Cryptoheros chetumalensis , Juan J. Schmitter-Soto, 2007

Juan J. Schmitter-Soto, 2007, A systematic revision of the genus Archocentrus (Perciformes: Cichlidae), with the description of two new genera and six new species., Zootaxa 1603, pp. 1-78: 37-39

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Cryptoheros chetumalensis

new species

Cryptoheros chetumalensis  , new species

Figures 5, 9-10

Archocentrus spilurus  (part. et non Günther), Schmitter-Soto 1998; Valtierra-Vega & Schmitter-Soto 2000; Miller et al. 2005 (misidentifications).

Holotype. ECOCH 5467, 63 mm SL (Fig. 9), M. Navarro-Mendoza, Jan. 15, 1988. Arroyo Aguadulce, a tributary of the Rio Hondo, at Sabidos, near Chetumal , Quintana Roo, Mexico. 

Paratypes. ECOCH 1005 (12), 1465 (2), 1536 (1), 1559 (4), 1593 (3), 1693 (8), 1900 (13), 2328 (7), UMMZ 210888 (9). 

Diagnosis. No unique autapomorphy, but Cr. chetumalensis  differs from the other two species in the subgenus by having the secondary pored scales on caudal fin not forming rows (vs. forming rows); rostral end of maxilla convex (vs. notched or concave); first neural spine slanting rostrad instead of caudad; dorsal elements between first two epineural spines three (vs. two); and a spinous anterodorsal process on first dorsal pterygiophore present (vs. absent).

Description. D. XVII -XIX,8-10 (one specimen of 26, with XX spines); A. VIII -X,7-9. Gill rakers on lower limb of first arch modally 6. Scale rows on cheek 4-5; scales from lateral line to origin of dorsal fin 4.5 -6; scales from lateral line to base of first dorsal-fin ray modally 2.5; circumpeduncular scales modally 17 (additional meristic data appear in Table 3).

Maximum size observed, 97 mm SL. Body much less deep than in the other species of Cryptoheros  ZBK  , 42- 49% of SL; orbital diameter 28-32% of head length (further morphometric data appear in Table 4). Head profile convex or straight, concave above orbits. Teeth moderately embedded; canine, pointed, slightly labiolingually compressed, slightly retrorse, bicuspid. Upper and lower symphysial teeth subequal to adjacent teeth, not abruptly larger. Lips may be medially narrow; lower lip squarish at corner, its lower angle acute.

Pectoral and pelvic fins always reaching caudad beyond 3rd anal-fin spine. Longest rays of dorsal fin extending to mid-caudal fin or beyond. Subsidiary pored scales on caudal fin always present, but never forming rows; scales between dorsal and anal fin rays distally in two rows, up to 11 scales long; in juveniles, no scales between anal fin rays.

In specimens above ca. 45 mm SL, gut of simple type but with two intermediate loops; anal and medial loops twist and directed dorsad; anal and anterior esophageal loops adjacent. Peritoneum only dorsally pigmented, mainly on posterior half; black melanophores on tan background. Genital papilla oval or tongueshaped; some melanophores on its base, margins and posterior side, or none.

A faint vertical bar on head; no interorbital bands, but this area dark in young; a stripe running from snout to eye (sometimes diffuse); suborbital streak slightly curved, sharp-ended; no opercular spots. Eyes green, grey, or bluish; sometimes golden. No longitudinal stripe. Bars on side of body, medially more intense, especially at scale edges; no conspicuous alternation of intensity, except that 3rd bar most intense and 2nd bar least intense; first bar I-shaped, somewhat inclined on head; 1st and 2nd bars may coalesce medially as a humeral blotch, and 3rd bar may display an oval spot. Ocellus absent from dorsal fin. Bases of soft dorsal and anal fins usually darkened; sometimes with rows of light dots discernible. Abdomen whitish or greyish in life, not wine-colored (Fig. 10). Axil of pectoral fin somewhat darker than breast; base of pectoral fin usually white. Caudal blotch either more on peduncle than on fin, or entirely on peduncle, oval in shape, extending from dorsum to abdomen; edge of blotch diffuse, usually not saddled, coalescent or not with last bar.

Distribution. Belize (Belize River) and the Guatemalan Petén ( Río Sarstún) north to Quintana Roo, Mexico ( as far north as Laguna Kana , 19°30’N - ECOCH 1559  ) (Fig. 5).

Etymology. The type locality is about 10 km upstream from the river mouth at Chetumal, the city after which the species is named. An adjective.