Canthidium (Neocanthidium) gigas Balthasar, 1939

Carvalho De Santana, Edrielly C., Pacheco, Thaynara L. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z., 2019, Taxonomic revision of the Canthidium Erichson, 1847 species of the gigas group (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Scarabaeinae), European Journal of Taxonomy 530, pp. 1-24: 15-21

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2019.530

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:2CD56144-79D7-4325-BCC6-353C48E374BD

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3511165

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/6C43E460-F731-D53B-FE1F-9073CE56532F

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) gigas Balthasar, 1939
status

 

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) gigas Balthasar, 1939 

Figs 1.A, CView Fig, 2View Fig, 10View Fig

Canthidium gigas Balthasar, 1939: 127  , 128 (original description)

Canthidium gigas – Martínez 1947: 111  (checklist).

Canthidium (Canthidium) gigas – Martínez & Halffter 1986: 27  (checklist).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) gigas – Cupello 2018: 469  (new subgeneric assignment).

Neocanthidium gigas – Vulcano & Pereira 1964: 592  (identification key).

Type material

Holotype BRAZIL • ♀; handwritten label; “Cayenne”; “Coll C Felsche/ Kauf 20, 1918”; “ C. gigas  / sp. m./ Dr. V. Balthasar det.”; “ gigas  / m.”; “TYPUS”; “ HOLOTYPE ♀ ”; NMPC. 

Other specimens examined

BRAZIL • 1 ♀; Espírito Santo, Domingos Martins, Parque Estadual [“P.E.”] Pedra Azul ; 20°23 ′ 19.93 ″ S, 41°0 ′ 55.49 ″ W; Jan. 2000; Lopes-Andrade and F. Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Venda Nova do Imigrante ; 20°19 ′ 39.02 ″ S, 41°8 ′ 9.36 ″ W; Feb. 1998; Falqueto and Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Rio de Janeiro, Itatiaia [“Itatiaya”]; 22°29 ′ 29 ″ S, 44°33 ′ 33 ″ W; 12 Dec. 1933; J.F. Zikán leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Nova Friburgo ; 22°16 ′ 55 ″ S, 42°31 ′ 5 ″ W; Dec. 1995; P. Grossi and E. Grossi leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀, 1 ♂; Nova Friburgo ; Nov. 2001; E. Grossi leg.; AMBC  1 ♀; Nova Friburgo, Macaé de Cima ; 22°24 ′ 8.45 ″ S, 42°30 ′ 48.39 ″ W; Jan. 1999; P. Grossi leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; Mar. 2000; Vazde-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; Dec. 2001; E. and P. Grossi leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; Jan. 2000; Grossi leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same data as for preceding; BMNHGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Rio de Janeiro, Corcovado ; Dec. 1959; M. Alvarenga leg.; MZSP  1 ♀; São Paulo, São Luiz do Paraitinga, Parque Estadual da [“ Pq. Est. ”] Serra do Mar , Núcleo Santa Virgínia ; Nov. 2004; M. Uehara leg.; AMBC  1 ♀; Minas Gerais, Ingaí, Reserva do Boqueirão , UNILAVRAS, gallery forest; flight interception trap [“FIT”]; 21°31 ′ 08.05 ″ S, 44°55 ′ 39.81 ″ E; 13 Nov. 2002; Silva and Frieiro-Costa leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀, 1 ♂; Viçosa , FIT; 20°45 ′ 17.52 ″ S, 42°52 ′ 42.88 ″ W; Nov. 1999; Andrade and Vaz-de- Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same data as for preceding; BMNHGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; Jan. 1999; Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  3 ♀♀, 1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; Nov. 1998; Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; Universidade Federal de Viçosa ; FIT; 20°45 ′ 51.99 ″ S, 42°52 ′ 5.68 ″ W; Mar. 1998; Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Viçosa, Mata da Biologia ; 20°45 ′ S, 42°51 ′ W; Nov. 2000; F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; same locality as for preceding; Mata do Paraíso ; Dec. 2000; Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same locality as preceding; Dec. 1998; Falqueto and Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same locality as preceding; Dec. 1999, Vaz-de-Mello CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding, FIT; 13 Feb. 2015; S. Aloquio, A. Orsetti, C. Lopes-Andrade and M. Bento leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Berizal, fazenda [‘Faz”] Veredão ; 15°39 ′ 18 ″ S, 41°39 ′ 16 ″ W, 13–18 Dec. 2012; P. Grossi leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Distrito Federal, Brasília , FAL-UNB [“Faz Água Limpa”], gallery forest; FIT; 15°56 ′ 25.1 ″ S, 47°56 ′ 22.2 ″ W; 4 Dec. 2013; T. Bernardes leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; PNB, gallery forest, FIT; 14°44 ′ 49,5 ″ S, 48°00 ′ 32,3 ″ W; 11 Nov. 2015; N.H.D.Silva leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; 21 Dec. 2015; N.H.D. Silva leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; 27 Nov. 2015; N.H.D. Silva leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; 12 Jan. 2016; N.H.D.Silva leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Paraná, Campina Grande do Sul, Estrada da mandaçaia; FIT; 25°17 ′ 54 ″ S, 49°02 ′ 30 ″ W; 7–10 Apr. 2014; F.W.T. Leivas leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis

Canthidium gigas  resembles C. bokermanni  in the presence of a transverse carina on the head and distinct punctation on the pronotal disc. They differ only in the dorsal curvature of the parameres. In C. gigas  , in dorsal view, the parameres have a strong angulation on their apical half and bear a concave medial excavation from the middle to the apex; in lateral view, the parameres have a dorsal angulation of 120°. In C. bokermanni  , in dorsal view, the apical angulation is almost absent and there is a shallow medial excavation at the apex; in lateral view, the parameres have a dorsal internal angulation of 160°.

Type locality

Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Originally said to be Cayenne, French Guiana, but this is an error. See geographic distribution below.

Redescription

HEAD. Surface with dense and distinct punctation, particularly on clypeus. With a transverse raised projection in the front.

PRONOTUM. Without anteromedial depression, disc anteriorly convex, sometimes with an anterior sinuosity forming two broad and shallow depressions (both surrounding the medial line). Surface with dense and distinct punctation, attenuating towards the centre of disc, where punctation is fine and sparse.

HYPOMERON. With microstriae and setae in the basal part. Hypomeral carina complete curved throughout its length.

METAVENTRITE. With simple and shallow punctation, laterobasal region with stronger punctation, lateral region with microsculpture obscurely variolate, almost semicircular.

MESEPIMERON AND MESEPISTERNUM. With shallow punctation, stronger microsculpture obscurely variolate, almost semicircular.

HIND LEG. Metafemora with a carina along posterior edge, anterior edge with setal fringe, surface with fine punctation. Metatibiae elongated and gradually dilated towards the apex presenting a sinuosity; external margin serrated.

AEDEAGUS. In dorsal view, parameres with a strong angulation in apical half and with a concave excavation from the middle to the apex; in lateral view, with internal medial angulation of 120° dorsally.

Variations and sexual dimorphism

Length ranging from 9.40 to 12.65 mm. Transverse projection of head sometimes not well defined. The males have a tooth in the upper ventral part, more developed in some specimens than in others. Males with ventrite VI wider medially, female ventrite VI of the same length throughout. Males also have protibial spur flattened, while in females the protibial spur is narrowed and pointed.

Geographical distribution

The specimens examined were mostly collected in the Brazilian states of Minas Gerais, São Paulo, Espírito Santo and Paraná in the Atlantic rainforest biome, located in the Paraná dominion. The record from Distrito Federal is surprising for the species. Judging from the rest of the known distribution, its presence there may be due to gallery forest connecting it to the Atlantic Forest on the coast. Although the holotype is labelled as coming from French Guiana, we believe this represents a mislabelling, since no other specimens have been reported from that region. Furthermore, the German entomologist Carl Felsche (who acquired the specimen) was known for buying insects, and this kind of mislabelling has been seen before with his specimens (FZVM, personal observation).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) bokermanni ( Martínez et al., 1964) 

Figs 3View Fig, 10View Fig

Neocanthidium bokermanni Martínez et al., 1964: 168 ‒ 172  (original description).

Neocanthidium bokermanni – Solís & Kohlmann 2004: 5  (checklist). — Kohlmann & Solís 2006: 236 (checklist). — Cupello 2018: 453, 465, 467 (checklist).

Canthidium (Canthidium) bokermanni – Martínez & Halffter 1986: 21  (checklist).

Canthidium bokermanni – Nunes & Vaz-de-Mello 2013: 416  (mention).

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) bokermanni – Cupello 2018: 467  (new subgeneric assignment).

Dichotomius (Luederwaldtinia) paraguayanus Gandini & Aguilar, 2009  (parts): 139, figs 1–8 (2 paratypes).

Type material examined

Holotype

ARGENTINA • ♂; handwritten label; “ ARGENTINA, TUCUMAN, Dto BURRUYAÇÚ/ Km. 5 Burruyaçu/ a San Ramón/ Coll. Martínez // 28-III- 946”; “ HOLOTYPUS ”; “ Neocanthidium  / bokermanni  / M., H. y P sp. n. ♂ / A. MARTÍNEZ DET.1963”; “MACN-En 903”; MACN. 

Paratypes BOLIVIA • 1 ♀; Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz de la Sierra; 17°52 ′ 00.00 ″ S, 63°00 ′ 00.00 ″ E; 10 Nov. 1955; R. Zischa leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  .

Dichotomius paraguayanus 

Paratypes PARAGUAY • 1 ♂; Concepción, Zanja Morotí ; 17 Nov. 2001; Martínez leg.; CEMT  1 ♂; Boquerón, Loma Plata ; 24 Sep. 1995; Drechsel leg.; CEMT  .

Other specimens examined

ARGENTINA • 1 ♀; Chaco, Potrero ; 26º08 ′ 35.8 ″ S, 61º41 ′ 49.5 ″ W; 31 Oct. 2016; Guerra Alonso leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  .

BOLIVIA • 1 ♂; Santa Cruz, Germán Busch, Puerto Suárez, Cerro de Mutum ; 18°58 ′ 00 ″ S, 57°47 ′ 53.00 ″ E; Dec. 2012; P. Wagner leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Tarija, between Caiza and Crevaux; blue light; 21°48 ′ 53 ″ S, 63°26 ′ 53 ″ W; 536 m a.s.l.; 5 Jan. 2005; Mann, Hamel and Herzog leg.; OUMNHGoogleMaps  .

BRAZIL • 1 ♀; Mato Grosso, Cuiabá ; 8 Mar. 2016; L.P. Melo leg.; CEMT  1 ♀; Chapada dos Parecis , 30 km N Uirapuru; FIT; 14°17 ′ S, 59°15 ′ W; 1–15 Dec. 2001; A. Foucart leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Diamantino, Vale da Solidão, riparian Forest ; 14°21 ′ 50 ″ S, 56°7 ′ 23 ″ W; 18 Feb. 2009; D.T.C. Oliveira leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; same locality as for preceding; 26 Jan. 2009; D.T.C. Oliveira leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; 14°21 ′ 52 ″ S, 56°7 ′ 23 ″ W; 23 Dec. 2008 – 26 Jan. 2009; D.T.C. Oliveira leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding; 14°22 ′ 23 ″ S, 56°7 ′ 25 ″ W; 31 Jan.–14 Feb. 2009; D.T.C. Oliveira leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Porto Estrela, Estação Ecológica [“Est. Eco”] Serra das Araras; light trap; 15°39 ′ 14 ″ S, 57°13 ′ 1 ″ W; Nov. 2003; L. Kaminski leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same locality as for preceding, Boca do José ; FIT; 15°39 ′ 14 ″ S, 57°13 ′ 1 ″ W; Nov. 2003; R. Nunes leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Tangará da Serra ; 27 Mar. 2016; G.A.A. Arenhart leg.; BMNH  2 ♀♀; Tangará da Serra, Chácara Asa Branca ; manual collection; 14°32 ′ 42 ″ S, 58°40 ′ 28 ″ W; Nov. 2011; E. Meurer leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Tangará da Serra, Campus UNEMAT; light trap; 14º38 ′ 58 ″ S, 57º25 ′ 24 ″ W; 439 m a.s.l.; R.J. Silva leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Chácara Paraíso , semideciduous forest; FIT; 14°39 ′ 4 ″ S, 57°24 ′ 55 ″ W; 460 m a.s.l.; 26 Jan. 2011; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; same data as for preceding; BMNHGoogleMaps  2 ♂♂; Campos de Júlio , Chapada dos Parecis, 30 km N of Uirapuru; FIT; 14°17 ′ S, 59°15 ′ W; Dec. 2002; A. Foucart leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Cuiabá ; 8 Mar. 2016; P.L. Mello leg.; CEMT  1 ♀; Cláudia, Fazenda [“Faz.”] Iracema ; 11º37 ′ 44 ″ S, 55º05 ′ 54 ″ W; 20 Feb. 2011; M.F. Souza leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Mato Grosso do Sul, Corguinho, Quinta do Sol ; FIT; 19°49 ′ 57 ″ S, 54°49 ′ 45 ″ W; Feb. 2011; L.O. Bavutti leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis

Canthidium bokermanni  resembles C. gigas  in the presence of a transverse carina on the head and distinct punctation of the pronotal disc; it differs only in the dorsal angles of the parameres. See comments under C. gigas  for more details.

Redescription

HEAD. Surface with dense and distinctly punctation, especially on clypeus. With a transverse raised projection in the front.

PRONOTUM. Without anteromedial depression, disc anteriorly convex, sometimes with an anterior sinuosity forming two broad and shallow depressions (both surrounding the medial line).

HYPOMERON. With microstriae and setae in the basal part. Hypomeral carina complete, curved throughout its length.

METAVENTRITE. With simple and shallow punctation, laterobasal region with stronger punctation, lateral region with microsculpture obscurely variolate, almost semicircular.

MESEPIMERON AND MESEPISTERNUM. With shallow punctation, stronger microsculpture obscurely variolate, semicircular.

HIND LEG. Metafemora with a carina along posterior edge, anterior edge with setal fringe, surface with fine punctation. Metatibiae elongated and gradually dilated towards the apex; external margin serrated.

AEDEAGUS. In dorsal view, parameres lacking angulation apically and with a shallow excavation at apex; in lateral view, dorsally with internal median angulation of 160°.

Variation and sexual dimorphism

Total length ranges from 9 to 13 mm. The transverse carina of the head varies from rectangular to oval, regardless of the size and sex of the specimen. The males have a tooth in the upper ventral part, more developed in some specimens than in others. Males have ventrite VI wider medially, female ventrite VI is of the same length throughout. Males also have protibial spur flattened, while in females the protibial spur is narrowed and pointed.

Geographical distribution

The specimens examined were collected in Argentina (Chaco), Brazil (Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul), Bolivia (Santa Cruz), and Paraguay (Concepción and Boquerón). The species occurs in two different biogeographic dominions: the Chacoan dominion and the South Brazilian dominion.

Comments

Two paratypes of Dichotomius paraguayanus  , which were incorrectly interpreted as females by Gandini & Aguilar (2009), proved to be males and to belong to C. bokermanni  .

NMPC

National Museum Prague

MZSP

Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MACN

Museo Argentino de Ciencias Naturales Bernardino Rivadavia

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Canthidium

Loc

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) gigas Balthasar, 1939

Carvalho De Santana, Edrielly C., Pacheco, Thaynara L. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z. 2019
2019
Loc

Canthidium gigas

Balthasar V. 1939: 127
Loc

Canthidium gigas – Martínez 1947: 111

Martinez A. 1947: 111
Loc

Canthidium (Canthidium) gigas – Martínez & Halffter 1986: 27

Martinez A. & Halffter G. 1986: 27
Loc

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) gigas – Cupello 2018: 469

Cupello M. 2018: 469
Loc

Neocanthidium gigas – Vulcano & Pereira 1964: 592

Vulcano M. A. & Pereira F. S. 1964: 592
Loc

Neocanthidium bokermanni – Solís & Kohlmann 2004: 5

Cupello M. 2018: 453
Kohlmann B. & Solis A. 2006: 236
Solis A. & Kohlmann B. 2004: 5
Loc

Canthidium (Canthidium) bokermanni – Martínez & Halffter 1986: 21

Martinez A. & Halffter G. 1986: 21
Loc

Canthidium bokermanni –

Nunes R. V. & Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. 2013: 416
Loc

Canthidium (Neocanthidium) bokermanni – Cupello 2018: 467

Cupello M. 2018: 467