Conger macrocephalus Kanazawa, 1958

Smith, David G. & Ho, Hsuan-Ching, 2018, Review of the congrid eel genus Conger (Anguilliformes: Congridae) in Taiwan, Zootaxa 4454 (1), pp. 168-185: 176-178

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4454.1.14

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scientific name

Conger macrocephalus Kanazawa, 1958
status

 

Conger macrocephalus Kanazawa, 1958 

Figs. 3CView FIGURE 3, 5View FIGURE 5; Table 1

Conger macrocephalus Kanazawa, 1958:254  , pl. 1, fig. M (type locality: Verde Island passage, Luzon Island, Philippines, 13°34'37"N, 121°07'30"E, Albatross station 5367, depth about 180 fathoms. Holotype: USNM 164334). Ho et al., 2015:146.

Conger japonicus  (not of Bleeker, 1879, part).? Chen & Weng, 1967:49;? Chen, 1969: 132;? Shen, 1984:112;? Shen, 1988:15;? Shen et al., 1993:116;? Chen, 2004:32;? Ho et al., 2010:table 1.

Conger wilsoni  (not of Bloch & Schneider, 1801):? Chen & Yu, 1986:252.

Conger conger  (not of Linnaeus, 1758):? Lee & Yang, 1966:56, fig. 5.

Specimens examined. 42 specimens, 286‒822 mm TL. Taiwan: * NMMB-P3365 (1, 415)  , Taiwan, no further data. * NMMB-P4531 (1, 551), Hsiao-liu-chiou, Pingtung, 10 Mar. 1966  . * NMMB-P6117 (4, 286‒351), Daxi , Yilan, 8 May 2003  . * NMMB-P11166 (2, 365‒462), Dong-gang , 15 Dec. 2009  . * NMMB-P11178 (1, 294), Donggang , 13 Sep. 2010  . * NMMB-P11183 (1, 475), Dong-gang , 15 Dec. 2010  . * NMMB-P11907 (1, 491), Dong-gang , 26 Feb. 2011  . * NMMB-P11922 (1, 315), Dong-gang , 28 Jan. 2011  . * NMMB-P13157 (1, 466), Dong-gang , 12 Sep. 2009  . * NMMB-P13866 (2, 470‒479), Dong-gang , 10 Aug. 2011  . * NMMB-P14069 (2, 432‒663), Changbin   , Taitung, 15 Sp. 2011. * NMMB-P15401 (1, 391), Changbin   , Taitung, 30 Sep. 2011. * NMMB-P16550 (3, 412‒502), Changbin  , Taitung, 15 Feb. 2012  . NMMB-P23926 (2, 408‒424), Dong-gang , 17 Feb. 2016  . NMMB-P24026 (1, 326), Dong-gang , 13 Mar. 2015  . NMMB-P24860 (1, 363), Ke-tzu-liao, Kaohsiung, 2 Apr. 2015  . * USNM 398727View Materials (1, 333), Dong-gang , 10 Nov. 2009  . *USNM 398808 (1, 443), Taiwan , 7 Feb. 2007. * USNM 398809View Materials (1, 434)  , Taiwan, no date. * USNM 401056View Materials (1, 562), Dong-gang , 8 Nov. 2009  . * USNM 401077View Materials (4, 393‒506), Dong-gang , 14 Nov. 2009  . * USNM 404406View Materials (1, 816), Dong-gang , 8 Nov. 2009  . USNM 437347View Materials (1, 373), Dong-gang , 22 May 2014  . * USNM 437348View Materials (2, 350‒425), Dong-gang , 6 Nov. 2015. Tentative identification  . NMMB-P282 (dried out). Other localities: Philippines  : USNM 164334View Materials (1, 796, holotype), Verde Island Passage, 13°34’ 37”N, 121°07’30”E, 180 fathoms (329 m), 22 Feb 1909GoogleMaps  . USNM 438040View Materials (1, 558), Negros Oriental, Dumaguete , 10 Jul 2015  . USNM 438049View Materials (1, 434), Negros Oriental, Dumaguete , 5 Feb 2013  . Oman: USNM 410631 (1, 495), 16°23’19.11”N, 54°34’52.02”E, 2007. Samoa: ANSP 146127 (1, 822), no other data.

Diagnosis. Head very long, 15.4‒17.7% TL, 38.0‒44.8% PALAbout PAL. DFO over posterior half to tip of pectoral fin. Inner row of dentary teeth longer than half of outer row ( Fig. 3CView FIGURE 3). Vertebrae 132‒139.

Description. See Table 1 for morphometric data. Lateral-line pores: prepectoral 5‒6; predorsal 12‒15; preanal 32‒38; total 121‒133. Head pores: SO 4, IO 6 (5 on upper jaw + 1 behind rictus), POMAbout POM 9 (rarely 10, 6 on lower jaw, 3 behind rictus), ST 1. Vertebrae: predorsal 13‒16; preanal 34‒39; total 132‒139; MVF 14‒37‒136.

DFO over posterior part of pectoral fin. Angle of jaw before posterior margin of eye, 6th IO pore at level of and more than one pore diameter behind rictus. Two rows of teeth on each jaw; inner row of maxillary teeth about half length of outer row, inner row of dentary teeth longer than half length of outer length. When fresh, uniformly brown with black margins on median fins; pectoral fin pale or with a large black patch. When preserved, uniformly pale grayish to brownish, ventral surface slightly paler; pectoral fin grayish; median fins white with black margins, the black margins on posterior portion broader.

Maximum size at least 822 mm TL based on our examination.

Distribution. Kanazawa (1958) described this species based on a single specimen collected from the Philippines. Ho et al. (2015) first reported it from Taiwan, where it was previously misidentified as Conger japonicus  . Smith et al. (2017) reported a specimen from Oman in the northwestern Indian Ocean and suggested that the specimen recorded from Réunion by Quero & Saldanha (1995) as Conger wilsoni  might be C. macrocephalus  instead, based on its relatively long head (17% TL) and low vertebral count (138). In addition, we have examined a specimen from Samoa that also appears to be C. macrocephalus  (head length 17% TL, vertebrae 138). The species thus seems to occur over a wide area of the tropical Indo-Pacific.

Remarks. Conger macrocephalus  is the most common species found in Taiwan. It is characterized by an especially large head, head length 15.4‒17.7% TL compared to 11.5‒14.9% TL in the other species in Taiwan. Although Kanazawa (1958) described the DFO over the pectoral fin, we found our specimens with the location of the DFO ranging from the middle of the pectoral fin to slightly behind the tip of the fin.

Genetic data are available for USNM 398727, 401056, and 404406 under Genbank accession numbers MF172254‒MF172256.

PAL

Herbarium Mediterraneum Panormitanum

POM

Pomona College

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Anguilliformes

Family

Congridae

Genus

Conger

Loc

Conger macrocephalus Kanazawa, 1958

Smith, David G. & Ho, Hsuan-Ching 2018

2018
Loc

Conger macrocephalus

Kanazawa, 1958 :254 Ho et al., 2015 :146

Loc

Conger japonicus

Chen & Weng, 1967 :49 Chen, 1969 : 132 Shen, 1984 :112 Shen, 1988 :15 Shen et al., 1993 :116 Chen, 2004 :32

Loc

Conger wilsoni

Chen & Yu, 1986 :252

Loc

Conger conger

Lee & Yang, 1966 :56