium.

Material examined.

VENEZUELA: 1 female, M. Baumgarten leg. 1994, ref. 73485 (IBSP 12886); 1 male, pet trade (MZUSP 70949); 1 male, L. Koschorreck col., 1991 (IBSP 11596).

Female.

Redescription.IBSP 12886. Carapace 12.85 long, 12.30 wide, 4.50 high. Chelicera: 4.09 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 9.38, 6.10, 6.91, 6.39, 4.24, 33.02. II: 8.84, 5.85, 6.56, 6.27, 4.26, 31.78. III: 7.82, 5.15, 5.23, 6.05, 3.49, 27.74. IV: 9.99, 5.07, 7.79, 7.42, 3.93, 34.20. Palp: 6.87, 4.31, 4.08, -, 5.00, 20.26. Midwidths: femora I–IV = 1.99, 2.00, 1.62, 2.13, palp= 2.11; patellae I–IV = 2.39, 2.24, 2.48, 2.59, palp= 2.26; tibiae I–IV = 2.01, 2.25, 2.01, 2.32, palp= 2.05; metatarsi I–IV = 1.95, 1.58, 1.59, 1.92; tarsi I–IV = 2.05, 2.02, 1.76, 2.02, palp= 2.12. Abdomen 14.10 long, 8.91 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.72 long, 0.95 wide, 0.15 apart; PLS 2.57 basal, 1.68 middle, 2.34 distal; midwidths 1.57, 1.18, 0.93, respectively.

Carapace: 1.05 times longer than wide; cephalic region not raised, thoracic striae inconspicuous. Carapace covered by long setae.

Fovea: deep, slightly recurve, 2.46 wide.

Eyes: eye tubercle: 0.90 high, 1.97 long, 2.77 wide. Clypeus 0.46. Anterior row of eyes procurve, posterior row of eyes slightly recurve. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.64, ALE 0.59, PME 0.24, PLE 0.58, AME–AME 0.27, AME–ALE 0.36, AME–PME 0.14, ALE–ALE 1.70, ALE–PME 0.55, PME–PME 1.58, PME–PLE 0.15, PLE–PLE 2.02, ALE–PLE 0.40, AME–PLE 0.47.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.48. Cuspules: 190 spread over inner heel. Labium: 1.87 long, 2.31 wide, with about 50 cuspules spaced by one diamenter of each other on anterior half (malformed). Labium sternal groove shallow, flat, with two separate, large sigilla.

Chelicera: basal segment with 8 teeth and some small teeth on promargin.

Sternum: 7.27 long, 4.32 wide. Sigilla: only posterior evident, rounded, very close to margin.

Legs: Formula: IV=I II III. Length leg IV to leg I: 1.04. Clavate trichobothria: distal 2/3 of tarsi I–II; distal 1/2 of tarsi II–IV. Scopula: Tarsi I–IV fully scopulate. Metatarsi I–II fully scopulate, III 2/3, IV 1/3 distal scopulate. IV divided by row of setae.

Type II urticating setae: 0.38-0.51 long and 0.011-0.013 wide (measured in holotype BMNH 1903.7.1.120).

Spermathecae (Fig. 78): two completely separated, not-twisted long spermathecae, with walls lacking projections or lobes and accentuated outwards curvature medially. Midwidth as wide as its base width and weakly-sclerotized area shorter than half the length of well-sclerotized area.

Color pattern (Fig. 88): carapace orange brown with golden short body setae with pink sheen. Carapace border with long setae the same color as dorsal carapace short body setae. Coxae, labium, sternum and maxillae orange brown, same color of ventral femora. Legs and palps with brown short body setae with pink sheen and long orange guard-setae. Leg rings on distal femora, tibiae and metatarsi whitish. Abdomen dorsum with orange guard-setae homogeneously distributed, vivid orange short body setae forming lateral spots and black short body setae forming dark background. Ventral abdomen brown.

Male.

Redescription.IBSP 11596. Carapace 10.08 long, 9.49 wide, 2.32 high. Chelicera 2.84 long. Legs (femur, patella, tibia, metatarsus, tarsus, total): I: 9.40, 5.29, 7.46, 6.76, 3.97, 32.88. II: 8.97, 4.76, 5.73, 5.92, 3.55, 28.93. III: 7.30, 3.89, 5.08, 5.92, 3.58, 25.77. IV: 9.76, 4.66, 7.98, 8.61, 4.00, 35.01. Palp: 5.83, 3.43, 4.17, -, 2.47, 15.9. Midwidths: femora I–IV = 2.02, 1.77, 2.04, 1.60, palp= 1.61; patellae I–IV = 1.85, 1.76, 1.82, 1.87, palp= 1.48; tibiae I–IV = 1.73, 1.65, 1.72, 1.70, palp= 1.48; metatarsi I–IV = 1.25, 1.19, 1.19, 1.18; tarsi I–IV = 1.54, 1.33, 1.42, 1.21, palp= 1.75. Abdomen 9.78 long, 5.73 wide. Spinnerets: PMS, 1.06 long, 0.59 wide, 0.18 apart; PLS, 1.66 basal, 0.69 middle, 1.58 distal; midwidths 0.73, 0.59, 0.49, respectively.

As in female, except:

Carapace: 1.06 times longer than wide.

Fovea: 1.56 wide.

Eye: eye tubercle: 1.51 long, 2.24 wide, 0.71 high. Clypeus: 0.20 wide. Eye size and interdistances: AME 0.58, ALE 0.60, PME 0.26, PLE 0.54, AME–AME 0.25, AME–ALE 0.18, AME–PME 0.16, ALE–ALE 1.25, ALE–PME 0.45, PME–PME 1.33, PME–PLE 0.13, PLE–PLE 1.69, ALE–PLE 0.10, AME–PLE 0.42.

Maxilla: length to width: 1.98. Cuspules: 100-115 spread over inner heel. Labium: 1.04 long, 1.58 wide, with about 80 cuspules spaced by two diameters from each other on anterior half.

Chelicera: basal segment with 10 teeth decreasing in size from distal area. Sternum: 4.95 long, 3.72 wide. Sigilla: three pairs, posterior oval.

Legs: Length leg IV to leg I: 1.07. Scopula: tarsi IV with some sparse setae.

Type II urticating setae: not seen due to abdomen in poor conditions.

Palp (Figs 80-83, 312): globous bulb with a small subtegulum, lacking prominence on tegulum. Embolus: not flattened, lacking keels, 2.66 long in retrolateral view, about 3.5 times tegulum’s length. Medial portion and tegulum’s margin form an acute angle in retrolateral view. Proximal part very curved in frontal view; thin distal width, abruptly narrowing distally; basal, middle, and distal width of 0.48, 0.15, 0.04, respectively. Tegulum: 1.25 long, 0.88 high in retrolateral view. Cymbium subtriangular with subequal lobes, lacking process on retrolateral lobe (Fig. 84).

Tibia I with discrete elevation covered by a cluster of setae in apical portion, on prolateral side (Figs 85-87).

Color pattern (Fig. 89): same as female, but the dorsal central black area is wider than in female.

Color pattern ontogeny.

Adults maintain the same coloration pattern of immatures. There is no drastic ontogenetic changes in this species.

Distribution.

Known only from Venezuela (Fig. 90).

Natural history.

Silken tubes are built by specimens inside tree bark and hollow branches and in the center of large bromeliads, which are in xenophyte bush grassland clearings of tropical forest ( Smith 1992).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

ORDO

Family

FAMILIA

Genus

Avicularia