Rhopalurus laticauda Thorell, 1876,

Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini, 2017, Systematic Revision of the Neotropical Club-Tailed Scorpions, Physoctonus, Rhopalurus, and Troglorhopalurus, Revalidation of Heteroctenus, and Descriptions of Two New Genera and Three New Spec, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 415, pp. 1-134: 108-110

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http://doi.org/ 10.1206/0003-0090-415.1.1

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Rhopalurus laticauda Thorell, 1876
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Rhopalurus laticauda Thorell, 1876 

Figures 1View FIG. 1 FView FIG, 2View FIG. 2 E, FView FIG, 5View FIG, 11C, EView FIG, 12CView FIG, 16D, EView FIG, 20D, EView FIG, 21IView FIG, 22IView FIG, 24I –MView FIG, 52B, CView FIG, 53B, CView FIG, 55B, CView FIG, 56B, CView FIG, 58View FIG, 59View FIG

Rhopalurus laticauda Thorell, 1876 a: 9  ; 1876 b: 143–145; Karsch, 1879 a: 18; Mello-Campos, 1924 a: 252, 253, 276, 283–285, pl. 7, fig. 31; 1924b: 318, 342, 349–351, pl. 7, fig. 31; Werner, 1927: 357; Lutz, 1928: 72, 73, figs. 1–3; Mello-Leitão, 1932: 15; Prado, 1940: 27, 35; Prado and Rios-Patiño, 1940: 41, fig.; Hummelinck, 1940: 139, table 20; Mello-Leitão, 1940: 51; Roewer, 1943: 219; Mello-Leitão, 1945: 266, 280–284, figs. 115–117; Caporiacco, 1951: 4; Scorza, 1954 a: 190, 201, figs. 15, 16; 1954b: 160; 1954c: 166; Bücherl, Bücherl, 1971: 327; Lucas and Bücherl, 1972: 263; Francke, 1977 a: 133, fig. 12; Stahnke and Calos, 1977: 119; Vachon, 1977: 300, figs. 24, 28; González-Sponga, 1978: 201, figs. 9, 277, 278; Lourenço, 1979: 215, figs. 1, 3, 4; 1981: 545, fig. 2, tables 5–8; 1982a: 115, 136, figs. 12–13, 25–46, 78, table 1; Cekalovic, 1983: 190; González-Sponga, Flórez, 1991: 119; Lourenço, 1991 b: 117; 1992: 55; 1994: 157; González-Sponga, 1996: 118, 137, figs. 314–319; Lourenço, 1997 b: 67, figs. 9, 10, 12, 14, 15; Kovařík, 1998: 118; Fet and Lowe, 2000: 220, 221; Flórez, 2001: 28 (records from Arauca, Casanare, and Meta); Botero-Trujillo and Fagua, 2007: 129–131, 133, figs. 4–6 (specimens from Vichada and records from Arauca, Casanare, and Meta); Kamenz and Prendini, Rhopalurus laticauda sachsii Karsch, 1879 b: 118  , 119, 122 (synonymized by Kraepelin, 1891: 137).

Centrurus laticauda: Kraepelin, 1891: 123  , 137– 139; 1899: 89, 95; 1908: 187, 190, 194; Penther, 1913: 240; Waterman, 1950: 168.

Rhopalurus testaceus laticauda: Meise, 1934: 32  .

Rhopalurus crassicauda Caporiacco, 1947: 20  ; 1948: 609, 610, figs. 1–3; Lourenço, 2002: 36, 98–100, 110, 111, figs. 214–224; Teruel, 2006: 51, 52; Teruel and Tietz, 2008: 8, 9–11, figs. 5–9; Lourenço, 2008: 4–8, table 1, fig. 4; Prendini et al., 2009: 222, 223; Brazil and Porto, 2010: 50; Ubinski et al., 2016: 122; syn. nov.

Rhopalurus amazonicus Lourenço, 1986 a: 132  – 134, figs. 3–9, 13, 14; 1986b: 170, fig. 7; 1988: 169, figs. 13, 15; 1991b: 117; 1992: 55; Lourenço and Pinto-da-Rocha, 1997: 184; Kovařík, 1998: 118; Fet and Lowe, 2000: 218, 219; Lourenço, 2008: 1; Prendini et al., 2009: 222; Brazil and Porto, 2010: 50; Lourenço, 2014: 69; syn. nov.

Rhopalurus crassicauda paruensis Lourenço, 2008: 4  , 7–8, figs. 4–9, table 1; Prendini et al., 2009: 222; Lourenço, 2014: 69; syn. nov.

Rhopalurus laticauda laticauda: Fet and Lowe, 2000: 221  .

Rhopalurus crassicauda crassicauda: Lourenço, 2008: 6  .

Rhopalurus cf. laticauda: Teruel and Cozijn, 2013: 2–6  , figs. 1–4, tables 1, 2.

TYPE MATERIAL: Rhopalurus amazonicus  : Holotype ♀ (INPA), BRAZIL: Pará: Alter do Chão-Santarém, v.1984, W. Manson. Rhopalurus crassicauda  : 2 ♂, 1 ♀ syntypes (MZUF), GUY- ANA: Runununi [Rupununi], British Guiana. Rhopalurus crassicauda paruensis  : Holotype ♂ (MNHN RS-8630), BRAZIL: Pará: Campos de Paru, South of Serra do Tumucumaque, border with Suriname, x.1966, F. Petter. Rhopalurus laticauda  : Lectotype ♀, paralectotype ♀ (NMG 170) [here designated], COLOMBIA. Rhopalurus laticauda sachsii  : VENEZUELA: 2 syntypes [sex?] (ZMB 3020); 1 syntype [sex?] (ZMB 3042), Calaboço; syntype ♂ (ZMB 3043), Caracas.

DIAGNOSIS: Rhopalurus laticauda  can be consistently differentiated from R. caribensis  and R. ochoai  , sp. nov., by the color pattern on the ventral surface of the metasoma. Whereas R. laticauda  displays a single, broad band of pigmentation along the ventral surface, which is more pronounced in populations from the southeast of the distribution, R. caribensis  displays three distinct, narrow stripes (a ventromedian stripe flanked on either side by a ventrosubmedian stripe), and R. ochoai  displays only two narrow ventrosubmedian stripes. Typical populations of R. laticauda  from the northwestern part of the distribution resemble R. caribensis  and R. ochoai  in the predominantly pale yellow-tan color, with light infuscation on the carapace and mesosoma, and metasoma V and telson slightly darker than the preceding segments. However, populations from the southeastern part of the distribution (previously referable to R. amazonicus  ) differ in the markedly infuscate carapace, tergites, metasoma V, and telson, which contrasts with the pale pedipalps, legs, and metasomal segments I –IV (fig. 1F). Additionally, the subaculear tubercle of the telson is small and blunt in R. laticauda  , vestigial in R. caribensis  , and subspinoid in R. ochoai  .

DISTRIBUTION: Rhopalurus laticauda  is endemic to northern South America and several islands and island archipelagos in the southern Caribbean (fig. 5; Teruel and Roncallo, 2008; Teruel and Cozijn, 2013): Isla Coche; Isla Cubagua; Isla Margarita; Isla La Tortuga; Isla La Peche, Archipiélago de Los Frailes; Isla Pico [Morro Pando], Archipiélago de Los Hermanos; Archipiélago de Los Roques; Angoletta and Isla Conejo, Archipiélago de Los Testigos. The known localities occur in Brazil (the states of Amazonas, Pará, and Roraima), Colombia (the departments of Arauca, Boyacá, Casanare, Cesar, Meta, La Guajira, Magdalena, and Vichada), Guyana and Venezuela (the states of Amazonas, Anzoátegui, Apure, Aragua, Barinas, Bolívar, Carabobo, Cojedes, D.F., Falcon, Guárico, Lara, Mérida, Miranda, Monagas, Nueva Esparta, Portuguesa, Sucre, Táchira, Vargas, and Yaracuy).

ECOLOGY: Specimens for which data are available were collected with UV light detection at night in savanna or dry forest (fig. 2E, F). The habitat and habitus are consistent with the lapidicolous ecomorphotype ( Prendini, 2001 b).

REMARKS: Rhopalurus laticauda  exhibits phenotypic plasticity in size and the intensity of infuscation on the carapace, tergites, metasoma, and pedipalps, apparently associated with habitat variation across the distribution, which ranges from completely open, semiarid coastal scrub in northwestern South America to tree clearings in the tropical rainforest of the Amazon Basin, much further southeast. When considering limited subsets of the overall distribution, this phenotypic plasticity has led to the false recognition of separate species or subspecies for regional variants. For example, Lourenço (1986 a, 2008), recognized R. amazonicus  , R. crassicauda  , and R. crassicauda paruensis  for the populations of R. laticauda  that inhabit savanna “islands” surrounded by rainforest, but the low genetic divergence among samples from these populations recovered by Esposito et al. (in review) indicates substantial gene flow between them. The somewhat darker and more contrasting coloration of populations referable to R. amazonicus  and R. crassicauda  from the southeast of the distribution, compared with typical populations of R. laticauda  to the north and west, was found to represent a difference in the intensity, rather than the pattern, of pigmentation. For example, these populations exhibit the single, broad band of pigmentation along the ventral surface of the metasoma, just more pronounced than in typical populations of R. laticauda  . In the absence of deep genetic divergence between these populations and consistent combinations of diagnostic morphological characters, we regard R. amazonicus  , R. crassicauda  , and R. crassicauda paruensis  as conspecific with R. laticauda  and propose the following new synonyms: Rhopalurus crassicauda Caporiacco, 1947  = Rhopalurus laticauda Thorell, 1876  , syn. nov.; Rhopalurus amazonicus Lourenço, 1986  = Rhopalurus laticauda Thorell, 1876  , syn. nov.; Rhopalurus crassicauda paruensis Lourenço, 2008  = Rhopalurus laticauda Thorell, 1876  , syn. nov.

Teruel and Cozijn (2013: 1) tentatively determined Rhopalurus  records from islands in the southern Caribbean as Rhopalurus cf. laticauda  , noting “their precise identity still warrants further study.” No consistent morphological differences are observed between the island and mainland populations and Esposito et al. (in review) found no significant genetic divergence between samples from Isla Margarita and the Venezuelan mainland. Therefore, we consider the island populations to be conspecific with, and appropriately assigned to R. laticauda  .

MATERIAL EXAMINED: 2 ♀ (ZMB 14865). “Mexico,” Dr v. Hubl, 1 ♂ (ZMB 14866). BRA- ZIL: F. Kummerow, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (ZMB 8226). Pará: Alter do Chão, Santarém, 02°31′36″S 54°54′19″W, 28.x.2008, R. Pinto-da-Rocha and H.Y. Yamaguti, 1 ♂ (MZSP 30870/AMCC [LP 9686]), 1 subad. ♂, (MZSP 30872), 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 9688]), 2 juv. ♀ (MZSP 30873/ AMCC [LP 9689], MZSP 30874/AMCC [LP 9690]), 1 juv. (MZSP 30875/AMCC [LP 9691]); Monte Alegre, 01°56′32″S 54°08′13″W 31.x.2008, H.Y. Yamaguti and R. Pinto-da- Rocha, 2 ♀ (MZSP 30871/AMCC [LP 9687], MZSP 31141/AMCC [LP 9924]). Roraima: Alto Alegre, 02°56′34″N 61°03′0 9″W, 10.xi.2008, H.Y. Yamaguti and R. Pinto-da- Rocha, 1 ♂ (MZSP 31173/AMCC [LP 9952]), 1 juv. ♂ (MZSP 31172/AMCC [LP 9927]); Bonfim, 03°22′45″N 59°49′18″W, 13.xi.2008, H.Y. Yamaguti and R. Pinto-da-Rocha, 1 ♂ (MZSP 30878/AMCC [LP 9677]), 1 subad. ♂ (MZSP 31175/AMCC [LP 9925]); Mt. Roraima, 2 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 subad. (AMNH [29180]); Mucajaí, 02°27′38″N, 60°54′24″W, 12.xi.2008, H.Y. Yamaguti and R. Pinto-da-Rocha, 1 ♂ (MZSP 30877/AMCC [LP 9676]); Normandia, 03°53′44″N, 59°37′40″W, 14.xi.2008, H.Y. Yamaguti and R. Pinto-da-Rocha, 1 ♂ (MZSP 31178/AMCC [LP 9959]), 1 ♀ (MZSP 30876/ AMCC [LP 9675]); Río Branco, Amazonasgebiet, 1912, E. Ule, 1 juv. ♀ (ZMB 14867). COLOMBIA: Guaviare Dept.: San José del Guaviare, xii.1955, Meden, 1 ♀ (SMF 39252). VENEZUELA: Apure: Elorza, 10 km SW, road to San Felipe, 07°03.749′N, 69°30.249′W, 89 m, 5.x.2008, J.A. Ochoa and S.E. Bazo Abreu, llanos, 3 ♂, 3 ♀, 1 subad. ♂, 3 juv. ♂ (AMNH), 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 9200]). Aragua: Cagua, 10°11′N 67°27′W, 1903, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (SAM 6512); Maracay, Fahrenholz, 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 1 subad. (SMF 8876/218), 1 subad. ♂ (SMF 29208); Parque Nacional Henri Pittier: Puerto Colombia, Cristo Mirador, 10°30.572′N 67°36.253′W, 1–10 m, 1.viii.2009, F. Rojas-Runjaic, A. Ferrer, L. Prendini and J.A. Ochoa, dry area, hill near to beach, 1 ♂, 3 ♀ (AMNH), 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 10046]). Bolívar: A.C. La Ceiba, between Puerto Ordaz and Ciudad Bolívar, 08°14.023′N 62°55.562′W, 102 m, 15.vii.2009, A. Yepez, M. Blanco and J.A. Ochoa, llanos, 1 ♂ (AMNH), 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 10047]); Cedeño ca. Los Pijiguaos, 06°29.878′N 67°02.600′W, 76 m, 12.x.2008, J.A. Ochoa and S.E. Bazo Abreu, llanos, 2 ♀, 1 subad. ♀ (AMNH), 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 9237]); Ciudad Bolívar, 20.ii.1903, 2 ♀ (ZMH), 07°37.486′N, 64°05.924′W, 117 m, 24.x.2008, J.A. Ochoa and S.E. Bazo Abreu, llanos, 1 ♂, 3 ♀, 1 subad. ♀, 1 juv. ♂, 1 ♂ metasoma (AMNH), 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 9256]); Comunidad Corosal, ca. Pijiguaos, 80 m, 25.x.2008, J.A. Ochoa, forest, 1 ♂, 4 ♀, 2 subad. ♀ (AMNH), 1 subad. ♀ (AMCC [LP 9253]); Gran Sabana, 88 km, xi.2005–ii.2006, C. Siederman, 2 ♂ (AMNH); La Paragua, M.A. de Verde, 1 ♂ (AMNH); Parque Nacional Canaima: Laguna Canaima, Isla Anatoly, 06°15.191′N 62°50.945′W, 395 m, 27.vii.2009, L. Prendini and J.A. Ochoa, savanna and forest, 3 ♂, 2 ♀ (AMNH), 1 juv. (AMCC [LP 10048]); Upata, ii.1973, A. Bordes, 1 ♀ (AMNH). Carabobo: Município Valencia: Valencia, 29.xii.1904, F. Kummerow, 1 ♀ (ZMB 31024), ix.1958, H. Ardelt, 2 ♀ (ZMH), Valencia, Falcon Distr., viii.1992, C. Siederman, 1 ♂ (AMNH). Distríto Federal: Caracas, iii.1999, C. Siederman, 2 ♀, 20 1 st instars  (AMNH). Guarico: between Calabozo and San Fernando de Apure (about halfway), 30.xi.1967, M.A. de Verde, 1 ♀ (AMNH); Hato Masaguarat, 45 km S Calabozo, 7.iv.1978, Y. Lubin, 1 ♂ (AMNH). Mérida: Mérida, 2 ♂, 3 ♀ (SMF 5712/27). Miranda: Guatire, 15.xii.1975, M.A. González- Sponga, 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (NM 16431), 29.iv.2004, R.C. West, under rocks, dry forest, 1 ♂ (AMCC [LP 2845]), 1 ♀ (AMNH); Hacienda Santa Rosa, 3 km N Guatire, 450 m, 10.i.1973, M.A. González-Sponga, 1 ♂, 1 ♀, 2 juv. (AMNH). Nueva Esparta: Isla Margarita, N of Peninsula de Macanao, 11°02.618′N, 64°21.542′E, 4.ix.2005, S. Huber, 1 ♀ (AMCC [LP 4221]); Isla Margarita, 2001, C. Siederman, 1 ♀ (AMCC [LP 2462]).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Scorpiones

Family

Buthidae

Genus

Rhopalurus

Loc

Rhopalurus laticauda Thorell, 1876

Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini 2017
2017
Loc

Rhopalurus cf. laticauda

: Teruel and Cozijn 2013: 2
2013
Loc

Rhopalurus crassicauda paruensis Lourenço, 2008: 4

Lourenco 2008: 4
2008
Loc

Rhopalurus crassicauda crassicauda: Lourenço, 2008: 6

Lourenco 2008: 6
2008
Loc

Rhopalurus laticauda

laticauda: Fet and Lowe 2000: 221
2000
Loc

Rhopalurus amazonicus Lourenço, 1986 a: 132

Lourenco 1986: 132
1986
Loc

Rhopalurus crassicauda

Caporiacco 1947: 20
1947
Loc

Rhopalurus testaceus laticauda:

Meise 1934: 32
1934
Loc

Centrurus laticauda:

Kraepelin 1891: 123
1891
Loc

Rhopalurus laticauda sachsii

Karsch 1879: 118
1879
Loc

Rhopalurus laticauda

Thorell 1876: 9
1876