Rhinolophus chiewkweeae, Yoshiyuki & Lim, 2005
Yoshiyuki, Mizuko & Lim, Boo Liat, 2005, A New Horseshoe Bat, Rhinolophus chiewkweeae (Chiroptera, Rhinolophidae), from Malaysia, Bulletin of the Natural Science Museum, Tokyo (A) 31 (1), pp. 29-36 : 30-35
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Rhinolophus chiewkweeae sp. nov.
[Japanese name: Rimu Kikugashira-koumori]
Holotype. Adult female, NSMT-M 33472 , Gunung Ledang , 2°84'N, 102°57'E, Tangkak, Muar, Johore, a submontane dipterocarp forest appoximately 1276 m in elevation, Malaysia, col lected on 13 September 1998, by Boo Liat Lim.
Measurements (in mm) of the holotype. Forearm 55.4, head and body 63.0, tail 19.0, tail percent 30%, tibia 27.0, ear 26.0, antitragus anterior 13.0, posterior 3.5, hind foot cum unguis 12.5, third metacarpal 38.6, fourth metacarpal 42.3, fifth metacarpal 42.9, nose leaf (length Xwidth) 18X12, greatest length of skull to front of upper incisors 25.9, length of skull from condyle to ca nine 22.6, interorbital constriction 2.7, zygomatic width 13.1, width of braincase 10.3, depth of braincase 6.81, mastoid width 11.6, width across from left upper canine to right upper canine 6.4, width across from left upper last molar to right upper last molar 9.5, length from upper canine to upper last molar 10.3, mandibular length 17.4, length from lower canine to lower last molar 10.9.
Paratypes. One skin, five alcoholic skins and six skulls collected by Boo Liat Lim: NSMT-M 33470 , female, 14 Feb. 1991, Asahan Forest Re serve (2°39'N, 102°56'E), Jasin, Malacca, a hill dipterocarp forest approximately 800 m in eleva tion GoogleMaps ; NSMT-M 33471 , male, 13 Sept. 1998, Gunung Ledang (2°84'N, 102°57'E), Tangkak , Johore, a submontane dipterocarp forest approxi mately 1276 m in elevation ; NSMT-M 33473 , fe male, 16 Jan. 1990, Asahan Forest Reserve (2°39'N, 102°56'E), Jasin, Malacca, a hill dip terocarp forest approximately 800 m in elevation GoogleMaps ; NSMT-M 33474 , female, 30 Feb. 1998. Labis Forest Reserve (2°28'N, 103 ° 04'E). Segamat, Johore, a lowland dipterocarp forest about 150 m in elevation GoogleMaps ; NSMT-M 33475 , male, 19 Aug. 1992, Lubok Semilan (6°37'N, 99 ° 87'E). Ulu Melaka, Pulau Langkawi , Kedah, a lowland dipterocarp forest approximately 100 m in elevation ; NSMT-M 33476 , male, 19 Dec. 1990. Weng Subcatchment Area (6°34'N, 100°57'E), Ulu Muda Forest Reserve, Baling Kedah, a hill dipte rocarp forest approximately 900 m in elevation GoogleMaps .
Diagnosis. Belongs to Rhinolophus pearsoni group ( Csorba et al., 2003), medium in size (see Table 1 View Table 1 ), but ear and tail lengths shorter than those of the. pearsoni group, antitragal lobe high. Lower lip with single groove. Hairs on connecting process, sella, anterior and posterior nose leaf sparse. Dorsal fur color orange brown, ventral surface lighter, membrane brownish. Zygomatic width greater, crown areas of incisor and anterior upper premolar large. Baculum long, ampulla and ala thick.
Description. External characters. — In general characters similar to the. pearsoni group (see Table 1 View Table 1 , Figs. 2 View Fig and 3). Ear short, 25.0 mm (average), antitragal lobe relatively large and high, height of anterior border 12.2 mm (average) from basal portion; tail short, 18.9 mm (average).
Horseshoe large, greatest length 18.0 mm (average) and greatest width 11.6 mm (average); anterior horseshoe wide, anteriorly emarginated deeply at central portion with hairs scarce on the surface. Lancet broadly triangular with three deep cells of lancet; intercellular septum swollen. Connecting process from apex of sella without hair, rounded and low in profile, its height a little less than that of the apex of the sella. Sella broadly rounded at apex with small basal lappets; in the facial view constricted in one-third and two-thirds portion parallel on sides. Lower lip with single groove.
Plagiopatagium attached to base of metatarsal and uropatagium inserted into lower portion of lower leg. The third metacarpal the shortest (38.2 mm, average); the fourth slightly shorter than the fifith (42.7 mm, average). The fur dense, long, and wooly in texture; dorsal color orange brown, ventral surface lighter, and membrane brownish.
Cranial and dental characters. — Skull with large braincase, with high sagittal and lambdoid crests and weak temporal crests: zygomatic arch wide, nose swelling high, and interorbital region narrow. Zygomatic width greater than that of mastoid width. The ratio of zygomatic width to condylo-canine length 59% instead of 55% in. pearsoni and 58% in. yunanensis. Interorbital constriction narrow, the ratio of interorbital constriction to condylo-canine length 13% instead of 11% in. pearsoni, and 12.5% in. yunanensis.
In the dorsal view of skull (see Fig. 3), anterior naris deep, rectangular, its posterior margin extending to level of center of upper first molars: nasal swelling expanded, mainly anterior mediar swellings swollen, lateral swellings slightly swollen, posterior swellings relatively concave rostral portion low, temporal crest weak; sagitta crest from the crossing point temporal and anteri or sagittal crest to lambdoid crest developec mainly anterior portion high and lambdoid cres low, branincase wide and swollen. In the ventrr view of skull, palatal emarginatiori deep, as square, the posterior margin extending to level c middle of upper posterior premolar. Palate lengt slightly longer than that of. pearsoni and. yt nanensis, mesopterygoid fossa U-shaped, widi than that of. pearsoni and. yunanensis . Si; of auditory bulla and cochleae similar to. pearM >ni group, covering one-third of surface of large cochleae. In the lateral view of skull, dorsal profile with anterior and posterior swellings; the for mer is the median nasal swelling, and the latter is the anterior portion of the sagittal crests. The lower portions with anterior naris, interorbital re gion, and lambda. Lacrimal foramen about 1 mm in diameter exposed, anterorbital foramen large.
Teeth heavy relative to size of skull. Upper and lower incisors larger than in the other species of. pearsoni group and the crown area of upper incisor wider than root. Upper canine weak, cin gulum developed, but inner portion weak, lower canine thick with strong cingulum; anterior upper premolar clearly separated from upper canine and posterior premolar, its crown area large, nearly pentagon-shaped with small cingulum in the tooth row.
Posterior upper premolar large, its crown area about equal to half of that of upper first molar, posterior border of crown straight; in contact with anterior upper premolar. Lower first premolar and third premolar similar to each other, but crown area of lower first premolar slightly small, middle lower premolar minute, rounded crown, about 1 mm in diameter, external to tooth row with weak cingulum, crowded closely together. First and middle upper molars similar to each other, but crown area of upper last molar about equal to two-thirds of that of upper first molar and upper middle molars, lower molars similar to one another.
Baculum. — General outline of baculum ( Topal, 1975) similar to that of. pearsoni, but the shape of ampulla and ala ( Imaizumi & Yoshiyuki, 1963) remarkably different. Total length 3.3 mm, the greatest width 0.8mm; length of ampulla 1.5 mm, occupies 53% of baculum length. Fossa on ampulla deep, ala of ampulla developed, thick. Dorsal central portion of ampulla emarginate deeply in a U-shape.
Etymology. The new species is named after the late Mrs. Chiew Kwee, the junior author’ s wife.
Remarks. The Rhinolophus pearsoni group ( Csorba et al., 2003) consists of. pearsoni Horsfield, 1851 (type locality; Darjeeling, West Bengal, Northeastern India) and. yunanensis Dobson, 1872 (type locality; Hotha, Yunnan, China). Rhinolophus pearsoni and. yunanensis are recognized as distinct species by Lekagul and Mcneely (1977), Hill (1986), Yoshiyuki (1990), and Csorba et al. (2003). The former occurs from China, North India, Nepal, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Laos P. D. R. to Thailand, and the latter occurs from Southeastern China, Northeastern India, and North Myanmar to Thailand ( Fig. 4 View Fig ).
The coefficients of differences (CD= MB — M a/S. D.b + S. D.a) of Rhinolophus chiewkweeae sp. nov. and the two species in the pearsoni group and the percentage of nonoverlap in population curves is shown in Tables 2 View Table 2 and 3 View Table 3 .
The conventional level of taxonomic species difference is shown as the value of CD 1.34 ( Imaizumi, 1966: 189).
According to this, among 16 dimensions of external, cranial and dental characters of. chiewkweeae and. pearsoni (see Tables 1 View Table 1 and 2 View Table 2 ), the CD of dimensions of 12 characters is larger than I 34 and the percentage of nonoverlap in popula tion curves of. chiewkweeae and. pearsoni is 94.2-99.9 percent. These dimensions of characters are the forearm (95.4%), ear length (95.5%), condylo-canine length (99.6%), interorbital constriction (94.2%), zygomatic width (99.9%), width of brain case (99.3%), mastoid width (99.5%), width from left upper canine to right upper canine (98.2%), width from left upper last molar to right upper last molar (98.6%), length from upper canine to upper last molar (98.0%), mandible (99.9%), and length from lower canine to lower last molar (99.4%). As these characters of. chiewkweeae are different from 94.2-99.9 percent of the individuals of. pearsoni, the two species are recognized to be distinct at the species level.
In the CD of 16 dimensions of characters in.
chiewkweeae and. yunanensis , the CD of di mensions of 6 characters is larger than 1.34 and the percentage of nonoverlap in the population curves of. chiewkweeae and. yunanensis is 93.9-99.9 percent.
These dimensions of characters are the head and body (99.7%), ear length (99.9%), condylocanine length (93.9%), interorbital constriction (99.9%), length from upper canine to upper last molar (96.5%), and mandible (94.2%) (see Tables 1 View Table 1 and 3 View Table 3 ). As these characters of. chiewk weeae are different from 93.9-99.9 percent of the individuals of. yunanensis , the two species are different at the species level.
|. chiewkweeae sp. nov.||. pearsoni||R. yunanensis|
|N||M + SD||N||M±SD||N||M±SD|
|Forearm||7||56.1 ±0.81||8||51.5±1.897||9||58.7± 1.498|
|Head and body||7||64.0±0.93||8||60.8±1.639||9||67.2±0.230|
|Hind foot cum unguis||7||14.0±0.926||8||13.0±0.559||9||14.7 + 0.527|
|Ear length||7||25.0 + 0.76||8||27.7±0.827||9||30.9 + 0.667|
|Condylo-canine length||7||22.3±0.404||8||20.3±0.349||7||23 4±0.307|
|Zygomatic width||7||13.2 + 0.106||8||11.1+0.360||7||13.6±0.214|
|Width of braincase||7||10.3±0.186||8||9.1 ±0.298||—||—|
|Width from left upper canine to||7||6.7±0.213||8||5.9 + 0.167||7||7.0+0.22|
|right upper canine|
|Width from left upper last molar 7||9.5±0.215||8||8.6±0.192||7||9.8±0.14|
|to right upper last molar|
|Length from upper canine to||7||10.1 ±0.122||8||9.2±0.318||7||10 7±0.21|
|upper last molar|
|Mandible||7||17.2 + 0.307||8||15.5±0.240||7||18.2±0.33|
|Length from lower canine to||7||10.8±0.203||8||9.7 + 0.238||7||11.4±0.29|
|lower last molar|
|Character||CDof R. chiewkweeae and. pearsoni||Percentage of nonoveriap in both population curves (%)|
|Head and body||1.28||90.0|
|Hind foot cum unguis||0.67||74.9|
|Width of braincase||2.48||99.3|
|Width from left upper|
|canine to right upper||2.11||98.2|
|canine Width from left upper last|
|molar to right upper last||2 21||98.6|
|Length from upper canine to upper last molar||2 05||98 0|
|Length from lower canine to lower last molar||? 4Q||99 4|
|CD of. 1 Percentage of|
|Character||nonoverlap chiewkweeae in both and population. yunanensis curves (%)|
|Head and body||2.75||99.7|
|Hind foot cum unguis||0.48||68.4|
|Width of braincasc||0.93||82.3|
|Width from left upper|
|canine to right upper||0.86||80.5|
|Width from left upper last|
|molar to right upper last||0.85||80.2|
|Length from upper canine to upper last molar||1 81||96 5|
|Length from lower canine to lower last molar||1 22||88 9|
Botanische Staatssammlung München
Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile
Universidade de Lisboa, Museu Bocage
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