Allocareproctus unangas

Orr, James Wilder & Busby, Morgan Scott, 2006, Revision of the snailfish genus Allocareproctus Pitruk & Fedorov (Teleostei: Liparidae), with descriptions of four new species from the Aleutian Islands, Zootaxa 1173, pp. 1-37: 27-33

publication ID

10.5281/zenodo.2645716

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/8619E976-9455-D92F-EA13-289020D2FA8B

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Allocareproctus unangas
status

new species

Allocareproctus unangas  new species

Goldeneye Snailfish

( Figures 1–2View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2, 6View FIGURE 6, 10View FIGURE 10, 13View FIGURE 13; Tables 1–4)

Holotype: UW 112308View Materials, 82.5 mm, 53.1274ºN, 169.9643ºW, 387 m depth, 1 June 2002, F/ V Morning Star, cruise 2002­01, haul 35, J.W. Orr / D.E. Stevenson.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: UW 112300View Materials, 1 (129.7 mm), female, 53.2067ºN, 169.8452ºW, 399 m depth, 4 June 2002, F/ V Morning Star, cruise 2002­01, haul 52, J.W. OrrGoogleMaps  ; UW 112313View Materials, 1 (115.2 mm), 53.0363ºN, 170.2986ºW, 210 m depth, 27 May 2000, F/ V Vesteraalen, cruise 2000­ 0 1, haul 39, W.C. FlerxGoogleMaps  ; UW 112303View Materials, 2 (79–105.8 mm), 51.5636ºN, 178.3331ºE, 465 m depth, 30 June 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 159, K.P. MaslenikovGoogleMaps  ; UW 112306View Materials, 2 (40.3–64.4 mm), 53.1899ºN, 169.8622ºW, 398 m depth, 19 July 2002, F/ V Vesteraalen, cruise 2002­01, haul 195, R.N. ClarkGoogleMaps  ; UW 112305View Materials, 1 (104.2 mm), 52.2762ºN, 170.5968ºW, 231 m depth, 30 May 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 49, J.W. OrrGoogleMaps  ; UW 112304View Materials, 1 (126.2 mm), 52.40236ºN, 171.8333ºW, 270 m depth, 8 August 2002, F/ V Sea Storm, cruise 2002­01, haul 213, R.C. HarrisonGoogleMaps  ; UW 112087View Materials, 1 (83 mm), 53.1303ºN, 169.9617ºW, 433 m depth, 26 May 2000, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2000­01, haul 35, W.C. FlerxGoogleMaps  ; UW 112089View Materials, 2 (73.5–78.6 mm), 52.4212ºN, 170.2785ºW, 211 m depth, 29 May 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 43, benthic bag, J.W. OrrGoogleMaps  ; UW 112301View Materials, 1 (117.7 mm), 52.3896ºN, 171.36ºW, 234 m depth, 11 June 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 82, K.P. MaslenikovGoogleMaps  ; UW 112302View Materials, 2 (76.7–98.2 mm), 52.3675ºN, 171.3377ºW, 318 m depth, 11 June 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 83, benthic bag, K.P. MaslenikovGoogleMaps  ; UW 112085View Materials, 1 (78 mm), 51.9056ºN, 176.6003ºE, 264 m depth, 5 July 2000, F/ V Vesteraalen, cruise 2000­ 0 1, haul 173, E.S. BrownGoogleMaps  ; UW 112086View Materials, 1 (101.6 mm), 52.3679ºN, 171.2465ºW, 316 m depth, 18 June 1997, F/ V Vesteraalen, cruise 1997­01, haul 42, W.C. FlerxGoogleMaps  ; UW 112088View Materials, 2 (84.2–102 mm; 84.2 mm cleared and stained), 52.5303ºN, 172.1104ºW, 364 m depth, 26 June 1997, F/ V Vesteraalen, cruise 1997­01, haul 78, R.C. HarrisonGoogleMaps  ; UW 112307View Materials, 1 (101.7 mm), 52.2383ºN, 172.1247ºW, 357 m depth, 29 July 2002, F/ V Sea Storm, cruise 2002­01, haul 167, R.C. Harrison; USNMAbout USNMGoogleMaps  385685, 4View Materials (68.3–96.1 mm), 52.3687ºN, 171.2406ºW, 323 m depth, 5 May 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 51, benthic bag, J.W. Orr; USNMAbout USNMGoogleMaps  385686, 1View Materials (118 mm)  ,

52.5080ºN, 172.2650ºW, 215 m depth, 21 June 2004, F/V Sea Storm, cruise 2004­01, haul 65, J.W. Orr; USNM 385687View Materials, 2View Materials (95–115 mm)GoogleMaps  , 52.9580ºN, 169.4346ºW, 429 m depth, 12 June 2004, F/V Gladiator  , cruise 2004­01, haul 26, K.P. Maslenikov; CAS 223483View Materials, 1View Materials (92 mm)GoogleMaps  , 52.8965ºN, 169.4597ºW, 341 m depth, 13 June 2004, F/V Gladiator  , cruise 2004­01, haul 29, benthic bag, K.P. Maslenikov; CAS 223484View Materials, 1View Materials (113 mm)GoogleMaps  , 53.2200ºN, 169.7387ºW, 323 m depth, 13 June 2004, F/V Gladiator  , cruise 2004­01, haul 27, K.P. Maslenikov; CAS 223485View Materials, 1View Materials (105 mm)GoogleMaps  , 53.0341ºN, 170.2061ºW, 176 m depth, 14 June 2004, F/V Gladiator  , cruise 2004­01, haul 32, benthic bag, K.P. Maslenikov; UW 28351, 2 (82.2–128.7 mm), no dataGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis

Teeth strongly trilobed ( Fig. 2DView FIGURE 2); nasal papillae absent; papillae associated with few pores, invariably present only on maxillary pore 6 and suprabranchial pores 1–2; peritoneum dark; orobuccal valve with 1 finger­like projection; orobuccal cavity pale; gill rakers 8–12, short, blunt; interorbital papilla present; pyloric caeca on left side, short; body color light red; iris golden.

Description

Body depth at pectoral­fin base 14.2–22.6 (20.1)%, at center of pelvic disk 18.9–24.6 (20.4)%, at anal­fin origin 18.8–26.5 (25.5)%. Predorsal length 26.5–33.3 (29.7)%. Preanal length 37.4–46.4 (41.9)%.

Head large, width 12.7–18.8 (15.3)%, length 25.1–28.2 (25.7)%. Interorbital width 5.1–8.2 (5.1)%, about equal to orbit length. Snout 6.5–9.2 (8.8)%. Mouth small, maxilla 8.4–12.0 (11.1)%, extending to anterior portion of orbit. Teeth strongly trilobed ( Fig. 2DView FIGURE 2), in a band of 8–12 oblique rows of 5–9 teeth per row. Orbit large, diameter 5.0–7.8 (5.0)%.

Papillae small, present on few pores: absent from nasal pores 1–2; present on maxillary pore 6, often present on pore 5 (5–6); often present on preoperculomandibular pores 6–7, rarely absent (6–7); present on suprabranchial pores 1–2 (Fig. 4E). Interorbital papilla present. Papillae unpigmented. Cephalic free neuromasts reduced or nearly indiscernible over the interorbit and nape.

Gill opening small, 4.7–7.1 (5.9)%, entirely above pectoral fin or extending to pectoral­fin ray 3 (entirely above in the holotype). Gill rakers on anterior arch 8–12 (9), blunt and stout. Central projection of orobuccal valve a moderately elongate single lobe.

Dorsal­fin rays 42–45 (44), tips of anterior 4–6 rays projecting from fin membrane, anteriormost rays about 30% free from membrane, succeeding rays less so; posteriormost ray attached membranously to dorsalmost caudal­fin ray for 2.5–5.0 (3.6)%. Anal fin with 36–39 (38) rays, posteriormost ray membranously attached to ventralmost caudal­fin ray for 3.0–5.3 (3.6)%. One to three (2) anal­fin pterygiophores and associated rays anterior to first haemal spine.

Pectoral­fin rays 38–42 (39) in two lobes separated by shallow notch, 9–10 (10) rays in lower lobe. Dorsalmost ray at level of ventral rim of orbit. Upper lobe rounded, extending to or just past anal­fin origin, length 15.4–20.1 (17.0)%, with ray 6 longest; length of shortest notch ray 4.9–10.9 (10.9)%; length of lower lobe 13.4–19.5 (15.7)%, extending to anus, with ray 2 longest, rays 3–10 shortening ventrally. Pelvic disk large, length 7.8–11.4 (10.3)%, width 7.4–10.7 (9.9)%. Distance from disk to anus 1.7–8.3 (5.6)%, about 20–90 (54.5)% DL, distance from anus to anal­fin origin 5.7–15.8 (13.5)%, about 50–150 (130.6)% DL. Urogenital papilla conical, short, 9.2–30.5 (30.5)% DL, unpigmented. Pyloric caeca about 22, on left side of body, fingerlike, short, 17.2–28.5 (24.0)% HL.

Caudal fin slightly rounded, 11.7–17.0 (13.5)%, depth at hypural plate 2.4–5.2 (3.4)%, with principal rays 11–12 (12), dorsal principal rays 5, ventral principal rays 6–7 (7). Dorsal procurrent rays 1–3 (2), borne on epural and posteriormost neural spine; ventral procurrent ray 1–2 (1), borne on expanded posteriormost haemal spine. Vertebrae 46–50 (48), abdominal vertebrae 10–11 (10), caudal vertebrae 36–40 (38).

Body color in life uniform light red; iris golden. Color in alcohol pale, with pigment absent from cephalic papillae and absent from origin of dorsal fin. Peritoneum black; orobranchial cavity pale.

Largest specimen examined a 129.7 mm female ( UW 112300View Materials). Smallest female with yolked eggs 91 mm; smallest male with enlarged, swollen testes 76.7 mm.

Range Allocareproctus unangas  has been collected only in the Aleutian Islands, from Buldir Pass to the Islands of Four Mountains, at depths of 210 to 465 m ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10).

in 22 lots.

Etymology

Named in honor of the people of the Aleutian Islands, the specific epithet “unangas” is

the autonym of the Aleuts of Atka Island, a major island near the center of the species

distribution. It is to be treated as a noun in apposition.

Remarks

Eggs of A. unangas  were collected from the octocoral Primnoa  sp. from Seguam Pass, with eggs of another liparid (Busby et al., in press). These are the first records of spawning in nature outside of lithodid crabs for liparids other than species of Liparis  . See description and discussion of Busby et al. (in press).

Comparisons

Allocareproctus unangas  is most similar to A. ungak  , which also has trilobed teeth ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D–E) and a uniform red body. It is distinguished from A. ungak  by its golden iris (vs. silver gray in A. ungak  ), papilla on nasal pore 1, fewer pores with associated papillae (Fig. 4), and pyloric caeca shorter and on the left side of the body. The two species also exhibit significant modal differences in several meristic characters ( Tables 1–3), including dorsal­fin rays (39–42 in A. ungak  vs. 42–45 in A. unangas  ), anal­fin rays (33–35 vs. 36–39), pectoral­fin rays (35–40 vs. 38–42), and caudal vertebrae (34–36 vs. 36–40). Morphometric differences include a greater head length, body depths at anal­fin origin and pelvic disk, predorsal length, and snout to anus length in A. unangas  than in A. ungak  . See other comparisons under species accounts above.

Allocareproctus ungak  new species Whiskered Snailfish

( Figures 1–2View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2, 4–6, 11, 13; Tables 1–4)

Allocareproctus jordani: Orr & Busby 2001  (in part; compared to Prognatholiparis ptychomandibularis  ).

Holotype: UW 111933View Materials, 91.0 mm, female, 52.3687ºN, 171.2406ºW, 323 m depth, 31 May 2000, M/ V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 51, benthic bag, J.W. Orr.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes: UW 112084View Materials, 4 (55.0– 106.9 mm), 52.3282ºN, 172.7468ºW, 444 m depth, 4 June 2000, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2000­01, haul 67, benthic bag, W.C. FlerxGoogleMaps  ; UW 111934View Materials, 1 (106 mm), 52.3282ºN, 172.7468ºW, 444 m depth, 4 June 2000, F/V Vesteraalen, cruise 2000­01, haul 67, W.C. FlerxGoogleMaps  ; UW 111935View Materials, 2 (97.3–98.4 mm), 52.3131ºN, 171.5057ºW, 445 m depth, 31 May 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 54, benthic bag, J.W. OrrGoogleMaps  ; UW 111929View Materials, 1 (105.5 mm), 52.1920ºN, 171.6730ºW, 461 m depth, 6 August 2002, F/ V Sea Storm, cruise 2002­01, haul 210, R.C. Harrison; UWGoogleMaps  45239, 17 (81.5–101.2 mm; 84.5 mm cleared and stained), 52.3184ºN, 172.7453ºW, 455 m depth, 22 June 1997, F/ V Vesteraalen, cruise 1997­01, haul 58, W.C. FlerxGoogleMaps  ; UW 111937View Materials, 1 (87 mm), 52.5517ºN, 169.4788ºW, 330 m depth, 25 May 2003, F/ V Northwest Explorer, cruise 2003­01, haul 6, J.W. OrrGoogleMaps  ; UW 111933View Materials, 1 (91 mm, in 95% ethanol), 52.3687ºN, 171.2406ºW, 323 m depth, 31 May 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 51, J.W. OrrGoogleMaps  ; UW 111938View Materials, 1 (112 mm), 52.3687ºN, 171.2406ºW, 323 m depth, 31 May 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 51, J.W. Orr; UWGoogleMaps  45238, 3 (72.1–91.7 mm), 52.3310ºN, 172.7470ºW, 441 m depth, 23 July 2002, F/ V Sea Storm, cruise 2002­ 0 1, haul 156, J.W. OrrGoogleMaps  ; UW 111928View Materials, 2 (85.8–93.2 mm), 52.3687ºN, 171.2406ºW, 323 m depth, 31 May 2000, M/V Dominator, cruise 2000­01, haul 51, benthic bag, J.W. OrrGoogleMaps  ; UW 111927View Materials, 1 (94.3 mm), 52.3732ºN, 171.3548ºW, 324 m depth, 10 August 2002, F/ V Sea Storm, cruise 2002­01, haul 225, R.C. Harrison; USNMAbout USNMGoogleMaps  385688, 3View Materials (97–115 mm), 52.5251ºN, 172.0747ºW, 364 m depth, 21 June 2004, F/ V Sea Storm, cruise 2004­01, haul 66, J.W. Orr; USNMAbout USNMGoogleMaps  385689, 3View Materials (62–78 mm), 52.3255ºN, 172.7466ºW, 450 m depth, 19 June 2004, F/ V Sea Storm, cruise 2004­01, haul 60, benthic bag, J.W. Orr; CASAbout CASGoogleMaps  223486, 7View Materials (91–107 mm), 52.3728ºN, 171.3587ºW, 318 m depth, 21 June 2004, F/V Gladiator  , cruise 2004­01, haul 65, K.P. MaslenikovGoogleMaps  ; UW 113675View Materials, 1 (94.5 mm), 52.1932ºN, 171.6718ºW, 461 m depth, 20 June 2004, F/V Gladiator  , cruise 2004­01, haul 58, K.P. MaslenikovGoogleMaps  ; UW 113676View Materials, 1 (129.3 mm), 52.9580ºN, 169.4346ºW, 429 m depth, 12 June 2004, F/V Gladiator  , cruise 2004­01, haul 26, K.P. MaslenikovGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis

Teeth strongly trilobed ( Fig. 2EView FIGURE 2); nasal pore 1 with unpigmented papilla; peritoneum black; orobuccal valve with 1 finger­like projection; orobuccal cavity pale; gill rakers 7–11, short, blunt; interorbital papilla present or absent; pyloric caeca on right or left side; body red; iris silver gray.

Description

Body depth at pectoral­fin base 15.0–21.0 (19.5)%, at center of pelvic disk 16.6–22.9 (21.9)%, at anal­fin origin 18.2–25.2 (22.0)%. Predorsal length 25.9–29.7 (27.3)%. Preanal length 38.4–47.3 (43.1)%. Head large, width 11.8–20.4 (14.1)%, length 23.9–27.3 (24.7)%. Interorbital width 4.9–8.0 (5.7)%, about equal to orbit length. Snout 6.8–9.3 (7.9)%. Mouth small, maxilla 9.0–12.1 (10.1)%, extending to midorbit. Teeth strongly trilobed ( Fig. 2EView FIGURE 2), in a broad band of 8–12 oblique rows of 5–16 teeth per row, band narrowing posteriorly to 2– 3 rows on premaxilla and to a short uniserial row of 6 teeth on dentary. Orbit large, diameter 5.2–7.0 (6.2)%.

Papillae strong, present on many pores: present on nasal pore 1, absent from nasal pore 2; present on maxillary pores 4–6, often present on pores 2–3 (4–6); present on preoperculomandibular pores 5–6, often present also on pore 7 (5–7); present on suprabranchial pores 1–2 (Fig. 4F). Interorbital papilla present or absent (present in holotype). Papillae unpigmented. Cephalic free neuromasts reduced and nearly indiscernible over the interorbit and nape.

Gill opening small, 4.9–7.8 (7.6)%, entirely above pectoral fin or extending to pectoral­fin ray 3 (1). Gill rakers on anterior arch 7–11 (10), short and blunt. Central projection of orobuccal valve a moderately elongate single lobe.

Dorsal­fin rays 39–42 (41), tips of anterior 4–6 rays projecting from fin membrane, anteriormost rays about 30% free from membrane, succeeding rays less so; posteriormost ray attached membranously to dorsalmost caudal­fin ray for 2.3–5.8 (4.0)%. Anal fin with 33–35 (34) rays, posteriormost ray membranously attached to ventralmost caudal­fin ray for 3.0–5.9 (3.6)%. One or two (2) anal­fin pterygiophores and associated rays anterior to first haemal spine.

Pectoral­fin rays 35–40 (37) in two lobes, separated by shallow notch, 8–10 (9) rays in lower lobe. Dorsalmost ray at level of ventral rim of orbit. Upper lobe rounded, extending to anal­fin origin, length 16.0–20.0 (17.1)%, with rays 5–6 (5) longest; length of shortest notch ray 5.8–10.5 (6.0)%; length of lower lobe 14.4–19.8 (15.9)%, extending between posterior margin of pelvic disk and anus, with ray 3 longest, rays 4–10 shortening ventrally.

Pelvic disk large, length 8.6–11.8 (8.8)%, width 7.1–11.1 (8.2)%. Distance from disk to anus 1.5–5.5 (4.8)%, about 13–55 (55)% DL, distance from anus to anal­fin origin 6.7–18.8 (13.4)%, about 50–200 (152.5)% DL. Urogenital papilla conical, relatively long, 4–96.5 (6.0)% DL, unpigmented. Pyloric caeca about 20, primarily on right side of body, finger­like, long, about 25–50 (40)% HL.

Caudal fin slightly rounded, 13.0–17.1 (14.4)%, depth at hypural plate 3.3–5.2 (4.2)%, with principal rays 11–13 (12), dorsal principal rays 5–6 (5); ventral principal rays 7–8 (7). Dorsal procurrent rays 2, borne on epural and posteriormost neural spine; ventral procurrent ray 1, borne on expanded posteriormost haemal spine. Vertebrae 45–47 (46), abdominal vertebrae 10–11 (11), caudal vertebrae 34–36 (35).

Body in life uniform light red, scattered speckling rarely present at origin of dorsal fin; iris silver gray. Color in alcohol pale, with pigment absent from cephalic papillae and rarely present at origin of dorsal fin. Peritoneum black; orobranchial cavity pale.

Largest specimen examined a 129.3 mm male ( UW 113676View Materials). Smallest female with yolked eggs 85 mm; smallest male with enlarged, swollen testes 95 mm.

Range Allocareproctus ungak  has been collected only in the Aleutian Islands, from Seguam Pass to the Islands of Four Mountains, at depths of 318 to 461 m (Fig. 11).

Etymology

The specific epithet “ungak” is taken from the Alutiiq word for “whiskers” an allusion to the many papillae associated with cephalic pores. It is to be treated as a noun in apposition.

FIGURE

14

Comparisons

Allocareproctus ungak  is most similar to A. unangas  , which also has trilobed teeth ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 D–E) and a uniform red body. It is distinguished from A. unangas  by the presence of a papilla on nasal pore 1 and higher number of pores with associated papillae (Fig. 4). Pyloric caeca are longer and typically on the right side of the body, unlike A. unangas  in which they are shorter and on the left. For meristic and morphometric differences from other species of Allocareproctus  , see species accounts above.

UW

University of Washington Fish Collection

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

CAS

California Academy of Sciences

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Scorpaeniformes

Family

Liparidae

Genus

Allocareproctus

Loc

Allocareproctus unangas

Orr, James Wilder & Busby, Morgan Scott 2006

2006
Loc

Allocareproctus jordani

: Orr & Busby 2001

2001