Chaunax nudiventer , Ho, Hsuan-Ching & Shao, Kwang-Tsao, 2010

Ho, Hsuan-Ching & Shao, Kwang-Tsao, 2010, A new species of Chaunax (Lophiiformes: Chaunacidae) from the western South Pacific, with comment on C. latipunctatus, Zootaxa 2445, pp. 53-61: 54-60

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.195029

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6F5787A2-9642-FF84-FF69-FCE1FEE2F868

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chaunax nudiventer
status

sp. nov.

Chaunax nudiventer  sp. nov.

New English name: Naked-belly Coffinfish ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A, 2 A –C, 3, 4A –B; Tables 1–2)

Holotype. NSMTAbout NSMT P 95084View Materials (271 mm), R/V Kaiyo-maru, trawl 22, 26°01.7’S, 179 °02.3’W, South Fiji Ridge, 538–620 m, 16 Jan. 1977.

Paratypes. MNHNAbout MNHN 2002 –0178 (2 specimens, 54–120 mm) and MNHNAbout MNHN 2002 –0229 (1, 131), Campagne Biocal, sta. cp67, 24° 91 ’S, 168 ° 36 ’E, 500–510 m, 3 Sep. 1985. MNHNAbout MNHN 2002 – 1642 (6, 85– 166) and MNHNAbout MNHN 2002 – 1649 (3, 113 – 129), 24 ° 55 ’S, 168 ° 21 ’E, New Caledonia, 500–610 m, 28 Oct. 1986. MNHNAbout MNHN 2002 –0207 (1, 59), Campagne Smib 4, sta. dw39, 24° 93 ’S, 168 ° 35 ’E, 560 m, 7 Mar. 1989. MNHNAbout MNHN 2002 –0228 (2, 48– 155), Campagne Chalcal 2, sta. dw72, 24° 90 ’S, 168 ° 36 ’E, 527 m, 28 Oct. 1986. MNHNAbout MNHN 2002 –0240 (1 of 2, 127), Campagne Chalcal 2, sta. ch7, 29° 91 ’S, 168 ° 35 ’E, 494–590 m, 29 Oct. 1986. MNHNAbout MNHN 2003 – 1542 (3), Campagne Lithist, sta. cp9, 24° 86 ’S, 168 ° 35 ’E, 518–540 m, 11 Aug. 1999. MNHNAbout MNHN 2004–2593 (1, 60), Campagne Norfolk 2, sta. dw2080, 25° 34 S, 168 ° 30 ’E, 764–816 m, 27 Oct. 2003. MNHNAbout MNHN 2004–2608 (2, 52– 53), Campagne Norfolk 2, sta. cp2060, 24° 65 ’S, 168 ° 63 ’E, 282–600 m, 25 Oct. 2003. MNHNAbout MNHN 2004–2657 (1, 54), Campagne Norfolk 2, sta. dw2074, 25° 40 ’S, 168 ° 31 ’E, 623–691 m, 27 Oct. 2003. MNHNAbout MNHN 2004–2679 (5, 33– 66), Campagne Norfolk 2, sta. cp2088, 24° 96 'S, 168 ° 35 'E, 627–1089 m, 28 Oct. 2003. MNHNAbout MNHN 2004–2848 (1, 36), Campagne Norfolk 2, sta. cp2118, 23° 36 ’S, 168 °00’E, 383–393 m, 1 Nov. 2003. NMNZAbout NMNZ P 29205View Materials (1, 188), 24 °S, 168 °E. NSMTAbout NSMT P 90583View Materials (1, 198), NSMTAbout NSMT P 78819View Materials (1, 262), NSMTAbout NSMT P 78820View Materials (1, 243), and NMST P 78821View Materials (1, 201), collected with holotype.

Diagnosis. A species of the C. abei  species group that differs from its congeners in having large spots on the dorsal surface ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A –C); a largely naked area on abdomen ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3); a relatively short head (27.0– 29.8 % SL) and a relatively long tail (tail length 1 =34.0– 35.6 % SL), reflected in the relatively elongated body; dermal spines on body surface all simple, relatively slender and elongated ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 A –B); and relatively high lateral line neuromast counts, 39–50 (mainly 41–43) in lateral line proper, 3–5 (mainly 4) in upper peropercular series, and 15–19 (mainly 16–17) in pectoral series, which is well extended beyond pectoral fin base.

Description. Head globular, skull slightly elevated posteriorly; trunk cylindrical, slightly compressed, tapering posteriorly; venter relatively flattened; skin loose and flaccid; interorbital space broad; eyes directed dorsolaterally, covered by a dermal membrane broadly connected to adjoining skin, forming a clear “window”; illicial trough oval shaped, located at anterior portion of interorbital space, about equal to eye diameter; two pairs of nostrils anterior to eyes; mouth relatively wide, terminal, its opening nearly vertical; lower jaw slightly protruding beyond upper jaw; maxilla tapering above, broad below; symphyseal spine on lower jaw; teeth small, villiform, slightly curved on both jaws; teeth present on vomer, palatines and fifth ceratobranchial; oral cavity large; 11–12 rakers on second gill arch; gill filaments present on first, second and third gill arches.

C. nudiventer  n. sp. C. latipunctatus 

Holotype Holotype + Paratypes (n= 15) Non – type (n= 9)

SL (mm) 271 110–271 95–132

Morphometrics (% SL) Range (Average) SD Range (Average) SD Head length 38.0 37.2–42.5 (39.1) 1.4 39.0– 44.6 (41.3) 1.5 Pre –preopercular length 25.3 23.9–27.5 (26.0) 1.6 28.4–35.1 (30.3) 2.0 Pre –dorsal length 45.6 45.6–50.5 (48.2) 1.2 49.5–57.4 (52.0) 2.5 Illicial length 3.6 3.1–4.5 (3.9) 0.5 3.4–4.3 (3.9) 0.4 Illicial trough length 5.0 5.0– 6.1 (5.3) 0.5 6.1 –8.0 (7.2) 0.7 Pre –gill opening length 57.1 55.4–61.2 (58.5) 2.0 60.6–69.3 (64.0) 2.7 Upper jaw length 20.0 17.1–21.2 (18.9) 1.4 20.8–27.5 (22.8) 1.9 Caudal fin length 25.0 22.6–29.9 (27.2) 2.3 21.0– 35.1 (28.1) 4.0 Tail length 1 (Post –anus) 33.3 31.9–35.7 (33.9) 1.4 28.9–37.6 (32.8) 2.9 Tail length 2 (Post –dorsal fin) 16.2 16.0– 21.8 (18.3) 1.3 15.7–19.7 (17.5) 1.3 Tail length 3 (Post –anal fin) 19.1 18.0– 22.3 (20.2) 1.1 13.0– 16.7 (14.8) 1.3 Gill openings located at axil of pectoral elbow; pectoral fin attached at margin of lateral body and oriented horizontally; pectoral fin fan-shaped covered by thick skins, middle rays longest; pelvic fin much smaller than pectoral fin, located ventrolaterally; anterior pelvic fin ray longest, with thick membrane.

Illicium anterior to eye; esca with a “medial tongue” (sensu Le Danios, 1979) bearing numerous cirri at anterior surface; second dorsal spine small, located at base of illicium and embedded under skin; third dorsal spine located at midpoint between mouth and origin of second dorsal fin, embedded under skin; second dorsal fin comprises 10–11 soft rays, its origin about opposite that of anus; first ray of second dorsal fin very short, sometimes covered by skin; posterior rays either simple or bifurcated; pectoral fin with 13–14 rays; anal fin with 6 fin rays, its origin below fifth dorsal fin ray, fin rays covered by thick skin, when depressed not reaching caudal fin base; caudal fin truncate or slightly rounded posteriorly, with 8 rays, outermost two rays unbranched, remainder branched; vertebrae 19 (6 paratypes examined), including the hypural plate.

Network of open sensory canals on body surface as described in Caruso (1989). Three simple spines on each side of neuromast ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A). Lateral line neuromast counts for type series ( Table 2): 10–12 (mainly 10– 11) in supraorbital series (AB); 7–8 (mainly 7) in premaxillary series (AC); 3–5 (mainly 4) in upper preopercular series (BD); 2–4 (mainly 3) in lower preopercular series (DG); 5–7 (mainly 7) in infraorbital series (CD); 3–4 (mainly 3) in hyomandibular series (FG); 15–19 (mainly 16–17) in pectoral series (GH); and 39–50 (mainly 41–43) in lateral line proper ( BI, including those on caudal fin).

Dermal spines needle-like, slightly recurved distally and relatively dense in arrangement ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4 A –B), covering entire body surface except for ventral surface, eye window, pectoral and pelvic fins, interradial membranes of dorsal and caudal fins, illicial trough, and gill openings. Ventral surface with a large naked area as shown in Fig. 3View FIGURE 3. Small flap-like appendages along chin and lateral body associated with lateral line; both jaws densely covered by short cirri.

Size up to 271 mm SL in type series.

Coloration. In fresh-caught specimen, dorsal surface uniformly bright red with numerous large deep-red spots; spots varying in shape and size, from about half of to equal to eye diameter ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 B). In preserved specimens, background uniformly creamy white with large gray spots on dorsal surface, shape and size as mentioned above ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 A –C), these spots may fade out with time; oral cavity pale, peritoneum black; appendages associated with lateral line bright white in some preserved specimens.

Distribution. Known from the type series collected in the western South Pacific ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5) at depths of 282– 1089 m.

P fin rays AB AC

n 13 14 15 n 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 n 6 7 8

C. nudiventer  48 11 37 * 48 14 32 * 2 48 27 21 * C. latipunctatus  54 6 36 * 12 52 40 * 8 3 – 1 40 1 19 * 28

BD CD DG

n 2 3 4 5 n 5 6 7 8 n 2 3 4 5

C. nudiventer  48 7 30 11 * 48 2 18 28 * 48 2 38 * 8 C. latipunctatus  56 5 * 48 3 56 2 36 * 18 56 1 * 28 26 1

FG GH

n 3 4 5 6 n 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19

C. nudiventer  48 46 * 2 48 4 17 17 * 7 3 *

C. latipunctatus  56 18 * 36 2 56 1 11 * 21 16 7

BI

n 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 C. nudiventer  48 5 3 7 14 * 9 * 2 1 1 2 3 – 1 C. latipunctatus  54 1 2 5 10 * 9 7 3 7 5 2 2 1 2

Etymology. From the Latin nudus (naked) and venter (abdomen), in reference to the naked area on the abdomen in this species.

Remarks. Chaunax nudiventer  is placed in the C. abei  species group, having 3 spines on each side of lateral line neuromast ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 A), spots on dorsal surface, no filaments on dorsal surface of head, and flap-like cirri on lateral body. Chaunax nudiventer  can be easily distinguished from its congeners except for C.

latipunctatus Le Danois, 1984  (see comments on this species below) in having a large naked area on its abdomen ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3) and relatively large dorsal spots, about half of to equal to eye diameter.

Two other specimens, ZMMUAbout ZMMU 21656 (80 mm SL) and USNMAbout USNM 394324 (36 mm SL), also have a naked area on their abdomen. However, the lateral line neuromast counts of pectoral series (11–12) and lateral line proper (34–36) are slightly less than those for the type series of C. nudiventer  . Moreover, both specimens were collected from the western Indian Ocean. These two specimens may represent an undescribed species but more specimens are needed for further study.

Comments on C. latipunctatus Le Danois, 1984  ( Figs. 6View FIGURE 6 A –B). The type series of C. latipunctatus  (holotype and one paratype) and 74 additional specimens were examined. Morphometric and meristic data are included in Table 1 and Table 2.

The collecting data of type series was originally entered as “Galápagos Is., Exped. Ikhtiander, 25 °00’S, 88 ° 27 'W – 99 ° 26 'W, 345–770 m, Oct. 1979 ”. According to the Russian vessel and station data provided by Sazonov and Iwamoto (1992), however, the type series of Chaunax latipunctatus  was collected from Sala y Gomez Ridge by R/V Ikhtiander in the trawl number 50–57 of the 5 th cruise during 24–31 Oct. 1979. The collecting data of these type series is revised accordingly: Holotype: MNHNAbout MNHN 1984 –0096 (86 mm SL), R/V Ikhtiander, Sala y Gomez Ridge, cr. 5, tr. 50 –57, 25˚00’W – 25 ˚ 46 ’S, 88 ˚ 27 ’W – 99 ˚ 39 ’W, 345–770 m, 24–31, Oct. 1979. Paratype: MNHNAbout MNHN 1984 –0097 (1 specimen, 105 mm SL), same data as holotype.

The type series of C. latipunctatus  and some HUMZAbout HUMZ specimens all have scattered spines on the ventral surface. Other HUMZAbout HUMZ specimens have a large ventral naked area similar to that of C. nudiventer  . The spines on the ventral surface become fewer with body size in C. latipunctatus  .

Chaunax latipunctatus  belongs to the C. abei  species group in having three spines on each side of lateral line neuromast ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 B) and is most similar to C. nudiventer  . but differs in having dermal spines that are relatively short and apart ( Figs. 4View FIGURE 4 C –D); a relatively long head (28.4–35.1 % vs. 37.2–42.5 % SL); relatively long pre-gill opening length (60.6–69.3 % vs. 55.4–61.2 % SL); relatively long upper jaw (20.8–27.5 % vs. 17.1–21.2 % SL); and different lateral line neuromast counts: supraorbital series (AB) mainly 12 (vs. 11), upper preopercular (BD) mainly 4 (vs. 3), hyomandibular series (FG) mainly 4–5 (vs. 3), pectoral series (GH) mainly 13–15 (vs. 16–17), and lateral line proper ( BI) 33–40 (vs. 39–50). Furthermore, C. latipunctatus  appears to be restricted to the eastern South Pacific, whereas C. nudiventer  . is so far only known from the western South Pacific ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5). The bathymetric ranges are similar in both species.

It is notable that there are two females (104 mm SL and 132 mm SL) with large ovaries and free eggs probably approaching terminal stage, three females (73–97 mm SL) with large ovaries and immature eggs, and two males (95 mm SL and 118 mm SL) with large testes that measured more than 10 % SL. The mature size of C. latipuncatatus  is about 90–100 mm SL, relatively small compared to all other species (Ho, unpublished data). In addition, all examined specimens do not exceed 135 mm SL. Thus, this species is considered to be a small species.

Materials examined for Chaunax latipunctatus  (76 specimens, 57–135 mm SL): MNHNAbout MNHN 1984 –0096, holotype (1, 86). MNHNAbout MNHN 1984 –0097, paratype (1, 105). IOANAbout IOAN 2078 (10, 67– 80), R/V Professor Shtokman, cr. 18, sta. 2018, 25˚08’S, 99 ˚ 27 ’W, 730–790 m, bottom trawl, 7 May 1987. IOANAbout IOAN 2079 (1, 69), R/V Professor Shtokman, cr. 18, sta. 1964, 24˚ 56 ’S, 88 ˚ 33 ’W, 580 – 564 m, bottom trawl, 30 Apr. 1987. IOANAbout IOAN 2080, IOANAbout IOAN 2081, IOANAbout IOAN 2082 (42, 57– 120), R/V Professor Shtokman, cr. 18, 24˚S – 26 ˚S, 88 ˚W – 100 ˚'W, 545–800 m, bottom trawl, Apr.–May 1987. IOANAbout IOAN 2083 (1, 65), R/V Professor Shtokman, cr. 18, sta. 1965, 24˚ 59 ’S, 88 ˚ 29 ’W, 545–562 m, bottom trawl, 30 Apr. 1987. HUMZAbout HUMZ 164450 (1, male, 95); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164451 (1, 109); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164452 (1, male, 118); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164453 (1, 135); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164454 (1, 67); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164470 (1, 72); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164533 (1, 98); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164534 (1, 92); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164535 (1, 73); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164536 (1, 62); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164572 (1, 120); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164573 (2, 80– 89); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164574 (1, 83); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164575 (1, female, 85); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164576 (1, female, 105); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164770 (1, female, 73); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164771 (1, male, 91); HUMZAbout HUMZ 164772 (1, female, 97); HUMZAbout HUMZ 166560 (1, 103); all collected from 25 ˚ 30 ’S, 90 ˚ 18 ’W, Sala y Gomez Ridge, 576–578 m, 18 Oct. 1999.

NSMT

National Science Museum (Natural History)

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

NMNZ

Museum of New Zealand Te Papa Tongarewa

ZMMU

Zoological Museum, Moscow Lomonosov State University

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

HUMZ

Hokkaido University, Laboratory of Marine Zoology

IOAN

Shirshov Institute of Oceanography

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Lophiiformes

Family

Chaunacidae

Genus

Chaunax

Loc

Chaunax nudiventer

Ho, Hsuan-Ching & Shao, Kwang-Tsao 2010
2010
Loc

latipunctatus

Le Danois 1984
1984