Heteroctenus gibarae ( Teruel, 2006 ),

Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini, 2017, Systematic Revision of the Neotropical Club-Tailed Scorpions, Physoctonus, Rhopalurus, and Troglorhopalurus, Revalidation of Heteroctenus, and Descriptions of Two New Genera and Three New Spec, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 415, pp. 1-134: 36-41

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1206/0003-0090-415.1.1

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persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8F65ED57-FFEE-B17D-3A87-CA25B2AC6DA1

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scientific name

Heteroctenus gibarae ( Teruel, 2006 )
status

 

Heteroctenus gibarae ( Teruel, 2006)  , comb. nov.

Figure 3View FIG. 3 BView FIG

Rhopalurus gibarae Teruel, 2006: 46–49  , 52, 53, figs. 5–7, 10, table 2; Teruel and Armas, 2006: 179; 2012 b: 209, 215, figs. 6, 7; Prendini et al., 2009: 222; Teruel and Kovařík, 2012: 122, figs. 560–563.

Rhopalurus granulimanus Teruel, 2006: 49  , 50, 52, 53, figs. 8–10, table 2; Teruel and Armas, 2006: 179; 2012 b: 209, 215, figs. 6, 7; Prendini et al., 2009: 222; Teruel and Kovařík, 2012: 122, 123, figs. 564, 565; syn. nov.

TYPE MATERIAL: CUBA: Holguín Prov.: Rhopalurus gibarae  : Holotype ♂ (RTO), Municipio Gibara: Sierra de Gibara , 2 km ESE of Gibara (21°04′58″N 75°57′0 0″W), 26.i.1993, R. Teruel. Paratypes: same data except 18.viii.1992, R. Teruel and R. Ermus, 5 juv. (RTO), 26.i.1993, R. Teruel, 1 ♀ (RTO), 18.x.2001, D. Díaz, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (RTO). Rhopalurus granulimanus  : Holotype ♂ (RTO), Municipio Rafael Freyre: Bahía Naranjo , 1 km NE of Estero Ciego (21°05′37″N 75°56′0 0″W), 25.i.1995, R. Teruel and N. Navarro. 

DIAGNOSIS: Heteroctenus gibarae  is most closely related to H. garridoi  . The two species resemble one another, and differ from the third Cuban species, H. junceus  , in their smaller size and paler coloration. Heteroctenus garridoi  and H. gibarae  vary from 56–86 mm in total length, whereas H. junceus  varies from 64–110 mm. Heteroctenus garridoi  and H. gibarae  are more uniformly yellow to yellowish brown in color, with less contrast between the appendages and the carapace, mesosoma, and metasoma, whereas H. junceus  varies from light brown to dark reddish brown, with the entire carapace or only the interocular surface infuscate, and the carapace, mesosoma, and metasoma (especially segments IV and V) noticeably darker than the pedipalps and legs. Additionally, the chela is less markedly sexually dimorphic in H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  , because the curvature of the fixed and movable fingers of the adult male is less pronounced, resulting in a much smaller gap between them proximally, when closed, and the manus of the adult female is relatively more incrassate than in H. junceus  . The basal expansion of the pectines is also less pronounced in H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  than in H. junceus  . Finally, H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  differ from H. junceus  in the more finely granular intercarinal surfaces of the carapace and pedipalp chela manus.

Heteroctenus gibarae  appears to differ from H. garridoi  primarily on the basis of color. Heteroctenus gibarae  is uniformly yellowish brown, the carapace bordered by two narrow lines forming a V-shape around the interocular surface, metasomal segments IV and V darkening to blackish brown posteriorly, and the telson reddish, whereas H. garridoi  is uniformly yellow. The pedipalp chela manus of H. gibarae  is darker than the pedipalp femur and patella whereas the manus of H. garridoi  is similar in color or only slightly darker than the femur and patella, as in H. junceus  . The ventrolateral and ventrosubmedian carinae of the metasoma are immaculate in H. gibarae  but infuscate in H. garridoi  .

DISTRIBUTION: Heteroctenus gibarae  is endemic to Holguín Province in southeastern Cuba, where it is known from two populations, the type locality in the Sierra de Naranjo, Gibara, and the type locality of R. granulimanus  , in Bahía Naranjo, Rafael Freyre (fig. 3B). The two localities are fewer than 50 km apart.

ECOLOGY: Heteroctenus gibarae  inhabits coastal deciduous dry forest and secondary forest below 25 m in elevation. The habitat and habitus are consistent with the lapidicolous ecomorphotype ( Prendini, 2001b). The species is primarily found in limestone rock piles covered in leaves and humus. It has been collected in sympatry with the buthids Alayotityus  spp., Centruroides arctimanus  , C. baracoae  , H. junceus  , and Microtityus trinitensis Armas, 1974  .

REMARKS: Heteroctenus gibarae  and R. granulimanus  are known from five adult specimens collectively, and the type and only known localities are fewer than 50 km apart. Based on the published descriptions and illustrations, there is no convincing evidence that these specimens represent two distinct species. The putative diagnostic differences outlined for the holotype and only known specimen of R. granulimanus  fall within the range of intraspecific variation for H. gibarae  , to the extent that this can be assessed given the small sample size (n = 4) for the latter. For example, the difference in total length for the males of H. gibarae  (65–66 mm) and R. granulimanus  (56 mm), cited among the putatively diagnostic characters, is similar to the size range of males in other Cuban species ( H. garridoi  , 56–69 mm; H. junceus  , 54–97 mm); as is the range for the length to width ratio of the pedipalp chela ( H. gibarae  , 4.2–4.39; R. granulimanus  , 4.96; H. junceus  , 3.5–4.7); and the male pectinal tooth count ( H. gibarae  , 20–21; R. granulimanus  , 22; H. garridoi  , 21–24, H. junceus  , 17–23).

Based on the absence of convincing morphological differences, the limited sample size, and the geographical proximity of the type localities, we consider R. granulimanus  conspecific with H. gibarae  and synonymize it accordingly: Rhopalurus granulimanus Teruel, 2006  = Heteroctenus gibarae ( Teruel, 2006)  , syn. nov. The validity of H. gibarae  , as distinct from H. garridoi  , will also need to be reassessed when material becomes available for study as the putative differences between them appear rather minor.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Scorpiones

Family

Buthidae

Genus

Heteroctenus

Loc

Heteroctenus gibarae ( Teruel, 2006 )

Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini 2017
2017
Loc

Rhopalurus gibarae

Teruel, R. & F. Kovarik 2012: 122
Prendini, L. & L. A. Esposito & J. Huff & E. S. Volschenk 2009: 222
Teruel, R. 2006: 46
Teruel, R. & L. F. de. Armas 2006: 179
Loc

Rhopalurus granulimanus

Teruel, R. & F. Kovarik 2012: 122
Prendini, L. & L. A. Esposito & J. Huff & E. S. Volschenk 2009: 222
Teruel, R. 2006: 49
Teruel, R. & L. F. de. Armas 2006: 179