Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini, 2017, Systematic Revision of the Neotropical Club-Tailed Scorpions, Physoctonus, Rhopalurus, and Troglorhopalurus, Revalidation of Heteroctenus, and Descriptions of Two New Genera and Three New Spec, Bulletin of the American Museum of Natural History 415, pp. 1-134: 70-80
treatment provided by
Jaguajir , gen. nov.
Figures 1View FIG. 1 C, DView FIG, 2DView FIG, 6–8View FIGView FIGView FIG, 10B –DView FIG, 11DView FIG, 12AView FIG, 15CView FIG, D, FView FIG, 17CView FIG, 19CView FIG, D, FView FIG, 21D –FView FIG, 22D –FView FIG, 23S –VView FIG, 24A –HView FIG, 41–47View FIGView FIGView FIGView FIGView FIGView FIGView FIG
Androctonus (part): C.L. Koch, 1839: 103–105, pl. CCV, fig. 506.
Tityus (part): C.L. Koch, 1850: 91; Pocock, 1902b: 377.
Heteroctenus (part): Pocock, 1893: 393; Meise, 1934: 42.
Centrurus (part): Kraepelin, 1895: 95; 1899: 89, 94; 1908: 187, 190, 194; Penther, 1913: 240 – 243, figs. 1–4; Werner, 1927: 358; Mello- Leitão, 1945: 286.
Rhopalurus (part): Pocock, 1902a: 37; 1902 b: 377, 378; Borelli, 1910: 3–5; Lutz and Mello, 1922a: 25, 26; 1922b: 25; Penther, 1913: 242, 243, figs. 3, 4; Lutz and Mello, 1922b: 25; Mello-Campos, 1924a: 252, 275–286, pl. 5, fig. 27, pl. 8, fig. 34, pl. 10, fig. 35, 36, pl. 11, figs. 37–39; 1924b: 318, 341, 342–349, 351, 352, pl. 5, fig. 27, pl. 8, fig. 34, pl. 10, figs. 35, 36, pl. 11, figs. 37–39; Werner, 1927: 357, 358, fig. 2a –2d; Mello-Leitão, 1932: 11–15, 30, 31, 38, 39, 46, fig. 2a –2c, 8a –8c; Vellard, 1932: 556; Meise, 1934: 42; Viquez, 1935: 111, fig. 40; Prado, 1938: 347–349, figs. 1, 2; 1939: 6; 1940: 25–36, fig.; Roewer, 1943: 219; Mello-Leitão, 1945: 266–272, 274–279, 284–293, figs. 113–115, 118–121; Jaume, 1954: 1090; Bücherl, 1959: 268, 269; 1967: 112; 1969: 767; 1971: 327; Lucas and Bücherl, 1971: 635–637; 1972: 252, 262, 263, 276, 282, 283, pl. 11, fig. 38; Stahnke and Calos, 1977: 119; Lourenço, 1979: 215, fig. 7; Araújo, 1981: 235; Lucas et al., 1981: 128, 129, tables 1, 2; Lourenço, 1982 a: 107, 108, 115–117, 122, 123, 128, 129, 133–139, figs. 1, 25–28, 39–62, 64–78, table 1; 1982b: 74, figs. 1–3; 1984b: 14; 1986a: 133, figs. 10, 11, 15; 1986b: 165, 170, fig. 7; 1990: 161; 1992: 55; 1997a: 590; Lourenço and Cloudsley- Thompson, 1995: 423–425, 428, figs. 1, 3–7; Lourenço and Pinto-da-Rocha, 1997: 183– 185, figs. 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 13, 15–21View FIG. 15View FIG. 16View FIG. 17View FIG. 18View FIG. 19View FIG. 20View FIG. 21; Kovařík, 1998: 118; Fet and Lowe, 2000: 217, 218, 221, 222; Lourenço et al., 2000: 143; Lourenço, 2002: 92, 93, 104–106, 110, 111, 304– 305, figs. 39, 192–204, 232–250; Manzanilla and Sousa, 2003: 9; Lourenço et al., 2004: figs. 9–10; Lenarducci et al., 2005: 7, table 2; Lira-da-Silva et al., 2005: 2; Teruel, 2006: 50–52; Lourenço, 2007: 359–361, fig. 1; Kamenz and Prendini, 2008: 9, table 2, pl. 44; Lourenço, 2008: 1, 3, 4–7, 9–12, figs. 2–4, 10–17View FIG. 10View FIG. 11View FIG. 12View FIG. 13View FIG. 14View FIG. 15View FIG. 16View FIG. 17, table 1; Teruel and Tietz, 2008: 1–3, 5–8, figs. 1–4, 7, table 1, 2; Volschenk et al., 2008: 651, 652, 654, 660, 661, 663, 664, 674, fig. 2E, tables 1, 2; Outeda-Jorge et al., 2009: 44, 46, 48, 49, fig. 4; Prendini et al., 2009: 222–224; Brazil and Porto, 2010: 25, 50, 59, 66, figs. 5B, 7A; Porto et al., 2010: 292–296, fig. 2A, B, table 1; Lourenço, 2014: 69; Ubinski et al., 2016: 122.
Centruroides (part): Werner, 1927: 357; 1934: 274, fig. 33a.
DIAGNOSIS: Jaguajir , gen. nov., differs from all other rhopalurusine genera by the fused lateral ocular and anterior central submedian carinae of the carapace. It differs further from Centruroides, Ischnotelson , gen. nov., Physoctonus , and Troglorhopalurus by the presence of a pecten-sternite stridulatory organ (proximal pectinal teeth, dorsal surfaces without nodules but with regular striations, sternite III, ventromedian carina elevated anteriorly, ventrosubmedian surfaces forming paired depressions, covered by large, regularly spaced acuminate granules, lateral margins forming smooth, raised carina); from Rhopalurus and Ischnotelson by the separate (unfused) central lateral and posterior central submedian carinae of the carapace; from Centruroides and Troglorhopalurus by the robust metasoma, increasing in width posteriorly (more so in the adult male); from Centruroides by the presence of macrosetae on the dorsobasal surface of the pectinal teeth; from Heteroctenus by the absence of depressions in the male pectinal plate and the presence of a subaculear tubercle on the telson; from Ischnotelson by the separate (unfused) lateral ocular and central lateral carinae of the carapace and the telson vesicle not laterally compressed; from Physoctonus by the larger size (30–70 mm), the more distinct carapacial carinae, the setose proximal dorsal fulcra of the pectines, the incrassate pedipalp chela manus of the adult male, the bifurcate prolateral pedal spur of leg I, and the oblique subrows of primary denticles on the pedipalp chela fingers flanked closely by pro- and retrolateral accessory (supernumerary) denticles; and from Troglorhopalurus by the proximal dentate margin of the chela fixed and movable fingers of the adult male emarginate, with a distinct gap evident between them, when closed.
ETYMOLOGY: The name is taken from the Tupi word jaguajira, meaning “scorpion,” or “one who devours” ( Von Martius, 1867). It is masculine in gender.
DESCRIPTION: The following general description outlines characters common to the species of Jaguajir , gen. nov.
Total length: Large, robust scorpions (total length, 50–110 mm).
Color: Coloration varies considerably among the three species of the genus (fig. 1C, D), with J. pintoi predominantly dark brown to black, J. rochae predominantly pale to dark yellow, and J. agamemnon bicolored, with carapace and tergites I –VI brown, and tergite VII, metasoma, telson, pedipalps, and legs lighter, somewhat orange. Despite the differences, in all three species, the pectines are paler than the carapace, tergites, and metasoma; the legs, chelicerae, and pedipalps similar to or paler than the carapace, tergites, and metasoma; the coxosternal region and sternites slightly paler than the carapace, tergites, and metasoma; and sternite VII is slightly darker than the preceding sternites.
Chelicerae: Base, dorsal surface with medial transverse row of well-developed tubercles.
Carapace: Median ocular tubercle raised (fig. 15C, D, F); two median ocelli; three pairs of lateral macroocelli; one pair of lateral microocelli. Anteromedian, median ocular, and posteromedian sulci well developed, forming single, almost continuous, longitudinal sulcus. Lateral ocular and anterior central submedian carinae distinct, coarsely granular to costate-granular, and fused; central lateral and posterior central submedian carinae distinct, coarsely granular to costategranular, and separate (unfused).
Pedipalps: Pedipalp femur retrolateral accessory carinae absent. Pedipalp chela manus of adult male incrassate, fixed and movable fingers curved proximally (fixed finger curved dorsally, movable finger curved ventrally), such that proximal dentate margin emarginate, distinct gap present between fingers proximally, when closed (fig. 41), manus of female not incrassate, fixed and movable fingers not curved proximally, such that proximal dentate margin sublinear, little or no gap present between them proximally, when closed (fig. 42); manus, proventral carina present, promedian carina absent; fixed and movable fingers, median denticle rows each comprising eight oblique subrows of primary denticles ( J. agamemnon and J. rochae ), or nine and 13 subrows, respectively ( J. pintoi ), flanked closely by pro- and retrolateral accessory (supernumerary) denticles; movable finger with or without proximal lobe ( fig. 17View FIG. 17 C). Pedipalps orthobothriotaxic Type A, α configuration; femur with five dorsal trichobothria, trichobothrium d 2 situated on prolateral surface; patella trichobothrium d 3 situated retrolateral to dorsomedian carina; chela fixed finger trichobothrium db proximal to trichobothrium et.
Legs: Legs III and IV, tibial spurs absent; I –IV, basitarsi each with bifurcate prolateral pedal spur; telotarsi each with distinct pro- and retroventral rows of fine, acuminate macrosetae.
Pectines: Pectinal plate without median depressions (male), anterior margin without sulcus (figs. 11D, 19C, D, F). Pectines proximally expanded, at least 1.5× wider proximally than medially; proximal dorsal fulcra setose; pectinal teeth almost straight, slightly curved laterally, proximal teeth, dorsal surfaces sinuous, due to presence of distal elevation, covered with striations, dorsobasal surfaces with macrosetae; pectinal sensillae peg shaped (fig. 12A).
Mesosoma: Tergites IV and V wider than I –III (figs. 45–47); I –VI tricarinate, dorsomedian carinae finely granular, restricted to posterior two thirds on I –V, complete on VI; dorsosubmedian carinae finely granular, restricted to posterior third on I –III, restricted to posterior quarter on IV –VI. Tergite VII pentacarinate, dorsomedian carina restricted to anterior third of segment. Sternites smooth, carinate obsolete, more developed on VI and VII; sternite III, lateral margins forming smooth, raised carina, ventromedian carina elevated anteriorly, ventrosubmedian surfaces forming paired depressions covered by large, regularly spaced acuminate granules; respiratory spiracles (stigmata), width more than 5× length (figs. 10 B –D).
Metasoma: Metasoma robust, increasing slightly to markedly in width posteriorly, segment V slightly or considerably wider than I in adult male, similar or slightly wider than I in adult female (figs. 43, 44). Segments I –III each with 10 distinct, costate-granular carinae, IV with eight distinct, costate-granular carinae, V with seven distinct but less pronounced, granular carinae; dorsosubmedian carinae obsolete, reduced to rows of granules on dorsal surfaces of segments I –IV, more pronounced on segment I; dorsolateral carinae complete on segments I –IV, and terminating in prominent, spiniform granules posteriorly on II and, to a greater extent, III on IV, absent on V; lateral supramedian carinae complete on segments I –V; lateral inframedian carinae complete on segments I –III, absent on IV and V; ventrosubmedian carinae complete on segments I –IV, restricted to anterior third of V; ventromedian carina absent on segments I –IV, complete on V. Intercarinal surfaces finely to coarsely granular.
Telson: Vesicle subspherical, not laterally compressed, narrower than metasoma V; anterodorsal lateral lobes prominent ( J. pintoi ) or reduced ( J. agamemnon and J. rochae ); lateral and ventral surfaces granular or smooth, with shallow ventromedian carina; subaculear tubercle present, prominent and spinoid ( J. agamemnon ) or vestigial ( J. pintoi and J. rochae ).
Hemispermatophore: Flagelliform; flagellum, elongate and narrow (figs. 23S –V, 24A –H); trunk markedly concave; three lobules, ental (LI), ectal (LE), and basal (LB); LI inclined slightly to sinistral side relative to axis of trunk and continuous until flagellar base; flagellar base narrow, half ( J. pintoi and J. rochae ) to one third ( J. agamemnon ) maximum width of trunk; LE length ca. half ( J. pintoi ) to two thirds ( J. agamemnon and J. rochae ) that of LI, with sharp tip and base width similar to that of LB; LB short, carina shaped, with sharp tip ( J. pintoi ), angle between LB and LE 45° ( J. agamemnon and J. rochae ) to 80° ( J. pintoi ).
DISTRIBUTION: Jaguajir is endemic to north and northeastern South America (figs. 6–8). Confirmed locality records occur in Brazil and Guyana, but the genus may also occur in Venezuela ( Prendini et al., 2009). A single from record from Kourou, French Guiana ( Lourenço, 2008) remains to be confirmed.
ECOLOGY: The three species of this genus are typically associated with open vegetation (caatinga and cerrado; fig. 2D), and have been collected under stones during the day and with UV light detection at night. The habitat and habitus are consistent with the lapidicolous ecomorphotype ( Prendini, 2001 b).
REMARKS: The consistent paraphyly of Rhopalurus in the analyses by Esposito et al. (in review) and the identification of a well-defined, monophyletic group, comprising three species from northern and northeastern Brazil, i.e., R. agamemnon , R. pintoi , and R. rochae , justifies the creation of the new genus and the transfer of those species to it, resulting in three new combinations (fig. 13). The recognition of a new genus is consistent with the cytogenetic study of Ubinski et al. (2016) which identified a diploid chromosome number of 2n = 28 for R. agamemnon , R. pintoi , and R. rochae ( table 2).
No known copyright restrictions apply. See Agosti, D., Egloff, W., 2009. Taxonomic information exchange and copyright: the Plazi approach. BMC Research Notes 2009, 2:53 for further explanation.
|Lauren A. Esposito, Humberto Y. Yamaguti, Cláudio A. Souza, Ricardo Pinto-Da-Rocha & Lorenzo Prendini 2017|
|Mello-Leitao, C. F. de 1945: 286|
|Werner, F. 1927: 358|
|Penther, A. 1913: 240|
|Kraepelin, K. 1895: 95|
|Pocock, R. I. 1902: 377|
|Koch, C. L. 1850: 91|
|Koch, C. L. 1839: 103|
|Meise, W. 1934: 42|
|Pocock, R. I. 1893: 393|