Heteroctenus junceus ( Herbst, 1800 ),

Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini, 2017, Systematic Revision of the Neotropical Club-Tailed Scorpions, Physoctonus, Rhopalurus, and Troglorhopalurus, Revalidation of Heteroctenus, and Descriptions of Two New Genera and Three New Spec, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 415, pp. 1-134: 41-43

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http://doi.org/ 10.1206/0003-0090-415.1.1

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scientific name

Heteroctenus junceus ( Herbst, 1800 )
status

 

Heteroctenus junceus ( Herbst, 1800) 

Figures 2View FIG. 2 BView FIG, 3View FIG. 3 AView FIG, 11View FIG. 11 AView FIG, 14DView FIG, 17AView FIG, 18CView FIG, DView FIG, 21BView FIG, 22BView FIG, 23H –KView FIG, 27AView FIG, CView FIG, 28DView FIG, 29DView FIG, 30DView FIG, 34View FIG

Scorpio junceus Herbst, 1800: 65–67  , pl. III, fig. 2; Latreille, 1804: 126 –127.

Scorpio (Atreus) hemprichii Gervais, 1844a: 218  , fig. 18 (synonymized by Pocock, 1893: 392); Gervais, 1843: 130 (nomen nudum); 1844b: 39, 54; Lucas, 1851: 70, pl. V, fig. 5–5c; Gervais, 1859: 41, pl. I, fig. 2, 2a –b.

Rhopalurus hemprichii: Karsch, 1879b: 119  .

Centrurus hemprichii: Kraepelin, 1891: 123  , 135– 137, figs. 30, 33; Thorell, 1893: 372, 373.

Centrurus junceus: Kraepelin, 1891: 135  , figs. 30, 33; Thorell, 1893: 372; Kraepelin, 1895: 95; 1899: 89, 94; 1901: 270; 1908: 187, 190, 193, 194.

Heteroctenus junceus: Pocock, 1893: 392  .

Rhopalurus junceus: Pocock, 1902a: 37  , 38, pl. VIII, fig. 5, 5a, pl. IX, fig. 1, 1a; Banks, 1909: 172; Herrera, 1917: 271; Lampe, 1917: 197; Franganillo, 1930a: 95; 1930 b: 119; Mello- Leitão, 1932: 14; Meise, 1934: 29; Franganillo, 1935: 21; 1936: 164, figs. 86, 87; Prado, 1940: 26 –28; Roewer, 1943: 219; Esquivel de Verde, 1968: 67; Esquivel de Verde and Machado-Allison, 1969: 33; Bücherl, 1971: 327; Armas, 1974b: 2, figs. 1A, 2A, 3A; 1977: 3; Stahnke and Calos, 1977: 119; Lourenço, 1979: 215, fig. 8; Armas, 1982a: 4; 1982 b: 5, table 2; Lourenço, 1982a: 110, 114, 136, figs. 10, 11, 14–23View FIG. 14View FIG. 15View FIG. 16View FIG. 17View FIG. 18View FIG. 19View FIG. 20View FIG. 21View FIG. 22View FIG. 23, 78, table 1; Armas, 1983: 3, fig. 1; Lourenço, 1986a: 133, fig. 17View FIG. 17; 1986b: 165, fig. 7; Armas, 1988: 68 –70, 93, figs. 27, 36; Lourenço, 1992: 55; Rudloff, 1994: 9; Kovařík, 1997: 181; Lourenço, 1997a: 590; Kovařík, 1998: 118; Fet and Lowe, 2000: 219, 220; Teruel, 2003: 149, 150, figs. 1, 2; 2006: 51–53; Teruel and Armas, 2006: 179; 2012 a: 153–167, figs. 1–16, tables 1 –7; 2012b: 215, fig. 7; Kamenz and Prendini, 2008: 9, table 2, pl. 41; Prendini et al., 2009: 222, 223; Teruel and Kovařík, 2012: 123 –140, figs. 29, 40, 41, 48, 265, 267–302, 534–545; Rodríguez- Cabrera and Teruel, 2014: 121; 2015: 85, 86, fig. 1.

Rhopalurus junceus ravidus Franganillo, 1930a: 95  , figs. 19–21 (synonymized by Lourenço, 1982a: 114); 1935: 21; 1936: 164; Moreno, 1939a: 65 –66; Jaume, 1954: 1091.

Centruroides (Rhopalurus) junceus: Werner, 1934: 274  , fig. 33b.

Rhopalurus junceus junceus: Moreno, 1939a: 65  ; 1939 b: 124–128, pl. XIX –XXI; Jaume, 1954: 1090; Armas, 1973: 7.

Rhopalurus junceus cadenasi Moreno, 1939a: 66  –67, pl. 6, fig. 3 (synonymized by Lourenço, 1982a: 114); 1940b: 129–130, pl. XXII; Jaume, 1954: 1090.

Rhopalurus melloleitaoi Teruel and Armas, 2006: 175–179  , figs. 1–4, tables 1, 2; Armas, 1974b: 6; 1981 a: 52 (part); 1982a: 4; Teruel and Montano, 2005: 221 –223, 225–227, figs. 10, 14, tables 2, 4; Prendini et al., 2009: 222; Teruel and Armas, 2012b: 215, figs. 6, 7.; Teruel and Kovařík, 2012: 141, figs. 303– 305, 552–555; syn. nov.

Rhopalurus aridicola Teruel and Armas, 2012b: 210  , 212, 214, 215, figs. 1–6, tables 1–3; Armas, 1974b: 6; 1982 a: 4; Prendini et al., 2009: 222; Teruel and Kovařík, 2012: 116, figs. 546–551; syn. nov.

TYPE MATERIAL: CUBA: Scorpio (Atreus) hemprichii  , holotype [sex?] (MNHN). Scorpio junceus  : Holotype [lost], “Brazil” [dubious]  ; ♂ neotype, Villa Clara Prov.: Municipio Placetas: Loma del Vigía. Rhopalurus j. ravidus  : Holotype [sex?] (IZACC) [lost], Pinar del Río Prov.: Sierra del Cuzco   GoogleMaps, Pinar del Río. Rhopalurus j. cadenasi  : subad  . ♀ holotype (IZACC), Havana Prov.: Loma de la Universidad   GoogleMaps, La Habana. Rhopalurus melloleitaoi  : Granma Prov.: Municipio Niquero   GoogleMaps  : Holotype ♂, paratype ♀ (RTO), El Guafe (19°57′18″N 6°45′27″W), 2 km N of Cabo Cruz, 50 m, 19. iv.1996; N. Navarro, A. Fernández, and L.M. Díaz.GoogleMaps  Paratypes: same data except 8–12.vii.2000, R. Teruel, L. Montano, Y. Cala, and R. Escalona  , 1 ♀, 1 juv. (IES), 1 juv. (BIOECO)  , 1 juv. (RTO), 27. vi.2001, L. Montano and R. Escalona  , 1 juv. (RTO), 4.iv.2002, L. Montano and R. Escalona  , 1 juv. (RTO), 23.i.2003, L. and M. Montaño, 1 juv. (RTO); Bosque Castillo (19°54′14″N 77°31′15″W), Alegría de Pío , 270 m, iii.2002, JacintoGoogleMaps  , 1 juv. (RTO); Los Muertos (19°54′0 5″N 77°30′33″W), Alegría de Pío   GoogleMaps, 280 m, 20.vi.2002, L. Montano, R. Escalona and Y. Cala  , 2 juv. (RTO); Sendero Morlotte-Fustete (19°52′48″N 77°33′0 8″W), 5 km SW of Alegría de Pío, 150 m, 21.vi.2002, Y. Cala and Jacinto   , 2 juv. (RTO); Ensenada del Real (19°51′14″N 77°35′40″W), 5 m, 19.iv.1996, N. Navarro, A. Fernández, and L. DíazGoogleMaps  , 1 juv. (RTO), iii.2002, Jacinto, 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv. (RTO). Rhopalurus aridicola  : Guantánamo Prov.:  Holotype ♂ (RTO), Municipio Maisí: Punta de Maisí (20°14′42″N 74°08′38″W), 18–19.iv. 1998, 5 m, R. Teruel, A. Sánchez, N. Navarro, and A. Fong. Paratypes: Municipio BaracoaGoogleMaps  : Dolina de la Cueva de La Majana (20°20′14″N 74°27′22″W), 50 m, 10.xi.2007, R. TeruelGoogleMaps  , 1 juv. (BIOECO). Municipio Maisí: Sabana, Santa Rosa (20°17′35″N 74°15′45″W), 14.iv.1998, R. TeruelGoogleMaps  , 1 ♂ (RTO); Punta de Maisí (20°14′42″N 74°08′38″W), 20.iv.1969, O. TapiaGoogleMaps  , 1 ♀ (RTO), 6.x.1973, L.F. de Armas and L.R. Hernández  , 2 ♂, 2 ♀, 1 juv. (IES), viii.1979, L.F. de Armas  , 1 ♂ (IES), 18–19.iv.1998, R. Teruel, A. Sánchez, N. Navarro, and A. Fong  , 3 ♂, 8 ♀, 1 ♀ with 15 1 st instars  , 4 juv. (RTO), 6–8. viii.1999, A. Fong, A. Sánchez, and D. Maceira  , 1 ♀ with 41 1 st instars  (BIOECO Sc-104)  , 6 juv. (BIOECO Sc-105), 8.ii.2004, A. Sánchez  , 2 juv. (BIOECO); Punta de Maisí   GoogleMaps, Cueva El Molino, 31.i.2006, D. de la Nuez  , 1 ♀ (IES); Bahía de Ovando , Punta Negra (20°05′39″N 74°14′46″W), 8.viii.1998, A. Sánchez, D. Maceira, and A. FongGoogleMaps  , 1 juv. (BIOECO Sc-103)  .

DIAGNOSIS: Heteroctenus junceus  differs from the other two species of Heteroctenus  occurring on Cuba, H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  , primarily in its larger size and typically darker coloration. Heteroctenus junceus  varies from 54–107 mm in total length, whereas H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  vary from 56–69 mm. Heteroctenus junceus  varies from yellow to dark reddish brown, typically the interocular surface is infuscate, and the metasomal segments IV and V are noticeably darker than segments I –III, whereas H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  are more uniformly yellow to yellowish brown in color, with less contrast between the metasomal segments. Additionally, in H. junceus  , there is a ventral infuscate stripe on metasomal segments I –III which is not the case in H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  . As in H. garridoi  , the pedipalp chela manus of H. junceus  is similar in color or only slightly darker than the pedipalp femur and patella, unlike H. gibarae  , in which the manus is darker than the femur and patella. Additionally, the chela of H. junceus  is more markedly sexually dimorphic, because the curvature of the fixed and movable fingers of the adult male is more pronounced, resulting in a larger gap between them proximally, when closed (fig. 27A), and the manus of the adult female is relatively more slender, than in H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  . The basal expansion of the pectines is also more pronounced in H. junceus  than in H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  . Finally, H. junceus  differs from H. garridoi  and H. gibarae  in the more coarsely granular intercarinal surfaces of the carapace and pedipalp chela manus.

DISTRIBUTION: Heteroctenus junceus  is endemic to Cuba, and has been recorded across the island and on several offshore islets in the following provinces: Camagüey, Cienfuegos, Ciego de Avila, Granma, Guantánamo, Havana, Holguín, Isla de la Juventud, Las Tunas, Matanzas, Pinar del Río, Santiago de Cuba, Sancti Spíritus, Villa Clara. The known localities range in elevation from 55 to 716 m (fig. 3A). Historical reports from Haiti, Puerto Rico and Venezuela (see, e.g., Fet and Lowe, 2000: 220) are erroneous ( Armas, 2001; Prendini et al., 2009).

ECOLOGY: Heteroctenus junceus  inhabits a wide range of habitats across the island, including human-altered environments, savanna, secondary vegetation, wetlands, broadleaf forest, and deciduous dry forest (fig. 2B; Teruel and Armas, 2012a). It has been found in elevations ranging from sea level to 1175 m ( Rodríguez-Cabrera and Teruel, 2014). This species is typically found in rock crevices, under stones or logs, and under the bark of trees ( Teruel and Armas, 2012a). Its habitat and habitus are consistent with the lapidicolous ecomorphotype ( Prendini, 2001b). On account of its broad distribution, many Cuban scorpion species have been recorded in sympatry with H. junceus  .

REMARKS: The evidence supporting R. aridicola  and R. melloleitaoi  , as distinct from H. junceus  , is underwhelming. Rhopalurus aridicola  , described from four localities, overlapping known records of H. junceus  , appears to be morphologically indistinguishable from the latter except for its dark reddish color and more granular carapace and tergites, characters known to be variable in the widespread H. junceus  . Teruel and Armas (2012b) offer the additional evidence that the pectinal tooth counts of R. aridicola  are greater than those of H. junceus  , yet the counts provided for the two species (19–25 and 15–23, respectively), are statistically insignificant. Little genetic divergence was evident between topotypes of R. aridicola  and other samples conspecific with H. junceus  (Esposito et al., in review). Rhopalurus melloleitaoi  , described from a single locality in close proximity to many known locality records of H. junceus  , appears to differ from the latter solely on the basis of coloration, the pedipalp chelae being darker than the patella and femur, which is to be expected because the habitat in which it was collected has a dark, red substrate (L.A.E., personal obs.). Based on the lack of convincing morphological differences between R. aridicola  , R. melloleitaoi  , and H. junceus  , their overlapping distributions and, in the case of R. aridicola  , the low genetic divergence between topotypes thereof and other samples conspecific with H. junceus  (see Esposito et al., in review), we propose the following synonyms: Rhopalurus melloleitaoi Teruel and Armas, 2006  = Heteroctenus junceus ( Herbst, 1800)  , syn. nov.; Rhopalurus aridicola Teruel and Armas, 2012  = Heteroctenus junceus ( Herbst, 1800)  , syn. nov.

MATERIAL EXAMINED: “Antillen?,” 1 ♂, 2 ♀ (ZMB 7370). “Portorico” [erroneous], Stahl  , 2 ♀, 1 juv. (ZMB 7280). CUBA: Gundlach  , 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMB 738)  , 2 ♀ (ZMB 2637), 1 juv. (ZMB 7343); vii.2007, C. Hamilton, 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 7009]). Oriente Prov.   GoogleMaps, 1938, P. Thumb  , 4 ♀ (ZMH). Artemisa Prov.: near Baños   GoogleMaps [probably Santiago del los Baños], v.1918  , 2 ♂ (AMNH). Camagüey Prov.: Sierra de Cubitas , Limones-Tuabaquey Ecological Reserve , area around field station, 21°32.887′N 77°46.705′W, 55 m, 13–14.iv.2012, CarBio teamGoogleMaps  , 2 ♂ (AMCC [LP 12619, 12620])  , 2 subad. ♀ (AMCC [LP 12621, 12622]), 1 juv. ♂ (AMCC [LP 12623]). Guantánamo Prov.: Alejandro Humboldt National Park : near El Yunque de Baracoa , 20°19.907′N 74°34.151′W, 74 m, 4. iv.2012, CarBio teamGoogleMaps  , 1 ♀, 26 juv. (AMCC [LP 12432]), 20°20.701′N 74°33.985′W, 370 m, 5. iv.2012, CarBio teamGoogleMaps  , 1 ♂ (AMCC [LP 12613]), 20°19.64′N 74°35.59′W, 530 m, 6–7.iv.2012, Car- Bio teamGoogleMaps  , 1 ♂, 2 ♀ (AMNH), 1 ♂ (AMCC [LP 12614])  , 4 ♀ (AMCC [LP 12615–12618]). Havana Prov.: Havana  , 1 ♀ (AMNH), iv.1941, E. Weiss, 1 ♀, 1 subad. (AMNH). Holguín Prov.: viii.2000, Heist   GoogleMaps, captive bred, 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 1928]); Guardalavaca   GoogleMaps, 29.iii.1993, W. Altmann, captive bred  , 1 ♂ (AMCC [LP 1565]); Mayari   GoogleMaps, Parque Nacional   GoogleMaps “Mensura-Piloto,” 1 km después de la carretera al Hotel   GoogleMaps “Mayari,” 716 m, 10.v.2013, F. Cala-Riquelme and A. Deler-Hernández, secondary riverine forest with abundance of pines, collected in the evening and at night on vegetation and trunks  , 1 juv. ♂ (AMCC [LP 12896]). Isla de la Juventud Prov   GoogleMaps: Isle of Pines   GoogleMaps, 1 ♂ (AMNH). Mayabeque Prov.: Arroyo Bermejo   GoogleMaps, near Fibacoa   GoogleMaps [Jibacoa], 15.vi.1967  , 1 ♀ ( ZMB 31021View Materials), vi.1967, 1 juv. ( ZMB 31022View Materials), 31.v.1967, Kleiderschrank  , 1 ♂ ( ZMB 31020View Materials); Guisa, mountains near, x.1936, P. Thumb  , 1 ♀, 28 juv. (ZMH), Moa, ix.1937, P. Thumb, 1 ♂ (ZMH); Santiago de las Caballeros, 1936, P. Thumb  , 1 ♂ (ZMH). Pinar del Río Prov.: Guanahacabiles, Akad.-stat. El Beral, xii.1967, G. Peters, 1 subad. ( ZMB 31023View Materials); Sierra de Anafe   GoogleMaps, 23.ii.194, M. Barro  , 2 subad. (AMNH); Sierra del Rosario   GoogleMaps, near Aspuru, xi.1937, H.H. Voelckers  , 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 juv. ♀ (ZMH); Viñales National Park , near Dos Hermanas, 22°37.265′N 83°44.3′W, 130 m, 18.iv.2012, CarBio teamGoogleMaps  , 2 juv. ♂ (AMCC [LP 12624, 12625]), 1 juv. ♀ (AMCC [LP 12626]), 22°39.424′N 83°42.097′W, 280 m, 20–21.iv.2012, CarBio team, 6 juv.GoogleMaps  ♂ (AMCC [LP 12627–12632]), 1 juv. ♀ (AMCC [LP 12633]); Viñales Valley   GoogleMaps, 1940, Osorio  , 1 ♀ (AMNH). Sancti Spíritus Prov.: Trinidad, viii.1978, B. Acosta  , 1 ♂ (AMNH [AH 4514]). Santiago de Cuba Prov.: La Socapa, 10 km SW of Santiago de Cuba, 9.iv.1999, R. Teruel  , 1 ♂ (AMNH), 3 ♀ (AMCC [LP 1509, 1517, 1518]); Santiago de Cuba, 1 ♂, 2 juv. (AMNH)  .

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Scorpiones

Family

Buthidae

Genus

Heteroctenus

Loc

Heteroctenus junceus ( Herbst, 1800 )

Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini 2017
2017
Loc

Rhopalurus junceus ravidus

Lourenco, W. R. 1982: 114
Jaume, M. L. 1954: 1091
Moreno, A. 1939: 65
Franganillo, P. B. 1930: 95
1982
Loc

Rhopalurus junceus cadenasi

Lourenco, W. R. 1982: 114
Jaume, M. L. 1954: 1090
Moreno, A. 1939: 66
1982
Loc

Rhopalurus melloleitaoi

Teruel, R. & L. F. de Armas 2012: 215
Teruel, R. & F. Kovarik 2012: 141
Prendini, L. & L. A. Esposito & J. Huff & E. S. Volschenk 2009: 222
Teruel, R. & L. F. de. Armas 2006: 175
Teruel, R. & L. Montano 2005: 221
Armas, L. F. de 1974: 6
1974
Loc

Rhopalurus aridicola

Teruel, R. & L. F. de Armas 2012: 210
Teruel, R. & F. Kovarik 2012: 116
Prendini, L. & L. A. Esposito & J. Huff & E. S. Volschenk 2009: 222
Armas, L. F. de 1974: 6
1974
Loc

Rhopalurus junceus:

Rodriguez-Cabrera, T. M. & R. Teruel 2014: 121
Teruel, R. & F. Kovarik 2012: 123
Prendini, L. & L. A. Esposito & J. Huff & E. S. Volschenk 2009: 222
Kamenz, C. & L. Prendini 2008: 9
Teruel, R. & L. F. de. Armas 2006: 179
Teruel, R. 2003: 149
Fet, V. 2000: 219
Kovarik, F. 1998: 118
Kovarik, F. 1997: 181
Lourenco, W. R. 1997: 590
Rudloff, J. - P. 1994: 9
Lourenco, W. R. 1992: 55
Armas, L. F. de 1988: 68
Lourenco, W. R. 1986: 133
Armas, L. F. de 1983: 3
Armas, L. F. de 1982: 4
Lourenco, W. R. 1982: 110
Lourenco, W. R. 1979: 215
Stahnke, H. L. & M. Calos 1977: 119
Armas, L. F. de 1974: 2
Bucherl, W. 1971: 327
Roewer, C. F. 1943: 219
Prado, A. 1940: 26
Franganillo, P. B. 1935: 21
Meise, W. 1934: 29
Mello-Leitao, C. F. de 1932: 14
Franganillo, P. B. 1930: 95
Herrera, M. 1917: 271
Lampe, E. 1917: 197
Banks, N. 1909: 172
Pocock, R. I. 1902: 37
1930
Loc

Scorpio junceus

Latreille, P. A. 1804: 126
Herbst, J. F. W. 1800: 65
Loc

Scorpio (Atreus) hemprichii

Pocock, R. I. 1893: 392
Gervais, P. M. 1859: 41
Lucas, H. 1851: 70
Gervais, P. M. 1844: 218
Gervais, M. P. 1843: 130
Loc

Rhopalurus hemprichii:

Karsch, F. 1879: 119
Loc

Centrurus hemprichii:

Thorell, T. 1893: 372
Kraepelin, K. 1891: 123
Loc

Centrurus junceus:

Kraepelin, K. 1895: 95
Thorell, T. 1893: 372
Kraepelin, K. 1891: 135
Loc

Heteroctenus junceus: Pocock, 1893: 392

Pocock, R. I. 1893: 392
Loc

Centruroides (Rhopalurus) junceus:

Werner, F. 1934: 274
Loc

Rhopalurus junceus junceus:

Armas, L. F. de 1973: 7
Jaume, M. L. 1954: 1090
Moreno, A. 1939: 65