Paragoniosoma cachaceiro, Araujo-Da-Silva & Desouza & Dasilva, 2020

Araujo-Da-Silva, Luiz Paulo, Desouza, Adriano Medeiros & Dasilva, Marcio Bernardino, 2020, Paragoniosomatinae, a new subfamily of Gonyleptidae (Arachnida: Opiliones) based on a new species from the Chapada Diamantina relict cloud forests, Brazil, Zootaxa 4808 (2), pp. 331-349: 335-340

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Paragoniosoma cachaceiro


Paragoniosoma cachaceiro  sp nov.

Figs. 2–4View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4

Type series: Holotype male ( UFPB-OP 733), BRAZIL, Bahia State: Abaíra, Catolés de Cima, Mata da Tijuquinha , 1678 m.a.s.l., 13 o 17’ S, 41 o 54’ W, 12.ii.2016, A.M. DeSouza, M.B. DaSilva, W. Fabiano-da-Silva and D. Teles coll..GoogleMaps  Paratypes, same data as for holotype: 2 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv. ( UFPB-OP 731)GoogleMaps  , 1 ♂ ( MNRJ 19770View Materials)GoogleMaps  , 1 ♂ ( MZSP 76275View Materials)  ; Catolés de Cima , Mata do Meio, small cave, 1616 m.a.s.l., 13 o 17’S, 41 o 53’ W, 3 ♀ ( UFPB-OP 732), 1.xi.2013, L. Carvalho and M.B. DaSilva coll..GoogleMaps 

Etymology. The specific epithet honors the Abaíra city, which is an important cachaça manufacturer, a typical Brazilian spirit drink. Cachaceiro is a word commonly used in Brazil to designate people who drink cachaça.

Description. Male holotype:

Measurements, Interocular distance: 1.3, prosoma width: 4.6, prosoma length: 2.7, dorsal scutum width: 6.0, dorsal scutum length: 7.6, pedipalps length: 9.4, leg I length: 34.6, leg II length: 72.0, leg III length: 55.4, leg IV length: 73.6, femur IV length: 22.2.

Dorsum ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Eye-mound as high as wide with one pair of low tubercles. Two ozopores, a large anterior one, elevated and a small posterior on a tubercle. Area I divided by a very shallow median groove with small, similar-sized granules; area II–IV undivided; area III with a pair of large spines slightly pointed backwards; area IV undivided, shorter than the other areas; angles of posterior margin, free tergites and anal operculum unarmed. Granulation. Carapace with 18 minute granules; areas I–IV with 22 small-sized granules; lateral margins, posterior margin, free tergites and anal operculum with low density of minute granules.

Venter. Coxa I: low density of medium granules, coxa II–III: low density of small granules, coxa IV: low density of minute granules, lateral: low density of minute granules. Posterior margin of stigmatic area and free sternites with low density of minute granules.

Chelicerae. Segment I with low density of minute granules. Segment II with medium density of minute granules.

Pedipalps ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2). Trochanter with three ventral elevations and one subapical tubercle. Femur with 9/10 (left/ right) ventral small tubercles, one prolateral subapical seta and dorsal granulation with low density of minute granules. Patella smooth. Tibia: ventral armature mesal IiIi and ectal IiIi, low retrolateral sub-basal tubercle and low density of ventral small granules. Tarsus with ventral armature, mesal IiIii and ectal IiIii.

Legs ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). Legs I-III: Trochanter, femur, patella, tibia and metatarsus with low density of small granules. Leg IV: Coxa with prolateral apical apophysis almost longitudinal, pointed, prolaterally and ventrally curved in apex; retrolateral apical apophysis small and robust. Trochanter with a small prolateral sub-basal apophysis, and a small retrolateral sub-apical apophysis. Femur long (around three times the size of the body), sub-straight with small granules; retrolateral row (row2) with medium-sized and pointed granules in the entire extension; dorsal apical apophyses small, sub-equal in size. Patella with same granulation as femur. Tibia with small granules, medium on retrolateral/ventral row (row5) apically. Metatarsus with minute granules. Tarsal process robust and large, with similar size as tarsal claws, the latter smooth. Tarsal formula: 9; 19; 10; 10.

Color patterns. Dorsal scutum with yellowish-red-brown gradient, light to dark, from the center to the margins. Areas II–III with serous-marks white, in area II in two large lateral spots, and covering almost the whole area III, except around granules; tubercles and spines brown. Pedipalps and chelicerae yellowish; legs I–IV and venter yellowish-red-brown.

Penis ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4). Ventral plate hexagonal with concave apical and lateral margins, wide basal lobes, and ventral surface concave; apical group of macrosetae (group C) with 3 pairs of setae, increasing from C1 to C3, their apex curved ventrally, and with a short gap between C2 and C3; 2 pairs of short macrosetae (group E), E1 and E2 near C2 and C3; intermediate group (group D) with one pair of setae, long, thin and pointed to the medial region of dorsal surface of ventral plate; basal group of setae form a crown, setae slightly spatulate with similar size and apical portion curved downwards, with five pairs of dorsal setae pertaining to group A and two pairs of setae more ventral to group B. Glans with ventral process with a rounded flabellum with margins with barbs; dorsal process callus-like; stylus straight with rounded distal region. Truncus invading ventral plate medially on dorsal surface.

Female paratype.

Measurements. Interocular distance: 1.4, prosoma width: 4.7, prosoma length: 2.9, dorsal scutum width: 6.7, dorsal scutum length: 7.6, pedipalps length: 11.1, leg I length: 32.1, leg II length: 72.7, leg III length: 54.7, leg IV length: 72.1, femur IV length: 21.7. Sexual dimorphism in legs; apophysis of coxa IV shorter, like a spine, femora III–IV unarmed.

Variability (both sexes). Interocular distance: 0.7–1.4 mm, prosoma width: 3.3–4.8 mm, prosoma length: 2.3–3.0, dorsal scutum width: 4.3–6.8, dorsal scutum length: 5.8–7.6, pedipalps length: 7.7–11.1, leg I length: 24.3–35.5, leg II length: 47.1–77.5, leg III length: 41.3–58.6, leg IV length: 50.0–77.3, femur IV length: 14.8–23.4. Granulation: carapace with 15–32 minute granules, areas I–IV with 13–27 small-sized granules. Pedipalp femur IV with 6–11 ventral small tubercles. Pedipalp setation: tibia IiIi, iiIi, iIiIi and tarsus IiIii, Iiii. Tarsal formula: 8–9; 19–21; 10; 10–11.

Distribution. ( Figs. 5–6View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6). The species inhabits upper montane forest patches of Serra do Barbado mountain, in the southern portion of Chapada Diamantina range.

Natural history. Specimens of P. cachaceiro  gen. nov., sp. nov. were recorded in two localities of humid montane forests ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6), in a stream with large rocks (specimens were resting on the rocks), and in a small cave with percolating water. All specimens were found alone so we were not able to observe any aggregation, but we did observe

a female guarding eggs. During the collection of a specimen of the new species, it emitted its defensive substance as jets downwards on the collector hands (M.B.D.). The substance is light-brown and has the same characteristic smell and color as that of Goniosomatinae  (personal observation).