Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899 )

Olivier, Renan S., Pujol-Luz, Cristiane V. A. & Graciolli, Gustavo, 2019, Review of Temnomastax Rehn & Rehn, 1942 (Orthoptera, Caelifera, Eumastacidae, Temnomastacinae), Zootaxa 4593 (1), pp. 1-78: 61-69

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https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4593.1.1

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scientific name

Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899 )
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Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899) 

http://lsid.speciesfile.org/ urn:lsid: Orthoptera  .speciesfile.org:TaxonName:39950

Figures 4HView FIGURE 4, 5HView FIGURE 5, 6HView FIGURE 6, 7EView FIGURE 7, 8HView FIGURE 8, 9GView FIGURE 9, 11DView FIGURE 11, 12H and IView FIGURE 12, 13HView FIGURE 13, 14HView FIGURE 14, 15HView FIGURE 15, 19DView FIGURE 19, 30View FIGURE 30, 32View FIGURE 32, 33View FIGURE 33, 34View FIGURE 34 and 35View FIGURE 35

Masyntes tigris Burr 1899: 91  (citation), 274 (identification key), 276 (original description) Lam. IX ( Figure 11View FIGURE 11); 1904: 17 (catalogue), pl. ( Figure 7View FIGURE 7); Bruner 1900: 18 (identification key); Rehn 1904: 676 (records); Kirby 1910: 79 (catalogue); Rehn 1915: 280 (records).

Masyntes brasiliensis Bruner 1911: 6  (original description and identification key); Bolívar 1916: 197 (syn. of Masyntes tigris Burr, 1899  ).

Temnomastax tigris Rehn & Rehn 1942: 2  (comb. Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899))  , 13 (identificiation key), 16 ( Figures 5View FIGURE 5, 11View FIGURE 11, and 15), 27 (records); Liebermann 1955: 333 (catalogue); Rehn & Grant Jr. 1958: 315 (phallic complex), pl. 29 ( Figures 29–31View FIGURE 29View FIGURE 30View FIGURE 31); Descamps 1973a: 278 (Figure 399), 1973b: 966 (Figure 63), 967 (records), 968 (identification key), 1982: 161 (record); Olivier 2014: 457 (citation), 460 ( Figure 9View FIGURE 9 and identification key), 2017: 235 (citation); Olivier & Aranda 2017: 1 –12 (geographical distribution analysis), 2018: 268–275 (morphometric analysis).

Type locality. Paraguay, Caaguazú Department, District of Simón Bolívar (Oberthür)— holotype ♂ and 1 paratype ♂  .

Depository. Holotype: Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales , Madrid, Spain. 

Etymology. The specific epithet probably refers to the color pattern of the species. Burr (1899) comments: “ Il se distingue facilement de sés congêneres par as couleur noire et orange vif [...]”.

Diagnosis. Medium (♂  20.74 mm; ♀  27.15 mm). Close to T. ricardoi  , but differs by the subtriangular head of male in frontal view. Larger tegmina with 3.0x the pronotum length in males and 2.2x the pronotum length in females. Dorsal edge of male cerci rounded with broad and uniform curvature. Lateral margins of the MbEp sinuous, and posterior region with two well defined rounded lobes laterally. Posterior margin of epiphallus with broad curvature when inclined 45 degrees downward and seen in dorsal view. Posterior margin of female subgenital plate more rectilinear or sometimes concave, but never lobed or uniformly convex as T. ricardoi  .

Redescription. Male. ( Figure 19DView FIGURE 19) Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá, Assentamento São Gabriel, 19°24’54”S / 57°30’56”W, 110 m, 06.XII.2015 (Aranda, R. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00404]. Measurements (mm): bd 22.94, pt 2.80, tg 8.23, hf 15.64, ht 16.13. —Head: Subtriangular in frontal view ( Figure 4HView FIGURE 4). Antenna (4.15 mm). Fastigium (0.30 mm). Eyes slightly protruding in frontal view ( Figure 4HView FIGURE 4). Frons, clypeus and labrum yellow ( Figure 4HView FIGURE 4). Mandibular joints black. Base of maxillae with black and metallic blue details. Mandible yellow. Thorax: Pronotum: Slightly sellate, similar to T. ricardoi  ( Figure 6HView FIGURE 6). Posterior margin of pronotal disk rounded ( Figure 6hView FIGURE 6). Thoracic sternites yellow. Wings: Brachypterous (tg / hf 0.52). Tegmina ellipsoidal; elongated with anal margin slightly arched (concave), apex uniformly rounded; reaching the 5 th abdominal tergite (2.9x the pronotum length); some oblique nervures present between costal margin and C and between C and Sc; Ra reaching the apex; Rp arising from Ra in the medio-distal region; M simple, reaching the apex; 1Cu reaching the distal region, but not the apex; 2Cu present, reduced, reaching the median region; 1A+2A well marked, 3A+4A well marked and sinuous ( Figures 7EView FIGURE 7 and E’ show tegmina of specimens from Bodoquena region). Membranous wings with five lobes when extended (remigium + four anal lobes); M diverging from R+M in the median-proximal region; Rs2 present; 1Cu touching VD distally; 1A –5A well marked, 6A reduced; 1a –4a well marked ( Figure 7eView FIGURE 7). Legs (Right/Left): Ventral face of protibiae with 6/7 outer spines and 7/7 inner spines. PrTm1 with approximately 2.0x the length of PrTm2. Ventral face of mesotibiae with 6/6 outer spines and 7/7 inner spines. MsTm1 with approximately 2.0x the length of MsTm2. Dorsal face of metatibiae with 24/23 inner spines and 25/23 outer spines. MtTm1 with approximately 3.0x the length of MtTm2. Abdomen: Posterior-ventral regions of the 9 th and 10 th abdominal tergites as in the Figure 8HView FIGURE 8. Epiproct similar to T. ricardoi  , but not so narrow ( Figure 8hView FIGURE 8). Cerci laterally compressed, dorsal edge rounded with broad and uniform curvature, ⅓ apical narrower than the remainder and apex slightly curved inward ( Figure 9GView FIGURE 9). Membranous distal area of subgenital plate fusiform horizontally and distinctly rugose; carinae absent; posterior margin of subgenital plate slightly projected backward in lateral view ( Figure 8HView FIGURE 8). Phallic complex: Epiphallus: Lateral margins of the MbEp sinuous, and laterally in the posterior region two rounded lobes well defined formed by the more sclerotized posterolateral portion of epiphallus ( Figure 11DView FIGURE 11); posterior margin of epiphallus with broader curvature than T. ricardoi  when inclined 45 degrees downward and seen in dorsal view ( Figure 11View FIGURE 11 d’); posterior region with upward curvature in lateral view ( Figure 11dView FIGURE 11). Endophallus: Outer  margin in the anterior region of endophallic plate trilobed, but central lobe inconspicuous; inner arc seemingly triangular; branches slightly convergent and tips clearly divergent in ventral view ( Figure 12HView FIGURE 12); broad, slight, and uniform curvature in lateral view ( Figure 12hView FIGURE 12); spermatophore sac as in the Figure 12hView FIGURE 12; ejaculatory sac horizontally elongated, anterior and posterior end rounded and almost similar ( Figure 12hView FIGURE 12).

Female ( Figure 19DView FIGURE 19). Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá, Assentamento São Gabriel, 19°24’54”S / 57°30’56”W, 110 m, 06.XII.2015 (Aranda, R. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00408]. Measurements (mm): bd 28.94, pt 2.72, tg 7.28, hf 17.55, ht 18.32. —Head: Antenna (3.12 mm). Fastigium (0.30 mm). Thorax: Brachypterous (tg / hf 0.41). Tegmina reaching the distal region of the 3 rd abdominal tergite (2.7x the pronotum length), ¾ proximal of costal margin slightly arched (convex) and ⅓ distal slightly narrower (similar to T. ricardoi  ). Ventral face of protibiae with 8/8 outer spines and 7/8 inner spines. PrTm1 with approximately 3.0x the length of PrTm2. Ventral face of mesotibiae with?/7 outer spines and?/8 inner spines. MsTm1 with approximately 2.0x the length of MsTm2. Dorsal face of metatibiae with 23/25 inner spines and 24/23 outer spines. MtTm1 with approximately 3.0x the length of MtTm2. Abdomen: Posterior-ventral regions of the 8 th abdominal tergite with cuticular striations ( Figure 13HView FIGURE 13). Epiproct as in the Figure 14HView FIGURE 14. Length of paraprocts equal to the epiproct. Cerci with little more than ½ of the epiproct length ( Figure 14HView FIGURE 14). Subgenital plate: Greatly arched ventrally in axial view; lateral regions partially covered by the ventral portions of the 8 th abdominal tergite ( Figure 15HView FIGURE 15); posterolateral regions exceeding the length of the 8 th abdominal tergite in lateral view and with cuticular striations well marked ( Figures 13HView FIGURE 13); lateral angles of the posterior margin rounded, lateral portions of posterior margin converging centrally, almost without curvature, to a small protrusion in ventral view; spines present only in the 3 / 5 median ( Figure 15HView FIGURE 15). Ovipositor as in the Figure 13HView FIGURE 13. Other characters as in male.

Sexual dimorphism. hf ♀ / hf ♂ 1.00.

Measurements (mm). Bodoquena region: ♂ (n=24). bd 17.20–23.84 (20.28), pr 2.29–2.91 (2.61), tg 6.53– 8.85 (7.70), hf 12.84–16.30 (14.33), ht 13.71–17.35 (15.36); ♀ (n=1). bd 23.27, pr 2.69, tg 6.14, hf 14.37, ht 15.92. Corumbá region: ♂ (n=17). bd 19.19–23.90 (22.04), pr 2.33–2.87 (2.65), tg 7.52–9.63 (8.67), hf 13.93–16.33 (15.23), ht 15.01–17.31 (16.33); ♀ (n=4). bd 26.86–28.94 (28.11), pr 2.45–2.79 (2.64), tg 6.98–7.28 (7.09), hf 14.84–17.55 (16.19), ht 16.32–18.32 (17.31).

T. tigris  (holotype ♂). bd 20.00, pr 3.00, tg 9.00, hf 15.00, ht? ( Burr 1899);

M. brasiliensis  (lectotype ♂). bd 17.50, pr 2.20, tg 7.00, hf 13.00, ht? ( Bruner 1911);

M. brasiliensis  (paralectotype ♀). bd 26.00, pr 2.90, tg 4.75, hf 16.00, ht? ( Bruner 1911).

Intraspecific variation. Sometimes, specimens from Corumbá may have a small central fissure on the posterior margin of pronotal disk. Some specimens do not have anal margin of tegmen slightly concave, while others may present a narrower distal region of tegmen ( Figures 7EView FIGURE 7 and E’). Specimens from the Bodoquena region have four anal veins on tegmen, 1A and 3A well marked and 2A and 4A reduced. Because of this, we hypothesized that the two slightly thickened veins present in the specimens from Corumbá region would be, in actuality, the fusion of vein pairs 1A+2A and 3A+4A. Some specimens from the Corumbá region may not have the Rs2 vein in membranous wings. The rounded and uniform curvature on dorsal edge of male cercus can be little more salient in specimens from Bodoquena region. The more sclerotized lateroposterior portions of epiphallus in specimens from Bodoquena region have broader curvatures than those seen in specimens from Corumbá region. As consequence of this morphological variation, the MbEp in these specimens have rounded lateroposterior lobes broader. There is a marked variation in the anterior outer margin of the endophallic plate according to the region where specimens come from; commonly individuals from Corumbá region have this margin plate trilobed, being the central lobe small and acute, but sometimes this can be inconspicuous or even absent, then the margin becomes bilobed (in this last case both lobes are always very spaced from each other ( Figure 12View FIGURE 12 I—last one). In the Bodoquena region, there are individuals bilobed, and although the shape of these lobes present a huge variation ( Figures 12iView FIGURE 12), these are always closer when compared to the bilobed-shaped from Corumbá region. The central salience on the posterior margin of female subgenital plate may be inconspicuous; specimens from the Bodoquena region may have a markedly concave posterior margin in the median region.

Material examined. Brasil: Mato Grosso state: 1 ♂ (Photography)— Matto Grosso, Spencer Moore, 96- 204\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [MNCN _Ent146855]; Mato Grosso do Sul state: 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, 20.6597S / 56.6582W, 328 m, 29.X.2013 (Rodrigues, M. & Neto, F.V. leg.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00057]; 2 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, 20.62511S / 56.67358W, 315 m, 01.XI.2013 (Rodrigues, M. & Neto, F.V. leg.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00059 and MNRJ *]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, 20.58936S / 56.63863W, 257 m, 05.XI.2013 (Rodrigues, M. & Neto, F.V. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00014 and MNRJ *]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, 20.57756S / 56.62619W, 242 m, 07.XI.2013 (Rodrigues, M. & Neto, F.V. leg.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00061]; 2 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, 20.51718S / 56.58978W, 163m, 8–9.XI.2013 (Rodrigues, M. & Neto, F.V. leg.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00060 and MNRJ *]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, 20.4506S / 56.51065W, 137 m, 10–11.XI.2013 (Rodrigues, M. & Neto, F.V. leg.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00058]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bonito, Serra da Bodoquena, Platô (encosta do rio), 30B, 21°08’15.8”S / 56°43’27.1”W, 516 m, IV.2014 (Biota de Orthoptera  do Brasil col.)\Doação UFV-UFMS, SISBIOTA Brasil, Biota de Orthoptera  do Brasil \ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00193]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bonito, Serra da Bodoquena, Platô (encosta do rio), 30D, 21°08’15.8”S / 56°43’27.1”W, 516 m, IV.2014 (Biota de Orthoptera  do Brasil col.)\Doação UFV-UFMS, SISBIOTA Brasil, Biota de Orthoptera  do Brasil \ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00173]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bonito, Serra da Bodoquena, Platô (encosta do rio), 17D, 21°08’6.0”S / 56°43’26.3”W, 519 m, IV.2014 (Biota de Orthoptera  do Brasil col.)\Doação UFV-UFMS, SISBIOTA Brasil, Biota de Orthoptera  do Brasil \ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00174]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bonito, Serra da Bodoquena, Platô (encosta do rio), 26C, 21°08’13.1”S / 56°43’28.4”W, 517 m, IV.2014 (Biota de Orthoptera  do Brasil col.)\Doação UFV-UFMS, SISBIOTA Brasil, Biota de Orthoptera  do Brasil \ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00175]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, As. Canaã, RPPN Cara da Onça, 20°44’25.22”S / 56°44’13.95”W, 152 m, 03.X.2014 (Souza, P.R. leg.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00062]; 14 ♂ and 1 nymph ♀ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, As. Canaã, RPPN Cara da Onça, 20°44’24.1”S / 56°44’13.1”W, 152 m, 05.XI.2014 (Aranda, R. leg.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00010–13, 49–55, 168–170, 181]; 43 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, As. Canaã, RPPN Cara da Onça, 20°44’24.1”S / 56°44’13.1”W, 152 m, 06.XI.2014 (Aranda, R. leg.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00015–48, 56, 162–167, 171, 182]; 3 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, As. Canaã, RPPN Cara da Onça, 20°44’24.1”S / 56°44’13.1”W, 152 m (Pitfall trap), 05–06.XI.2014 (Souza, P.R. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00178– 180]; 1 ♂ and 1 nymph ♀ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, Canaã, RPPN Cara da Onça, 20°44’24.1”S / 56°44’13.1”W, 152 m, 07.XI.2014 (Aranda, R. col)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00172, 183]; 2 ♂ and 1 ♀ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, Ass. Campina, 20°34’02”S / 56°43’20”W, 296 m, 11.III.2015 (Olivier, R.S., Aranda, R. & Picheli, K. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00184–186]; 4 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, Faz. Boi Vermelho, Gruta do Clarão, -20.414086/-56.709363, 186 m, 08.II.2016 (Souza, P.R. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00415–418]; 3 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena, 27– 28.XI.2015 (Monteiro, U. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00362–364]; 2 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bonito, Prox. Est. Mimosa  , 02–03.XII.2015 (Monteiro, U. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00365, 366]; 3 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Bodoquena/Pantanal, Faz. Bela Vista, 19°55’38”S / 57°48’37”W, 106 m, 01.II.2016 (Aranda, R. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00410–412]; Lectotype ♂ —Type Masyntes brasiliensis Bruner  (handwritten on white paper)\Corumbá\March\ LECTOTYPE Renan Olivier det. 2017 (printed on red paper)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ANSP]; 1 Paralectotype ♂ (Photography)— PARALECTOTYPE (printed on red paper)\Corumbá\March\ Masyntes brasiliensis Bruner  (handwritten on white paper)\Carn. Mus. Acc. 2966\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [MNCN _Ent146854]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá, Parq. Municipal Piraputanga, 19°14’22.90”S / 57°37’20.26”W, 235 m (Arm. Malaise), III.2015 (Campos, M. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00187]; 4 ♂ and 3 ♀ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá, Assentamento São Gabriel, 19°24’54”S / 57°30’56”W, 110 m, 06.XII.2015 (Aranda, R. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00403–409]; 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá, Pompeu, 19°24’54”S / 57°30’56”W, 110 m, 07.XII.2015 (Aranda, R. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00388, 389]; 13 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Corumbá, 19°11’54.27”S / 57°38’9.18”W, 255 m, 08.II.2016 (Arrua, B., Gregório, G.C. & Silva, M.H. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00390–402]; 2 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Ladário, prox. Rio Paraguai, 19°01’16”S / 57°35’11”W, 105 m, 15.V.2014 (Piva, A. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00176, 177]; 1 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pantanal Miranda, Morro do Azeite, 19°40’10.43”S / 57°0’17.13”W, 200 m, 18.IX.2015 (Olivier, R.S. Aranda, R. col.)\Citogenética 5\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00359]; 1 ♂ and 1 ♀ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Pantanal Miranda, Morro do Azeite, 19°40’10.43”S / 57°0’17.13”W, 200 m, 18.IX.2015 (Olivier, R.S. Aranda, R. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00360, 361]; 2 ♂ — Brasil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Miranda, Povoado Salobra, 20°11’42.18”S / 56°30’26.74”W, 115 m, 19.II.2016 (Aranda, R. & Catian, G. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00413, 414].

Bolivia: Dep. Santa Cruz de la Sierra: 2 ♂  Bolívia, Dep. Santa Cruz, Prov. Germán Busch, Puerto Suarez , próx. a HJVA, 19°00’06.3”S / 57°43’19.7”W, 125 m, 21.IV.2015 (Stefano, I.T. col.)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [ZUFMSORT00188, 189]GoogleMaps  .

Paraguay: 1 Holotype ♂ (Photography)— Masyntes tigris Burr  , Holotypus (C.S. Carbonell, 1966) (handwritten on red paper)\ Masyntes tigris Burr  \ Paraguay (Oberthür)\ MNCN Cat. Tipos N° 7560 (printed on red paper)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [MNCN _Ent146852]; 1 Paratype ♂ (Photography)— Masyntes tigris Burr  , Paratypus (C.S. Carbonell, 1966) (handwritten on red paper)\ Paraguay Central (Oberthür)\ MNCN Cat. Tipos N° 7560 (printed on red paper)\ Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [MNCN _Ent 146853]; 1 ♀ (Photography)—P to 14 de Mayo (Currently Karcha Bahlut, near Bahia Negra), G. Boggiani, III–IV.1894\Mus. Civ. Genova\ Temnomastax cf. tigris ( Burr, 1899)  , Olivier, R. det. (2017) [MNCN _Ent146857].

Distribution. This species is distributed in the north of Argentina, Paraguay, south of Mato Grosso state and north and west of Mato Grosso do Sul state at altitudes ranging from 110 m to 1100 m ( Figure 30View FIGURE 30). Previous records: Brazil: Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá; Mato Grosso: Jaciara; Paraguay; Argentina: Province of Salta (Embarcación).

Biological notes. Some specimens were collected on ox carcass found near the Betione River (Pers. Comm. F. Valente, Nov. 2013). Others were observed on sardine baits ( Figure 32AView FIGURE 32) and human urine ( Figure 32BView FIGURE 32) near the Salobra River (Pers. Comm. P.R. Souza, Oct. 2014). Females were collected on Fabaceae  seedlings (Mimosoidea). Figure 33View FIGURE 33 shows natural specimens from Corumbá (male) (A) and Bodoquena (female) (B).

Remarks. Taxonomy: Masyntes brasiliensis Bruner, 1911  ( Figure 34View FIGURE 34) was synonymized to M. tigris  ( Figure 35View FIGURE 35) in 1916 by Bolívar, but its holotype was never designated. Thus, herein we formally designate the lectotype and paralectotype of this species, as follows: Lectotype labeled ‘ Masyntes brasiliensis Bruner.  Type\Corumba\March’ ( Figure 34AView FIGURE 34); Paralectotype labeled ‘ Masyntes brasiliensis Bruner  \Corumba\March\Carn. Mus. Acc. 2966\MNCN_Ent146854’ ( Figure 34BView FIGURE 34). Both are well preserved. The first one belongs to the Entomology Collection at The Academy of Natural Sciences of Drexel University, Philadelphia, and the second one belongs to the Museo Nacional de Ciencias Naturales, Madrid. At least one more female of the type-series is not studied here, and it probably belongs to ANSP. For this specimen, Bruner (1911) provides the following data: ‘Chapada, Campo. Oct.’, collected by H. H. Smith. This and other specimens subsequently identified as being of the type-series should be considered as paralectotype (s).

Morphology: As highlighted previously, specimens of T. tigris  have some intra-specific variations, according to the region from which they come. Most of these variations are subtle, for example those related to alar venation, male cerci, female subgenital plate and epiphallus. However, the huge variation in the anterior outer margin of endophallic plate is intriguing, because it occurs even among specimens from the same region ( Figure 12I and iView FIGURE 12), suggesting that at least for T. tigris  this is not a taxonomic character useful for identification, as occurs in the other species of the genus.

Although there are different degrees of variation on distinct parts of the body (external and internal), here we opted to keep all studied specimens as belonging to T. tigris  . We believe that the subtle variations are insufficient to split this taxon into two distinct; and regarding to endophallic plate variation, there are several intermediate morphologies, which does not allow distinguishing clearly two isolated groups of specimens.

Something very similar was reported by Domenico (2007) when performing the taxonomic review of Tetanorhynchus Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1890  ( Proscopiidae  ). The author suggested that four different species belonging to Tetanorhynchus  and Cephalocoema Serville, 1839  , were synonymized with T. humilis Giglio-Tos, 1897  , due to the impossibility of observing a clear external and internal morphological division among the five species.

Habitat: The specimens were collected in two types of vegetation formations. In Bodoquena, they were found on Sub-montane Semideciduous Forest and in a transition between the latter and meadow, and in Corumbá, they were found on Semideciduous Seasonal Forest.

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Orthoptera

Family

Gryllidae

Genus

Temnomastax

Loc

Temnomastax tigris ( Burr, 1899 )

Olivier, Renan S., Pujol-Luz, Cristiane V. A. & Graciolli, Gustavo 2019
2019
Loc

Temnomastax tigris

Olivier, R. S. & Aranda, R. 2017: 1
Olivier, R. S. 2014: 457
Liebermann, J. 1955: 333
Rehn, J. A. G. & Rehn, J. W. H. 1942: 2
1955
Loc

Masyntes brasiliensis

Bolivar, C. 1916: 197
Bruner, L. 1911: 6
1916
Loc

Masyntes tigris

Rehn, J. A. G. 1915: 280
Kirby, W. F. 1910: 79
Rehn, J. A. G. 1904: 676
Bruner, L. 1900: 18
Burr, M. 1899: 91
1900