Centruroides, Marx, 1890

Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini, 2017, Systematic Revision of the Neotropical Club-Tailed Scorpions, Physoctonus, Rhopalurus, and Troglorhopalurus, Revalidation of Heteroctenus, and Descriptions of Two New Genera and Three New Spec, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 415, pp. 1-134: 8-10

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http://doi.org/ 10.1206/0003-0090-415.1.1

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Centruroides
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KEY TO GENERA AND SPECIES (EXCLUDING CENTRUROIDES  ) OF NEW WORLD BUTHID SUBFAMILY

RHOPALURUSINAE

1.Leg I, prolateral pedal spur simple; sternite V, surface without smooth, raised area posteromedially in male.................2 ( Physoctonus  )

–Leg I, prolateral pedal spur bifurcate; sternite V, surface with smooth, raised area posteromedially in male (fig. 10D)..............3

2.Total body length, 23–30 mm; mesosomal tergites uniform in color; metasomal segment V similar in color to preceding segments; pedipalp chela fixed finger trichobothrium db situated between trichobothria est and et ….................................. Physoctonus debilis 

–Total body length, 22–26 mm; mesosomal tergites with dark transverse bands; metasomal segment V darker than preceding segments; pedipalp chela fixed finger trichobothrium db aligned with trichobothrium et.…..... ................ Physoctonus striatus  , sp. nov.

3.Metasoma of male extremely elongate and narrow, much longer than sum of prosoma and mesosoma; pedipalp patella, prodorsal and proventral carinae adjacent …........................ .......................................... Centruroides 

–Metasoma of male not elongate, similar in length to sum of prosoma and mesosoma (figs. 28, 37, 43, 54); pedipalp patella, prodorsal and proventral carinae well separated............................................4 4.Scorpions cavernicolous and troglomorphic (fig. 1G, H); pectinal peg sensilla elongate and acuminate ….......................................................................................5 ( Troglorhopalurus  )

–Scorpions epigean and not troglomorphic (fig. 1A –G); pectinal peg sensilla peg shaped, short, and rhomboid.........................6

5.Pedipalp chela fixed finger, median denticle row with eight subrows of primary denticles; pedipalp 4.5× longer than carapace; pedipalp patella 3.8× longer than wide; metasomal segment V 2.7× longer than wide..... ........... Troglorhopalurus lacrau  , comb. nov.

–Pedipalp chela fixed finger, median denticle row with nine subrows of primary denticles; pedipalp 6.5× longer than carapace; pedipalp patella 6× longer than wide; metasomal segment V 4.5× longer than wide …................. .................. Troglorhopalurus translucidus 

6.Telson laterally compressed, vesicle width about half its height (fig. 22C); mesosoma width similar to carapace (figs. 39, 40); pectinal plate with two depressions laterally; book lung spiracles short, width less than 3× their length (fig. 19A, B)........................................................7 ( Ischnotelson  , gen. nov.)

–Telson rounded, vesicle width similar to height; mesosoma wider than carapace; pectinal plate with one median depression or without depressions; book lung spiracles long, width more than 5× their length (figs. 19C, D, F, 20C –F)..............................................8

7.Total body length, 35–45 mm; pedipalp chela fingers noticeably darker than chela manus; sternite III elevated anteriorly…….......... ..... Ischnotelson guanambiensis  , comb. nov.

–Total body length, 48–59 mm; pedipalp chela fingers similar in color to chela manus; sternite III not elevated anteriorly …....... ........................ Ischnotelson peruassu  , sp. nov.

8.Sternite III, surface with large, acuminate and evenly distributed granules (fig. 19C, D, F); pedipalp chela manus, proventral carina present; pectinal plate, anterior margin with- out furrow........9 ( Jaguajir  , gen. nov.) –Sternite III, surface finely granular or with small, irregularly distributed granules; pedipalp chela manus, proventral carina absent; pectinal plate, anterior margin with furrow (figs. 18A –E; 20D –F);.............................11

9.Mesosoma coloration pale to dark yellow; metasoma of male becoming slightly wider posteriorly; pedipalp chela, fixed and movable fingers of male slightly curved, creating small proximal gap between them; fixed finger of male with prominent proximal lobe .................. Jaguajir rochae  , comb. nov.

–Mesosoma coloration brown to black; metasoma of male becoming markedly wider posteriorly; pedipalp chela, fixed and movable fingers of male markedly curved, creating large proximal gap between them; fixed finger of male with proximal lobe reduced or absent ...........................................................10

10. Color of carapace, tergites, metasoma, telson, and pedipalps dark brown to black, sternites, legs, and telson somewhat lighter, reddish brown; metasomal segments, dorsolateral carinae comprising blunt spiniform granules, increasing in size posteriorly, especially prominent on metasomal segments III and IV; segment V almost as wide as long; telson vesicle, subaculear tubercle very reduced, forming small protuberance.......................... ................................. Jaguajir pintoi  , comb. nov.

–Color of carapace and tergites I –VI brown, tergite VII, metasoma, telson, pedipalps, and legs lighter, somewhat orange; metasomal segments, dorsolateral carinae comprising small, acuminate granules; metasomal segment V approximately 1.5× longer than wide; telson vesicle, subaculear tubercle well developed and spinoid................................................. .................. Jaguajir agamemnon  , comb. nov.

11. Telson vesicle, subaculear tubercle present (fig. 21H –J); carapace, central lateral and posteromedian carinae fused (fig. 16C –F); pectinal plate without depressions (fig. 20C –F); occurs in South America................................12 ( Rhopalurus  ) –Telson vesicle, subaculear tubercle absent (fig. 21A –B); carapace, central lateral and posteromedian carinae separate (fig. 14A –E); pectinal plate with single median depression; occurs in the Greater Antilles.................................................14 ( Heteroctenus  )

12. Metasoma ventromedial surface with single, broad band of pigmentation; carapace, tergites, metasoma V, and telson often markedly infuscate, contrasting with pale pedipalps, legs and metasomal segments I – IV........................... Rhopalurus laticauda 

–Metasoma ventromedial surface with two or three narrow stripes of pigmentation; carapace, tergites, metasomal segments I –IV, pedipalps, and legs pale and immaculate or lightly infuscate, metasoma V, and telson slightly darker than preceding segments...................13

13. Metasoma ventromedial surface with three distinct, narrow stripes of pigmentation (a ventromedian stripe flanked on either side by a ventrosubmedian stripe)............. ................................. Rhopalurus caribensis 

–Metasoma ventromedial surface with two distinct, narrow ventrosubmedian stripes of pigmentation.... Rhopalurus ochoai  , sp. nov.

14. Occurs on Hispaniola and adjacent islets....15

–Occurs on Cuba and adjacent islets.......17

15. Pedipalp chela similar in male and female, manus of male only slightly incrassate and fingers not curved proximally, connecting along most of their length with little to no gap present between them proximally, when closed...................................................... ............. Heteroctenus bonettii  , comb. nov.

– Pedipalp chela dimorphic in male and female, manus of male markedly incrassate and fingers strongly curved proximally, such that only distal portion of fingers connect and distinctive gap present between them proximally, when closed ………………….……16

16. Color predominantly dark; carapace, tergites, metasomal segments I –III, and legs infuscate; metasomal segments long and narrow (2× longer than wide) ………..... ..................... Heteroctenus abudi  , comb. nov. –Color predominantly pale; carapace, tergites, metasomal segments I –III, and legs immaculate; metasomal segments short and broad (almost equal in length and width)....... ............. Heteroctenus princeps  , comb. nov.

17. Total body length, 64–110 mm; base color light brown to dark reddish brown; entire carapace or only interocular surface infuscate; carapace, mesosoma, and metasoma (especially, segments IV and V) noticeably darker than pedipalps and legs........ ...................................... Heteroctenus junceus 

–Total body length, 56–86 mm; base color yellow to yellowish brown; entire carapace immaculate (at most, interocular surface bordered by narrow line forming V-shape); carapace, mesosoma, and metasoma not noticeably darker than pedipalps and legs...............18

18. Carapace, metasoma and telson uniformly yellow; pedipalp chela manus similar in color or only slightly darker than femur and patella..... Heteroctenus garridoi  , comb. nov.

–Carapace interocular surface bordered by two narrow lines forming V-shape; metasomal segments IV and V darkening to blackishbrown posteriorly; telson reddish; pedipalp chela manus darker than femur and patella ................... Heteroctenus gibarae  , comb. nov.