Wilson J. E. M. Costa, 2007, Taxonomic revision of the seasonal South American killifish genus Simpsonichthys (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Aplocheiloidei: Rivulidae)., Zootaxa 1669, pp. 1-134: 93-95
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Simpsonichthys picturatus ZBK Costa, 2000: 12 ( type locality: temporary pool near Volta das Pedras, rio Sao Francisco basin , Estado da Bahia, Brazil [12°24’8.7”S 43°12’17.7”W; altitude 445 m]; holotype: MZUSP 59228GoogleMaps ).
Brazil: Estado da Bahia, rio São Francisco basin: MZUSP 59228, holotype, male, 42.5 mm SL; UFRJ 5053, 46 paratypes; temporary pool near Volta das Pedras ; W. J. E. M. Costa, F. M. Pupo and E. S. Araujo, 14 Feb. 1999. UFRJ 5194, 15 paratypes; UFRJ 5195, 8 paratypes; MZUSP 59229, 8 paratypes; UFRJ 5054, 7 paratypes (c&s); UFRJ 4875, 49; same locality as holotype ; W. J. E. M. Costa, A. C. L. H. Bacellar, F. M. Pupo & E. S. Araújo, 4 May 1999. UFRJ 5418, 3; UFRJ 5419, 8; temporary pool near Igarite , 11º28’8.7”S 43º17’13.4”W; altitude 433 m; W. J. E. M. Costa, B. B. Costa & C. P. Bove, 26 Jan. 2002.GoogleMaps
Similar to S. magnificus and S. carlettoi ZBK and distinguished from all other species of the S. magnificus group by having pectoral fins red in males (vs. hyaline). Similar to S. magnificus and distinguished from remaining species of the S. magnificus group by possessing distal border of unpaired fins black in males (vs. never black border), dorsal fin rounded and without filamentous rays in males (vs. pointed, with filamentous rays on tip). It differs from S. magnificus by having eight to ten red bars on anterior portion of flanks in males (vs. five to seven), 18-20 bars on flank in females (vs. 13-15), and greenish blue dots on unpaired fins in males (vs. greenish blue vermiculate transverse stripes).
Morphometric data appear in Table 5. Largest specimen examined 42.5 mm SL. Dorsal profile convex from snout to end of dorsal-fin base, approximately straight on caudal peduncle. Ventral profile convex from lower jaw to end of anal-fin base, nearly straight on caudal peduncle. Body deep, compressed, greatest body depth at level of pelvic-fin base. Eye positioned on dorsal portion of side of head. Snout blunt. Urogenital papilla cylindrical and short in males, pocket-shaped in females.
Tip of both dorsal and anal fins rounded in both sexes; fin filaments absent. Dorsal-fin rays unbranched. Caudal fin rounded. Pectoral fins elliptical. Posterior margin of each pectoral fin reaching vertical through base of 7th anal-fin ray in males and between pelvic-fin base and urogenital papilla in females. Tip of each pelvic fin reaching base of 4th anal-fin ray in males and between urogenital papilla and anal-fin origin in females. Pelvic-fin bases in close proximity. Dorsal-fin origin on vertical either slightly anterior, slightly posterior, or on anal-fin origin in males, and on vertical through base of 3rd or 4th anal-fin ray in females; dorsalfin origin between neural spines of vertebrae 6 and 8 in males and neural spines of vertebrae 9 and 11 in females. Anal-fin origin between pleural ribs of vertebrae 6 and 8 in males and pleural ribs of vertebrae 8 and 10 in females. Dorsal-fin rays 19-23 in males, 14-18 in females; anal-fin rays 20-22 in males, 17-20 in females; caudal-fin rays 22-25; pectoral-fin rays 12-13; pelvic-fin rays 5-6.
Frontal squamation E-patterned; E-scales overlapping medially; no row of scales anterior to G-scale; single supraorbital scale. Longitudinal series of scales 26-27; transverse series of scales 10-11; scale rows around caudal peduncle 12. Contact organ on each scale of ventral portion of lateral surface of body in males. Small papillate contact organs on inner surface of dorsalmost ray of pectoral fins in males. Cephalic neuromasts: supraorbital 10-12, parietal 3-4, anterior rostral 1, posterior rostral 1, infraorbital 2 + 18-19, preorbital 3-4, otic 2, post-otic 1-2, supratemporal 1, median opercular 1, ventral opercular 1-2, preopercular13-16, mandibular 10, lateral mandibular 4-6, paramandibular 1. One neuromast on each scale of lateral line. Two neuromasts on caudal-fin base.
Basihyal subtriangular, width about 65% of length; basihyal cartilage about 25% of total length of basihyal. Six branchiostegal rays. Second pharyngobranchial teeth 3-4. Gill-rakers on first branchial arch 3 + 9. Vomerine teeth absent. Dermosphenotic absent. Ventral process of posttemporal long. Total vertebrae 25- 27.
Males. Side of body dark yellow ochre on anterior half, dark purplish pink on posterior half of flank; 8- 10 red bars, three anterior red bars alternating with three dark green bars, and wider and more conspicuous than posterior bars; vertically elongated, minute metallic blue spots on flanks, more conspicuous on posterior half; venter light yellow ochre. Sides of head side yellow ochre, golden with small blue spots on opercular region; margin of dorsoposterior scales red. Iris light yellow, with dark reddish brown bar through center of eye. Unpaired fins dark red, with transverse rows of greenish blue dots; distal margin dark gray to black. Pectoral fins light red, ventral margin gray to black. Pelvic fins dark red.
Females. Sides of body light purplish gray, with 18-20 faint dark greenish gray interrupted bars, anterior bars extremely narrow; venter pale orangish golden; one to four rounded dark greenish gray blotches on anterocentral portion of flanks. Opercular region pale golden. Iris light yellow, with gray bar through center of eye. Fins hyaline; small light blue spot on posterior margin of anal fin, just posterior to fin base.
Middle rio São Francisco basin, between Igarité and Volta das Pedras, Estado da Bahia, northeastern Brazil(Fig. 4).
Shaded places of temporary pools in the Caatinga.
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