Orasema rapo (Walker)

Burks, Roger A., Heraty, John M., Dominguez, Chrysalyn & Mottern, Jason L., 2018, Complex diversity in a mainly tropical group of ant parasitoids: Revision of the Orasema stramineipes species group (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea: Eucharitidae), Zootaxa 4401 (1), pp. 1-107 : 81-84

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Orasema rapo (Walker)


Orasema rapo (Walker)

http://zoobank.org/urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act: 90F3A088-A787-489E-B6B2-6672559B9424 ( Figs 187–198 View FIGURES187–192 View FIGURES 193–198 )

Eucharis rapo Walker, 1839: 66 . Type material: Brazil: Bahia (1 ♀, BMNH type no. 5.609), lectotype designated by Heraty, 2002.

Orasema rapo . Kirby, 1886. Change of combination.

Diagnosis. Mesoscutal midlobe almost entirely reticulate, except for a small areolate-reticulate area posteriorly. Mesoscutellar disc with a coarsely areolate area posteromedially, which lacks reticulate sculpture. Axillula with subparallel longitudinal carinae. Fore femur with brown coloration.

Orasema rapo is similar to many other species, and is differentiated from many in having longitudinal axillular carinae that do not co-occur with reticulate sculpture ( Fig. 193 View FIGURES 193–198 ). It differs from O. evansi , and other similar species, in having an areolate mesoscutellum ( Figs 190–192 View FIGURES187–192 ).

Description. Female. Length 1.7–3.3 mm.

Color: Head and mesosoma green to blue, with yellowish to purplish luster. Pedicel pale brown or brown; anellus pale brown or brown; flagellum brown. Coxae brown; fore femur mostly brown, tips pale; mid and hind femora yellow. Fore wing hyaline; venation brown. Petiole dark green; gaster brown with green to purple luster.

Head: Head width:head height 1.1–1.2; face reticulate; longitudinal groove between eye and torulus present or absent; eyes bare, inter-ocular distance:eye height 1.4–1.5; malar space:eye height 0.6–0.8; supraclypeal area slightly broader than long, smooth to weakly sculptured; clypeus smooth to weakly sculptured. Flagellum length:head height 1.2–1.6; F2 1.8–3.1× as long as broad, 0.9–1.3× as long as F3; following funiculars progressively shorter.

Mesosoma: Mesosoma length:height 1.3–1.4. Mesoscutal midlobe reticulate anteriorly, becoming areolatereticulate posteriorly, with minute setae; lateral lobe reticulate to weakly areolate-reticulate. Axilla areolatereticulate with longitudinal carinae; mesoscutellar disc mostly areolate-reticulate, becoming coarsely areolate posteriorly; frenal line regularly or irregularly foveate; frenum areolate or reticulate; axillular groove anteriorly narrow, broad and foveate posteriorly; axillula with subparallel longitudinal carinae. Propodeum with irregular median carina; propodeal disc areolate-reticulate; callus reticulate, with a few small setae. Mesepisternum reticulate to areolate-reticulate laterally, smooth ventrally, broadly rounded anterior to mid coxa. Upper mesepimeron smooth to weakly sculptured; lower mesepimeron reticulate; transepimeral sulcus distinct. Metepisternum smooth dorsally, reticulate to areolate-reticulate ventrally. Hind coxa 1.6–2.3× as long as broad; hind femur 5.0–6.0× as long as broad. Fore wing 2.3–2.7× as long as broad, 2.4–2.9× as long as mesothorax; stigma with 4 sensilla in a row or separated into pairs. Hind wing costal cell with a broad bare area.

Metasoma: Petiole 1.8–2.5× as long as broad, 0.8–1.0× as long as hind coxa, rugose to areolate-reticulate, anterior carina weak. Antecostal sulcus irregularly sculptured; acrosternite posteriorly angulate.

Male. Length 2.2–3.2 mm. Head width:head height 1.1–1.2; scape yellow; flagellum length:head height 1.8, F2 2.4–2.6× as long as broad. Fore femur with brownish area, mid and hind femora, and all tibiae yellow. Petiole 5.8–5.9× as long as broad, petiole length:hind coxa length 1.6–1.9.

Discussion. Our current concept of O. rapo is that it is a relatively variable, widely distributed species. Smallbodied forms vary considerably in mesosomal sculpture and flagellomere dimensions, closely approaching O. costaricensis , O. evansi , and O. minutissima especially. Populations in the Galapagos Islands are tentatively assigned to this species pending new data. Populations in Trinidad are morphogically the nearest to the Brazilian lectotype. Bolivian populations are tentatively included here, despite apparent molecular differences, because Sanger results disagree with Anchored Enrichment on whether they belong in O. rapo , and also because it would be very difficult to identify these populations morphologically. Orasema cozamalotl is very similar to O. rapo , but is recognized as distinct because of its more consistent size, coloration, and sculpture.

Distribution. Argentina (Misiones), Bolivia, Brazil, Ecuador, Paraguay, Trinidad, Venezuela.

Material examined. Lectotype: BRAZIL: Bahia [♀, BMNH type no. 5.609], designated by Heraty, 2002. Additional material examined: ARGENTINA: Misiones: Iguazu Nat. Park , hosteria Hoppe , 140m, 10– 11.iv.1974, C . R. Vardy, malaise trap [2 ♀, BMNH: UCRCENT00309881–82 ]. Parc Nac. Iguazu Cantera , 200m, 24°40'58"S, 54°27'26"W, 8.xii.1990 GoogleMaps – 6.i.1991, S. & J. Peck [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRdb00425827]. RN 12, N of Puerto Bosseti , 221m, 25°48'20"S, 54°32'19"W, 25.iii.2007, J GoogleMaps . &J. Heraty & J. Torréns, Aurac. for. [2 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00169642 , UCRCENT00439112 ]. Rt 17 E of 9 de Julio 212m, 26°24'02"S, 54°27'54"W, 26.iii.2007, J GoogleMaps . &J. Heraty and J. Torréns, roadside [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00091514 (D2681)]. Rt 17, E of 9 de Julio , 212m, 26°24'02"S, 54°27'54"W, 26.iii.2007, J GoogleMaps . &J. Heraty & J. Torréns, roadside [2 ♀, IFML: UCRCENT00439111 ; UCRC: UCRCENT00169643 ]. Rt 18, E of 9 de Julio , 485m, 26°23'56"S, 54°14'05"W, 26.iii.2007, J GoogleMaps . &J. Heraty & J. Torréns, humid forest [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00161611 (D2515)]. Rt 19, W of Wanda , 306m, 25°58'18"S, 54°23'54"W, 25.iii.2007, J GoogleMaps . & J. Heraty & J. Torréns, roadside [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00439114 ]. Santiago del Estero: R.A . Santiago, Dique Rio Hondo , 27°35'01"S, 65°57'09"W, 24.ii.1995, P. Fidalgo [ IFML: UCRCENT00439068–81 ; MACN: UCRCENT00483471 , UCRCENT00483472 , UCRCENT00483475–81 ] GoogleMaps . BOLIVIA: Santa Cruz: General Saavedra , 270m, 17°15'00"S, 63°10'00"W, 4–30.v.1993, J.C. Monje, under natural vegetation, yellow pan trap [1 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00320849 (D3945)] GoogleMaps . BRAZIL: Passe des Indies , i.1937, Fritz Plaumann [1 ♀, BMNH: UCRCENT00313926 ] . Amazonas: Reserva ZF2 off BR 174 ~ 50 km N of Manaus, 2°38'00"S, 60°09'00"W, 30.vii.1997, J GoogleMaps . M. Heraty [2 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00169595–96 ]. Reserva ZF2 off BR 174 ~ 50km N of Manaus , 2°28'00"S, 60°09'00"W, 29.vii.1997, J GoogleMaps . Heraty, screen sweep [4 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00091325–26 , UCRCENT00092149 (D0181), UCRCENT00092245 ]. Parana: Imbituva , 25°13'33"S, 50°36'02"W, 12.i.1969, C GoogleMaps . W. & L.B. O’Brien, Araucaria forest [1 ♀, CASC: UCRCENT00417428 ]. Santa Catarina: Nova Teutonia : 300–500m, 27°00'11"S, 52°00'23"W, 2.ii.1938, ii GoogleMaps .1938, 20.iv.1938, 29.xii.1938, i– ii.1939, 13.i.1939, 16.i.1939, 26.i.1939, 11.i.1939, 13.i.1939, Fritz Plaumann, B.M. [2 ♀ 18♂, BMNH: UCRCENT00239574, UCRCENT00239586, UCRCENT00239594, UCRCENT00239599, UCRCENT00239606, UCRCENT00309304–06, UCRCENT00309310, UCRCENT00309314, UCRCENT00309316, UCRCENT00309338, UCRCENT00309858, UCRCENT00309983, UCRCENT00309923, UCRCENT00309925, UCRCENT00309947, UCRCENT00309953, UCRCENT00309961; CNC: UCRCENT00247564]. ECUADOR: Galapagos: Isla Fernandina W. side, 1100m, 0°23'26"S, 91°30'34"W, 5.ii.1964, D GoogleMaps . Q. Cavagnaro [1 ♀, CASC: UCRCENT00240680 ]. Santa Cruz, E. slope, 160m, 0°41'38"S, 90°20'56"W, 16.iv.1964, D GoogleMaps .Q. Cavagnaro [2 ♀, CASC: UCRCENT00240681–82]. Isla Santa Cruz, 610m, 0°24'44"S, 91°28'53"W, 1–28.ii.1989, Peck & Sinclair, Los Gemelos Scalesia Forest , flight intercept trap [3 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00252334–36 ] GoogleMaps . Santa Cruz, 4km N Bellavista , 620m, 0°39'31"S, 90°19'28"W, 14.v–13.vii.1985, S. & J. Peck, Miconia zone [2 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00247603 , UCRCENT00247608 ] GoogleMaps . Los Gemelos , 600m, 0°37'35"S, 90°23'00"W, 1–30.iii.1989, Peck & Sinclair, pamaps, sweeping [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00400707 ] GoogleMaps . Santa Cruz, 3 km Bellavista , 115m, 0°32'00"S, 90°21'00"W, 1–30.iii.1989, Peck & Sinclair, malaise trap [2 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00252345–46 ] GoogleMaps . Santa Cruz, 3 Km S Bellavista , 115m, 0°43'20"S, 90°19'34"W, 1.iii.1989, Peck & Sinclair, transition forest [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00412528 ] GoogleMaps . Santa Cruz, Media Luna to Puntudo , 600–700m, 0°38'01"S, 90°20'19"W, iv.1989, S GoogleMaps . Peck, pampas, sweeping [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00400705 ]. Napo: Misahualli , 500m, 1°01'57"N, 77°40'13"W, 25.v.1987, L GoogleMaps . D. Coote, roadside [5 ♀, ROME: UCRCENT00252251 , UCRCENT00252253 , UCRCENT00252255 , UCRCENT00252262 , UCRCENT00252265 ]. Puerto Misahualli , 350m, 1°01'54"S, 77°39'60"W, iii.1983, M . Sharkey [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00237569 ]. Orellana: Res. Ethnica Waorani, 1 km S. Omkone Gare Camp , Trans. Ent. , 216.3m, 0°39'25.7"S, 76°27'10.8"W, 7.x.1995, T GoogleMaps . L. Erwin, et al., terre firme forest, fogging [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00091463 ]. PARAGUAY: Pastorer , 92m, 23°28'24"S, 58°18'08"W, 3–7.i.1972, L GoogleMaps .E. Pena [15♂ 2 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00240915–27, UCRCENT00240930–33]. PERU: Monson Valley, Tingo Maria , 9°17'43"S, 75°59'51"W, 29.xi.1954 [1 ♀, FSCA: UCRCENT00240679 ] GoogleMaps . Huánuco: Tingo Maria , 620m, 9°17'43"S, 75°59'51"W, 5–12.x.1964, C.C. Porter [1 ♀, MCZ: UCRCENT00242310 ] GoogleMaps . TRINIDAD: Arima: Simla Research Station , trail down the road to old water tanks, 250m, 10°41'34"N, 61°17'23"W, 21–28.vii.2013, C. Weirauch, malaise trap, TR13 L88 MT6 [1 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00479291 (D4231)] GoogleMaps . Mt. St. Benedict Trail , 330m, 10°40'01"N, 61°24'02"W, 19.vii.2013, Heraty&Baker, swp, H13-066 [2 ♀, UCRC: UCRCENT00412126 (D3808), UCRC: UCRCENT00412128 (D3811)] GoogleMaps . St. George: Arena Reserve , 65m, 10°33'41"N, 61°14'01"W, 31.vii.1976, J GoogleMaps . S. Noyes, rainforest [ BMNH: UCRCENT00309436 ]. St. Augustine , 10°38'19"N, 61°23'46"W, 18.vi.1976, J GoogleMaps . S. Noyes, wasteground [ BMNH: UCRCENT00300438 ]. VENEZUELA: Aragua: Parque Nat. H. Pittier , Rancho Grande env, 1100m, 10°20'57"N, 67°41'04"W, 10–14.iv.1994, L GoogleMaps . Masner [1 ♀, CNC: UCRCENT00425828 ]. Zulia: Dtto Maracaido Jardin Botanico , 10°35'18"N, 71°42'48"W, ii.1982, E GoogleMaps . Rubio & E. Inciarte [1 ♀, USNM: UCRCENT00248032 ]. Jardin Botanico de Maracaibo , 10°35'18"N, 71°42'48"W, iv.1982, E GoogleMaps . Rubio & E. Borrego, malaise trap [1 ♀, USNM: UCRCENT00248034].


University of California, Riverside


Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia


Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes


Royal Ontario Museum - Entomology


Universit� di Perugia


Florida State Collection of Arthropods, The Museum of Entomology


Museum of Comparative Zoology


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Orasema rapo (Walker)

Burks, Roger A., Heraty, John M., Dominguez, Chrysalyn & Mottern, Jason L. 2018

Eucharis rapo

Walker 1839: 66