Scorzonera albicaulis clade,

Zaika, Maxim A., Kilian, Norbert, Jones, Katy, Krinitsina, Anastasiya A., Nilova, Maya V., Speranskaya, Anna S. & Sukhorukov, Al, 2020, Scorzonera sensu lato (Asteraceae, Cichorieae) - taxonomic reassessment in the light of new molecular phylogenetic and carpological analyses, PhytoKeys 137, pp. 1-85: 1

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Scorzonera albicaulis clade


Scorzonera albicaulis clade 

= Achyroseris  Sch.Bip., Nov. Actorum Acad. Caes. Leop.-Carol. Nat. Cur. 21: 165. 1845. Type: Achyroseris macrosperma  (Turcz. ex DC.) Sch.Bip. (= S. albicaulis  Bunge). Note: Schultz (1845) based his segregation of Achyroseris  from Scorzonera  on the "paleate receptacle" in A. macrosperma  . This is, however, clearly erroneous, because a paleate (bracteate) receptacle is not present in any member of the Scorzonerinae  ; at most, the receptacle can be slightly hairy in some members of the phylogenetically distant Gelasia  .

= Scorzonera sect. Piptopogon  C.A.Mey., Bull. Soc. Imp. Naturalistes Moscou 21(3): 97. 1848.

Scorzonera subg. Piptopogon  (C.A.Mey.) C. Díaz & Blanca, Anales Jard. Bot. Madrid 43: 330. 1987. Type: Scorzonera macrosperma  Turcz. ex DC. (= S. albicaulis  Bunge)

= Scorzonera sect. Turkestanicae  Lipsch. in Bobrov & Tzvelev, Fl. URSS 29: 720. 1964. Type: Scorzonera turkestanica  Franch.

Diagnostic features.

Perennial herbs and subshrubs; pollen with 24 lacunae; achenes beaked; pappus dirty yellow, caducous.


Habit, life form, subterranean parts: perennial herbs and subshrubs with a taproot and often with caudex.

Leaves: rosulate and cauline, numerous, usually sessile (rosulate leaves petiolate in S. franchetii  ), semi-amplexicaule, linear to narrowly oblong, more often lanceolate, entire or crisp, glabrous or slightly pubescent.

Stem, synflorescence: stem solitary or several, usually leafy but bracteate in S. acanthoclada  and S. racemosa  , capitula terminal and solitary or numerous, in spiciform or corymbiform synflorescence.

Pollen: echinolophate, tricolporate and each colpus divided into 2 lacunae; with 24 (6 abporal, 6 equatorial, 6 interporal, 6 polar) lacunae ( Poddubnaya-Arnoldi et al. 1934; Nazarova 1997).

Capitula: pubescent and often glabrescent, phyllaries in several series, outer phyllaries 1/2-1/3 as long as inner ones, triangular-ovate, the inner phyllaries triangular to lanceolate, receptacle glabrous, capitula with 4-12 florets, yellow, pink or orange ( S. transiliensis  ), 1.5-2 times exceeding the involucre.

Achenes: 7-45 mm, straight, without carpopodium, with more or less expressed beak, 10- or rarely 5-ribbed, papillate; achene wall with parenchyma well-expressed and represented by collenchyma-like cells, then present only as subepidermal continuous layers or sometimes parenchyma absent or discontinuous in the rib areas, insular in principal ribs below sclerenchyma and in secondary ribs above sclerenchyma or absent, air cavities absent, sclerenchyma present as layers with a gap in the principal ribs or continuous sclerenchymatous layers, its fibres orientated parallel to the fruit axis, tannins absent.

Pappus: 6-28 mm, yellowish, bristles plumose below and scabrid in upper part.

Chromosome number.

x = 7, diploids.


(1) Scorzonera acanthoclada  Franch.

(2) Scorzonera albicaulis  Bunge

(3) Scorzonera baldschuanica  Lipsch.

(4) Scorzonera bracteosa  C.Winkl.

(5) Scorzonera crassicaulis  Rech.f.

(6) Scorzonera franchetii  Lipsch.

(7) Scorzonera graminifolia  L.

(8) Scorzonera petrovii  Lipsch.

(9) Scorzonera racemosa  Franch.

(10) Scorzonera tragopogonoides  Regel & Schmalh.

(11) Scorzonera transiliensis  Popov

(12) Scorzonera turkestanica  Franch.

(13) Scorzonera virgata  DC.

Distribution area.

Africa: MA. Asia-Temperate: AF; RU (Asian part); CN; IR; KG; KP; KR; KZ; MN; TM; TJ; UZ. Asia-Tropical: IN; PK. Europe: ES; PT.

Scorzonera alaica  Lipsch. may also belong to this clade based on morphological features.