Paragoniosoma cachaceiro, Araujo-Da-Silva & Desouza & Dasilva, 2020
Araujo-Da-Silva, Luiz Paulo, Desouza, Adriano Medeiros & Dasilva, Marcio Bernardino, 2020, Paragoniosomatinae, a new subfamily of Gonyleptidae (Arachnida: Opiliones) based on a new species from the Chapada Diamantina relict cloud forests, Brazil, Zootaxa 4808 (2), pp. 331-349: 335-340
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Paragoniosoma cachaceiro sp nov.
Type series: Holotype male ( UFPB-OP 733), BRAZIL, Bahia State: Abaíra, Catolés de Cima, Mata da Tijuquinha , 1678 m.a.s.l., 13 o 17’ S, 41 o 54’ W, 12.ii.2016, A.M. DeSouza, M.B. DaSilva, W. Fabiano-da-Silva and D. Teles coll..GoogleMaps Paratypes, same data as for holotype: 2 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv. ( UFPB-OP 731)GoogleMaps , 1 ♂ ( MNRJ 19770View Materials)GoogleMaps , 1 ♂ ( MZSP 76275View Materials) ; Catolés de Cima , Mata do Meio, small cave, 1616 m.a.s.l., 13 o 17’S, 41 o 53’ W, 3 ♀ ( UFPB-OP 732), 1.xi.2013, L. Carvalho and M.B. DaSilva coll..GoogleMaps
Etymology. The specific epithet honors the Abaíra city, which is an important cachaça manufacturer, a typical Brazilian spirit drink. Cachaceiro is a word commonly used in Brazil to designate people who drink cachaça.
Description. Male holotype:
Measurements, Interocular distance: 1.3, prosoma width: 4.6, prosoma length: 2.7, dorsal scutum width: 6.0, dorsal scutum length: 7.6, pedipalps length: 9.4, leg I length: 34.6, leg II length: 72.0, leg III length: 55.4, leg IV length: 73.6, femur IV length: 22.2.
Dorsum ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Eye-mound as high as wide with one pair of low tubercles. Two ozopores, a large anterior one, elevated and a small posterior on a tubercle. Area I divided by a very shallow median groove with small, similar-sized granules; area II–IV undivided; area III with a pair of large spines slightly pointed backwards; area IV undivided, shorter than the other areas; angles of posterior margin, free tergites and anal operculum unarmed. Granulation. Carapace with 18 minute granules; areas I–IV with 22 small-sized granules; lateral margins, posterior margin, free tergites and anal operculum with low density of minute granules.
Venter. Coxa I: low density of medium granules, coxa II–III: low density of small granules, coxa IV: low density of minute granules, lateral: low density of minute granules. Posterior margin of stigmatic area and free sternites with low density of minute granules.
Chelicerae. Segment I with low density of minute granules. Segment II with medium density of minute granules.
Pedipalps ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Trochanter with three ventral elevations and one subapical tubercle. Femur with 9/10 (left/ right) ventral small tubercles, one prolateral subapical seta and dorsal granulation with low density of minute granules. Patella smooth. Tibia: ventral armature mesal IiIi and ectal IiIi, low retrolateral sub-basal tubercle and low density of ventral small granules. Tarsus with ventral armature, mesal IiIii and ectal IiIii.
Legs ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). Legs I-III: Trochanter, femur, patella, tibia and metatarsus with low density of small granules. Leg IV: Coxa with prolateral apical apophysis almost longitudinal, pointed, prolaterally and ventrally curved in apex; retrolateral apical apophysis small and robust. Trochanter with a small prolateral sub-basal apophysis, and a small retrolateral sub-apical apophysis. Femur long (around three times the size of the body), sub-straight with small granules; retrolateral row (row2) with medium-sized and pointed granules in the entire extension; dorsal apical apophyses small, sub-equal in size. Patella with same granulation as femur. Tibia with small granules, medium on retrolateral/ventral row (row5) apically. Metatarsus with minute granules. Tarsal process robust and large, with similar size as tarsal claws, the latter smooth. Tarsal formula: 9; 19; 10; 10.
Color patterns. Dorsal scutum with yellowish-red-brown gradient, light to dark, from the center to the margins. Areas II–III with serous-marks white, in area II in two large lateral spots, and covering almost the whole area III, except around granules; tubercles and spines brown. Pedipalps and chelicerae yellowish; legs I–IV and venter yellowish-red-brown.
Penis ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4). Ventral plate hexagonal with concave apical and lateral margins, wide basal lobes, and ventral surface concave; apical group of macrosetae (group C) with 3 pairs of setae, increasing from C1 to C3, their apex curved ventrally, and with a short gap between C2 and C3; 2 pairs of short macrosetae (group E), E1 and E2 near C2 and C3; intermediate group (group D) with one pair of setae, long, thin and pointed to the medial region of dorsal surface of ventral plate; basal group of setae form a crown, setae slightly spatulate with similar size and apical portion curved downwards, with five pairs of dorsal setae pertaining to group A and two pairs of setae more ventral to group B. Glans with ventral process with a rounded flabellum with margins with barbs; dorsal process callus-like; stylus straight with rounded distal region. Truncus invading ventral plate medially on dorsal surface.
Measurements. Interocular distance: 1.4, prosoma width: 4.7, prosoma length: 2.9, dorsal scutum width: 6.7, dorsal scutum length: 7.6, pedipalps length: 11.1, leg I length: 32.1, leg II length: 72.7, leg III length: 54.7, leg IV length: 72.1, femur IV length: 21.7. Sexual dimorphism in legs; apophysis of coxa IV shorter, like a spine, femora III–IV unarmed.
Variability (both sexes). Interocular distance: 0.7–1.4 mm, prosoma width: 3.3–4.8 mm, prosoma length: 2.3–3.0, dorsal scutum width: 4.3–6.8, dorsal scutum length: 5.8–7.6, pedipalps length: 7.7–11.1, leg I length: 24.3–35.5, leg II length: 47.1–77.5, leg III length: 41.3–58.6, leg IV length: 50.0–77.3, femur IV length: 14.8–23.4. Granulation: carapace with 15–32 minute granules, areas I–IV with 13–27 small-sized granules. Pedipalp femur IV with 6–11 ventral small tubercles. Pedipalp setation: tibia IiIi, iiIi, iIiIi and tarsus IiIii, Iiii. Tarsal formula: 8–9; 19–21; 10; 10–11.
Natural history. Specimens of P. cachaceiro gen. nov., sp. nov. were recorded in two localities of humid montane forests ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6), in a stream with large rocks (specimens were resting on the rocks), and in a small cave with percolating water. All specimens were found alone so we were not able to observe any aggregation, but we did observe
a female guarding eggs. During the collection of a specimen of the new species, it emitted its defensive substance as jets downwards on the collector hands (M.B.D.). The substance is light-brown and has the same characteristic smell and color as that of Goniosomatinae (personal observation).
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