Antispilina ludwigi Hering, 1941
Nieukerken, Erik j. van, Wullaert, Steve, Lee, Bong-Woo & Bryner, Rudolf, 2021, Antispilina ludwigi Hering, 1941 (Lepidoptera, Heliozelidae) a rare but overlooked European leaf miner of Bistorta officinalis (Polygonaceae): new records, redescription, biology and conservation, Nota Lepidopterologica 44, pp. 99-121 : 99
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|Antispilina ludwigi Hering|
Antispilina ludwigi ; Ludwig 1952: 24; Grabe 1955: 100; Buhr 1964: 37 [Sachsen]; Wojtusiak 1976: 9 [Poland, key, description, genitalia + adult ill.]; Razowski 1978: 91. [Poland, redescription, ill]; Laštůvka 1998: 17 [Czech Republic, checklist]; Gaedike and Heinicke 1999: 43 [Germany, catalogue]; Liška et al. 2000: [Czech Republic]; Borkowski 2003a: 88 [Poland]; Borkowski 2003b: 113 [Poland, photographs adults and mines]; Ivinskis 2004: 36 [Lithuania]; Buszko and Pałka 2016: 245 [Poland]; Gaedike et al. 2017: 24 [Germany, catalogue]; Buszko and Nowacki 2017: 17 [Poland, catalogue]; van Nieukerken 2018: https://fauna-eu.org/cdm_dataportal/taxon/6b71a06e-5ecb-48b6-84f0-45462a9d4604 [Europe, catalogue]; Laštůvka et al. 2018: 121-122 [Czech Republic, colour illustrations]; Bryner in Lepiforum 2003-2021: http://www.lepiforum.de/lepiwiki.pl?Antispilina_Ludwigi [Switzerland, photographs all stages, genitalia and mines]; Werkgroep Bladmineerders 2020: http://www.bladmineerders.be/nl/content/antispilina-ludwigi-m-hering-1941 [Belgium, photographs mines, larvae], De Prins and Steeman 2003-2021: https://projects.biodiversity.be/lepidoptera/species/5448/ [Belgium, catalogue].
Antispilina ludwigi is a small completely dark grey-black moth, including the forewing fringe, with a narrow silver fascia at one-third and two opposite silver spots at two-thirds, resembling Antispila species. The small size (4-5 mm wingspan) and the dark colour separate A. ludwigi from the larger Antispila species (4.8-9 mm), that also have a distinct fringe line and white forewing fringe. Holocacista rivillei (Stainton, 1855) is about the same size, but the fascia is usually divided, it has also a white fringe, and the male foretibia bears a small epiphysis and it is not so dark. The latter species occurs in Mediterranean habitats with wild or cultivated grapevine ( Vitis vinifera L.), whereas A. ludwigi is confined to poor grasslands and moors, mostly in mountains. A key was provided by van Nieukerken et al. (2018). The leafmine is the only blotch mine known on Bistorta officinalis , but early mines may sometimes be confused with the reddish circular patches caused by the fungus Ramularia bistortae Fuckel ( Mycosphaerellaceae , Ascomycota ) ( Ellis 2020) (e.g. Fig. 26 View Figures 26–33 ).
Male (Figs 1 View Figures 1, 2 , 24 View Figures 24–25 , 25 View Figures 24–25 ). Forewing length 2.1-2.4 mm, wingspan ca. 4.5-5.0 mm. Head (Figs 3-5 View Figures 3–5 ): frons with smooth scaling, bronzy-fuscous with brassy reflection; vertex bronzy-fuscous. Antenna reaching 2/3 of forewing, with 18-19 segments, basally covered with fuscous scales; scape pale brown ventrally with pecten consisting of 3 or 4 hairs. Labial palpus pale fuscous, comprising 2 palpomeres; maxillar palpi minute, 1-articled. Haustellum as long as head capsule. Thorax and tegulae brassy with metallic reflections, may appear silvery in some lighting. Legs dark grey, no white spots, epiphysis absent. Forewing almost jet-black, apically with brassy reflections, a silvery white, narrow outwardly oblique fascia at 1/5 to 1/4, usually constricted in middle; a silvery white small triangular dorsal spot at 1/2, and a squarish costal spot slightly beyond dorsal one; fringe grey with brassy reflection, fringe line absent. Hindwing and fringe dark grey. Abdomen greyish black.
Female (Fig. 2 View Figures 1, 2 ). Forewing length 2.0-2.3 mm, wingspan ca. 4.2-5.0 mm. Abdomen apically pointed.
Venation (Fig. 6 View Figure 6 ). Forewing: Sc poorly visible. R unbranched, a separate vein, to costa, but a persistent trachea connecting R with Rs+M+CuA. Rs+M+CuA ending in 4 rather indistinct branches, Rs1+2 to costa, Rs3+4 to termen, M and CuA to dorsum. Hindwing with Sc+R to costa, poorly visible, Rs+M with 3 branches, Rs indistinct, to costa, 2 branches of M to termen and dorsum; CuA a separate vein to dorsum; no visible Anal vein.
Male genitalia (Figs 7 View Figures 7–9 - 13 View Figures 10–13 ). Total length ca 530 µm. Vinculum well sclerotized, long, narrowest in middle, as long as valva or longer. Tegumen bilobed. Valva subtriangular with blunt apex, length twice width, stalked pecten ca. 2/3 from base of valva, with ca. 12-13 blunt sensilla, the number on each valva may differ. Transtilla with long sublateral processes and slightly bilobed posterior process. Juxta weakly sclerotized, three-pronged anteriorly. Phallus cylindrical, ca. 400 µm long, without cornuti, distal part slightly swollen, about as long as vinculum; phallocrypt spinose.
Female genitalia (Figs 14-17 View Figures 14–17 ). Tip of oviscapt dorsoventrally flattened, with five cusps in total. Posterior apophyses slightly longer than anterior apophyses. Eighth sternum membranous, except narrow sclerotized region in distal part. Eighth tergite sclerotized, posterior part dorsally elevated, anterior end crooked, middle part projected anteriorly. Guy wire arising from middle part of vestibulum, as long as vestibulum. Vestibulum membranous with a pair of sclerotized rods.
Larva (Figs 18-22 View Figures 18–23 , 35 View Figures 34–37 ). Body white, prothoracic plates and head pale brown. Prosternum and pronotum with ovate plates (sclerites) in what we assume are the 4th and 5th instars (see van Nieukerken and Eiseman 2020); earlier instars not examined in detail), other segments and prothorax outside the plates as well covered with small transverse swellings. Head width 4th instar ca 400 µm. Legs and prolegs absent. The 4th instar cuts out the flat cocoon or shield from pieces of the leafmine.
Pupa (Fig. 23 View Figures 18–23 ). Not studied in detail.
Leafmine (Figs 26 View Figures 26–33 - 35 View Figures 34–37 ). The exact oviposition site has not been determined, but in most cases this must be close to the midrib (87% of the French mines, n=251), or close to another large vein. The larva first makes a circular blotch close to the vein with the frass glued to the upper and under epidermis, resulting in a round red-brownish spot on both leaf surfaces. From there the mine enlarges into an elongated blotch mine, usually between lateral veins towards leaf margin; the blotch is further transparent and whitish in colour. From there the frass is more scattered, blackish, partly in clumps and no longer concentrated throughout the rest of the mine. The outer edges of the mine are irregularly eaten out and do not contain any frass. In many cases the mine is not larger than ca 1 cm, in thin leaves this can be larger. At the end the caterpillar returns to the round spot and makes there an elongate to circular leaf cut from both epidermal layers (reinforced by the frass) of ca. 3 mm long (Fig. 32 View Figures 26–33 ). There are often several mines per leaf, and mines regularly occur as “twins” at both sides of the midrib (e.g. Fig. 31 View Figures 26–33 ). In some cases several mines converge into large communal mines, where several larvae may feed next to each other (Fig. 35 View Figures 34–37 ). Leaves with many mines are very conspicuous, even from a distance.
The larva crawls away with the shield (Fig. 22 View Figures 18–23 ) and seeks a shelter, where it will moult inside the shield into the non-feeding 5th instar and later pupate. The larva probably attaches the shield to some plant material (Fig. 36 View Figures 34–37 ) as in the other genera in the Holocacista -group (van Nieukerken and Eiseman 2020).
Larvae were found from June to September (own data; Liška et al. 2000; Borkowski 2003b; Buszko and Pałka 2016), earlier at lower altitudes, in the mountains most larvae were active in July. Reared adults always emerged after hibernation the next spring between March and June; one adult was swept from the hostplant on 27.v.2020 in the locality St. Imier at 1095 m (Switzerland). We assume that there is only one generation, with an extended period of larval feeding, and adults flying from April to June depending on altitude.
We only reared three specimens of Pnigalio sp. ( Eulophidae , identified by Hannes Baur) and one Chalcidoidea , unidentified to lower taxon (identified by Seraina Klopfstein). All emerged in February from cocoons that were taken indoors in January (locality Saignelégier, Jura, Switzerland). No parasitoids emerged from the extensive breedings of French material.
(Fig. 40 View Figure 40 ). Central Europe: recorded from Belgium, France, Switzerland , Germany, the Czech Republic, Poland and Lithuania.
The species has previously only been found a few times: in Germany in a small area in Hessen and Nordrhein-Westfalen ( Hering 1941; Ludwig 1952; Grabe 1955) and Sachsen ( Buhr 1964); in Poland it was known from the Sudety mountains ( Wojtusiak 1976; Razowski 1978; Buszko and Nowacki 2000; Borkowski 2003a, b), but later also found in the lowlands in the South-East ( Buszko and Pałka 2016), one record from the Czech Republic, also from the Sudety range ( Liška et al. 2000) and from southern Lithuania ( Ivinskis 2004). Here we report its occurrence for the first time from France (Massif Central: Auvergne, Cevennes and Jura), Switzerland (Jura and Alps) and Belgium (Ardennes). It is very likely that A. ludwigi also occurs further east in Belarus, Ukraine or Russia, where Microlepidoptera and especially leafmining Lepidoptera have only been collected very sparsely.
(Figs 37 View Figures 34–37 - 39 View Figures 38, 39 ). Most of our own records were obtained in mountainous bogs, poor wet meadows, often along streams and montane heathland where the host is abundant. This is often patchy habitat with shrubs and sometimes scattered larger trees. The attacked hostplants often are relatively large and leaves with mines are usually hidden among the vegetation. Smaller plants in mowed grasslands rarely had mines. The following plants were common in many of the localities in the Massif Centrale: Arnica montana L., Betula pubescens Ehrh., Calluna vulgaris (L.) Hull, Cicerbita alpina (L.) Wallr., Cytisus oromediterraneus Rivas Mart. et al., Dianthus gratianopolitanus Vill., Genista pilosa L., G. tinctoria L., Gentiana lutea L., G. pneumonanthe L., Meum athamanticum Jacq., Potentilla erecta (L.) Raeusch., Rumex acetosa L., Sanguisorba officinalis L., Succisa pratensis Moench, Trollius europaeus L., Vaccinium myrtillus L., and V. uliginosum L.
Buszko and Pałka (2016) found the species in lowland habitats in ' Molinietum-caeruleae ' meadows, between 170 and 215 m. Our records are from mountains between 450 and 1650 m elevation and also most published records are from mountains in similar elevational range.
Nine specimens were barcoded, representing populations in Poland, France and Belgium. All cluster within Barcode Identification Number BOLD:AAW5935, with an average distance of 0.36% and a maximum distance of 0.81%. (https:/dx.doi.org/10.5883/BOLD:AAW5935; dataset https:/dx.doi.org/10.5883/DS-ANTILUDW. The nearest neighbour, at a distance of 9.38%, is an unnamed heliozelid from Costa Rica.
There are several specimens in collections with paratype labels, such as the three cited here (and see Lepiforum e.V. (2008-2021)), but as Hering (1941) cited a single specimen in the description, the type material consists only of a holotype, and no paratypes.
21 ♂♂ 19 ♀♀, cocoons. All specimens are reared from Bistorta officinalis , except where indicated.
France • 2 ♂♂ 1 ♀; Ardèche, Mt Mézenc, SW slopes; 44.90835°N, 4.18781°E; alt. 1652 m; 29.vii.2009; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; emerged 03.iv- 03.v.2010; EventId: EvN no 2009032-K; Genitalia slides: EvN4448 ♂ (whole body slide), EvN4676 ♂, EvN4677 ♀; RMNH.INS.24448, RMNH.INS.24676, RMNH.INS.24677. • 5 ♂♂ 4 ♀♀, cocoons; same data; emerged 03.iv- 06.v.2010; no registry numbers; RMNH. • 2 cocoons, 1 with prepupa; Ardèche, Sainte-Eulalie, Bois des Seigneurs; 44.86449°N, 4.1827°E; alt. 1455 m; 23.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017053-K; RMNH.INS.16908.• 4 ♂♂, 10 cocoons (plus exuviae); Ardèche, Sainte-Eulalie, Suc de la Lauzière, S.; 44.84695°N, 4.17325°E; alt. 1483 m; 23.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; emerged 02-22.iv.2018; EventId: EvN no 2017051-K; RMNH.INS.16584- RMNH.INS.16587, RMNH.INS.16907. • 2 ♀♀; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Chastreix-Sancy, Roc de Courlande, S.; 45.52231°N, 2.7688°E; alt. 1339 m; 13.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; emerged 02.iv.2018; EventId: EvN no 2017034-K; RMNH.INS.16567- RMNH.INS.16568. • 2 ♂♂ 4 ♀♀ 1 ad, 10 cocoons (plus exuviae); Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Chastreix-Sancy, Res. Nat, Fontaine Salée; 45.51214°N, 2.79792°E; alt. 1338 m; 13.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; emerged 29.iii- 09.iv.2018; EventId: EvN no 2017035-K; RMNH.INS.16569- RMNH.INS.16575, RMNH.INS.16902. • 3 ♂♂; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Col de la Croix de St Robert, SE, along road; 45.55873°N, 2.84282°E; alt. 1416 m; 16.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; emerged 03-12.iv.2018; EventId: EvN no 2017039-K; RMNH.INS.16578- RMNH.INS.16580. • 1 ♂; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Vallée de Chaudefour, Res. Nat., upper valley E; 45.52916°N, 2.83496°E; alt. 1346 m; 16.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; emerged 04.iv.2018; EventId: EvN no 2017037-K; RMNH.INS.16577. • 4 cocoons; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Chastreix-Sancy, Roc de Courlande, S.; 45.52231°N, 2.7688°E; alt. 1339 m; 13.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017034-K; RMNH.INS.16901. • 9 cocoons; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Col de la Croix de St Robert, SE, along road; 45.55873°N, 2.84282°E; alt. 1416 m; 16.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017039-K; RMNH.INS.16905. • 1 cocoon; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Vallée de Chaudefour, Res. Nat., upper valley E; 45.52916°N, 2.83496°E; alt. 1346 m; 16.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017037-K; RMNH.INS.16904.• 1 ♀, 5 cocoons (plus exuviae); Puy-de-Dôme, St. Alyre-ès-Montagne, Lac de St. Alyre, S. shore; 45.37424°N, 2.94417°E; alt. 1224 m; 14.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; emerged 09.iv.2018; EventId: EvN no 2017036-K; RMNH.INS.16576, RMNH.INS.16903.
Germany • 2 ♂ 1 ♀ [labelled as paratypes]; Hessen, Dillkreis, Waldaubach, im Feuerhack ; 50.666474°N, 8.132751°E; alt. 570 m; 29.vii.1940; A. Ludwig leg.; emerged 10.iii.1941; Genitalia in vial; MfN GoogleMaps .
Switzerland • 1 ♂ 1 ♀; Bern, Rüeggisberg; 46.7307°N, 7.45849°E; alt. 1400 m; 07.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; emerged 04-06.v.2018; Genitalia slide GoogleMaps ♂ 2018-031; RBC. • 2 ♀♀; Bern, St-Imier ; 47.12879°N, 6.98725°E; alt. 1095 m; 02.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; emerged 04-08.v.2018; RBC GoogleMaps . • 1 ♀; same locality; 27.v.2020; R. Bryner & D. Bolt leg.; day catch; collection Daniel Bolt, Domat / Ems GoogleMaps .• 1 ♂ 2 ♀♀; Jura, Saignelégier; 47.23961°N, 7.04089°E; alt. 1000 m; 04.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; emerged 04-12.v.2018; Genitalia slide GoogleMaps ♀ 2018-032; RBC.
Material examined: larvae and leafmines
(in collection). All collected from Bistorta officinalis .
Belgium • 100 larvae, 146 mines; Liège, Aldringen, Thommen; 50.22563°N, 6.02781°E; alt. 475 m; 24.vi.2017; WB leg.; SWC GoogleMaps . • 2 larvae, 2 mines; Liège, Aldringen, Ulf; 50.2147°N, 6.03125°E; alt. 462 m; 24.vi.2017; WB leg.; SWC. • 16 larvae, 16 mines; Liège, Büllingen, Kleinfüllenbach; 50.39425°N, 6.32834°E; alt. 644 m; 24.vi.2017; WB leg.; SWC. • 3 mines; Liège, Emmels, Deidenberg; 50.31102°N, 6.14507°E; alt. 481 m; 24.vi.2017; WB leg.; SWC. • 3 larvae (used for DNA analysis, 2 destructively), leafmines; Liège, Rocherath, Naturschutzgebiet der Holzwarche; 50.4238°N, 6.314457°E; alt. 585 m; 23.vi.2017; Steve Wullaert leg.; larval slide; RMNH.INS.30919, RMNH.INS.30927, RMNH.INS.30928, RMNH.INS.43338. • 105 mines; same locality data; WB leg.; SWC. • 4 mines; same locality; 19.viii.2017; WB leg.; SWC GoogleMaps .
France • several mines; Ardèche, Mt Mezenc , Croix de Boutieres ; 44.90018°N, 4.18277°E; alt. 1512 m; 29.vii.2009; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId : EvN no 2009033-K; RMNH.INS.42771. • 3 larvae, many mines; Ardèche, Mt Mezenc , SW slopes; 44.90835°N, 4.18781°E; alt. 1652 m; 29.vii.2009; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2009032-M/H/K; RMNH.INS.17942- RMNH.INS.17944 (larvae); RMNH.INS.42667- RMNH.INS.42668 (leafmine samples). • 1 larva, 3 mines; Ardèche, Sainte-Eulalie, Bois des Seigneurs ; 44.86449°N, 4.1827°E; alt. 1455 m; 23.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017053-M/H/K; RMNH.INS.31178, RMNH.INS.43887. • many mines; Ardèche, Sainte-Eulalie, Pré du Bois, W of Suc de la Lauzière; 44.84959°N, 4.16323°E; alt. 1469 m; 23.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017052-H/K; RMNH.INS.43472- RMNH.INS.43473. • 2 larvae, mines; Ardèche, Sainte-Eulalie, Suc de la Lauziere , S.; 44.84695°N, 4.17325°E; alt. 1483 m; 23.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017051-M/H.K; RMNH.INS.30932- RMNH.INS.30933, RMNH.INS.43470- RMNH.INS.43471. • 2 larvae, mines; Puy-de-Dôme, St. Alyre-es-Montagne , Lac de St. Alyre , S. shore; 45.37424°N, 2.94417°E; alt. 1224 m; 14.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017036-M/H/K; RMNH.INS.30929- RMNH.INS.30930, RMNH.INS.43463, RMNH.INS.43465, RMNH.INS.43872. • 8 mines; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Chastreix-Sancy, Roc de Courlande , S.; 45.52231°N, 2.7688°E; alt. 1339 m; 13.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017034-H/K; RMNH.INS.43868, RMNH.INS.43869. • 2 larvae, many mines; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Chastreix-Sancy, Res. Nat, Fontaine Salée; 45.51214°N, 2.79792°E; alt. 1338 m; 13.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017035-M/K/H; RMNH.INS.30931, RMNH.INS.30939; RMNH.INS.43462, RMNH.INS.43870, RMNH.INS.43871. • 1 larva, several mines; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Col de la Croix de St Robert, SE, along road; 45.55873°N, 2.84282°E; alt. 1416 m; 16.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017039-K; RMNH.INS.31004, RMNH.INS.43466, RMNH.INS.43875. • 2 mines; Puy-de-Dôme, Monts Dore, Vallée de Chaudefour, Res. Nat., upper valley E; 45.52916°N, 2.83496°E; alt. 1346 m; 16.vii.2017; E.J. van Nieukerken leg.; EventId: EvN no 2017037-K; RMNH.INS.43873 GoogleMaps .
Poland • 29 larvae [ethanol, some destructively extracted, larval slide], Dubienka ; 51.00998°N, 23.92238°E; alt. 175 m; 02.vii.2004; K. Pałka leg.; EventId: EvN no 2004905-M; RMNH.INS.11854, RMNH.INS.11855, RMNH.INS.12423 GoogleMaps . • 15 larvae [ethanol, some destructively extracted], Poleski Nat. Park : Bagno Bubnów; 50.94514°N, 22.637°E; alt. 287 m; 01.vii.2004; K. Pałka leg.; EventId: EvN no 2004904-M; RMNH.INS.11852, RMNH.INS.11853 GoogleMaps .
Switzerland • 5 larvae, Bern, Cortébert; 47.15431°N, 7.12766°E; alt. 1260 m; 04.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Bern, Saicourt; 47.2555°N, 7.16569°E; alt. 920 m; 02.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Bern, St-Imier; 47.17653°N, 6.94997°E; alt. 1000 m; 02.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Bern, Tramelan; 47.24232°N, 7.06144°E; alt. 1010 m; 04.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Jura, Lajoux; 47.28891°N, 7.1292°E; alt. 930 m; 04.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Jura, Le Bémont; 47.25269°N, 7.02997°E; alt. 970 m; 04.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Jura, Montfaucon; 47.2819°N, 7.08989°E; alt. 850 m; 04.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Neuchâtel, La Brévine; 46.97567°N, 6.58592°E; alt. 1030 m; 05.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Neuchâtel, Le Cerneux-Péquinot; 47.00417°N, 6.66141°E; alt. 1060 m; 05.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC. • leafmines; Vaud, Ste-Croix; 46.84122°N, 6.47154°E; alt. 1090 m; 05.viii.2017; R. Bryner leg.; RBC GoogleMaps .
Additional online observations.
All observed on Bistorta officinalis .
Belgium • 8 larvae, 30 mines; Liège, Butchenbach, Schwalm; 19.vii.2018; leg. Evert Van de Schoot & Ward Tamsyn; 50.4980, 6.2562; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/160366513/. • 1 larva, 10 mines; Liège, Butchenbach; Schwalm; 19.vii.2018; leg. Evert Van de Schoot; 50.4898, 6.2714; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/160463202/. • 3 mines; Liège, Malmedy, Fagne de la Polleur; 22.vii.2017; leg. Wim Declercq; 50.5105, 6.0744; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/141930607/. • 13 larvae, 16 mines; Liège, Rocherath, Vallée de la Holzwarche; 24.vi.2017; leg. WB; 50.3961°N, 6.3318°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/140955240/. • 2 larvae, 2 mines; same locality and date; leg. Chris Steeman & Ben Steeman; 50.4151°N, 6.3283°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/140964609/. • 1 mine; same locality; 22.vii.2017; leg. Wim Declercq; 50.4172°N, 6.3268°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/141930615/. • 2 larvae, 2 mines; same locality; 22.vii.2017; leg. Wim Declercq; 50.4240°N, 6.3145°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/141930621/. • 1 mines; same locality; 14.vii.2018; leg. Jurgen Dewolf & Ruben Recour; 50.4237°N, 6.3147°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/159940474/. • 20 larvae, 40 mines; same locality; 23.vii.2018; leg. Wouter Mertens; 50.4209°N, 6.3199°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/160514341/. • 14 larvae, 34 mines; same locality; 23.vii.2018; leg. Chris Steeman ; 50.4237°N, 6.3145°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/160831314/. • 4 larvae, 25 mines; same locality; 29.vii.2018; leg. Regis Nossent ; 50.4236°N, 6.3146°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/160702446/. • 1 larva, 1 mines; same locality; 06.ix.2018; leg. WB; 50.4233°N, 6.3141°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/162347416/. • 2 larvae, 7 mines; same locality; 08.viii.2019; leg. WB; 50.4233°N, 6.3152°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/178051781/. • 16 larvae, 26 mines; same locality; 10.viii.2019; leg. WB; 50.4209°N, 6.3182°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/179079003/. • 1 larva, 8 mines; same locality; 08.viii.2020; leg. WB; 50.4246°N, 6.3145°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/203156253/. • 19 larvae, 76 mines; Liège, Waimes, Rue du Poncé; 24.vii.2018; leg. Chris Steeman & Steve Wullaert; 50.4387°N, 6.1095°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/160817401/. • 3 larvae, 4 mines; same locality; 09.viii.2020; leg. Eric Wille; 50.4384°N, 6.1093°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/198140856/. • 14 larvae, 15 mines; Luxembourg, Vance, Marais de Vance; 02.vii.2017; leg. Wim Declercq; 49.6719°N, 5.6807°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/141082788/. • 7 larvae, 8 mines; Luxembourg, Volaiville, Vallée de la Sûre; 20.vi.2020; leg. WB; 49.8658°N, 5.6846°E; https://waarnemingen.be/observation/194673026/.
France • 1 vacated mine; Jura, Les Rousses; 08.viii.2020; leg. Wim Declercq; 46.4963°N, 6.0759°E; https://observation.org/observation/199070630/.
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