Xenogryllus maichauensis Gorochov, 1992

Jaiswara, Ranjana, Dong, Jiajia, Ma, Libin, Yin, Haisheng & Robillard, Tony, 2019, Taxonomic revision of the genus Xenogryllus Bolívar, 1890 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Eneopterinae, Xenogryllini), Zootaxa 4545 (3), pp. 301-338: 315-323

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Xenogryllus maichauensis Gorochov, 1992


Xenogryllus maichauensis Gorochov, 1992 

( Figs 1View FIGURE 1 L–O, 3E–F, 4C, 5C, 7L–N, 8D, 9C, 10B, 11E–G, 12A, 13)

Xenogryllus maichauensis Gorochov, 1992: 9  —Kim & Pham 2014: 60; Cigliano et al. 2018 ( Orthoptera  Species File Online); Jing et al. 2018: 274.

Xenogryllus transversus  — Yin & Liu 1995: 96; Robillard et al. 2007: 1267 (song frequency, wrong identification); He 2018: 516; Cigliano et al. 2018 ( Orthoptera  Species File Online) (wrong identification).

Type material. Holotype, ♂, Vietnam: Mai Châu ( ZIN) [examined]. 

Additional material examined. China: YunnanGoogleMaps  , Mengla, E101°33’ N21°28’, 3.ix.1991, Zuyao Liu, Tianqi Wang   GoogleMaps & Heisheng Yin   GoogleMaps: 1♂ (14062446), 2♀ (14062547, 14062622) (SIPPE). Mengla Distr. , 12–23.x.2014, coll. Zhang Tao, 14♂, 2♀, ( SNNU)  . San Chahe, Mongyang, E98°22’ N25°23’, 31.vii.1995, Xianwei Liu , Weinian Zhang , Xingbao Jin , 1♂ (14062620) ( SIPPE)GoogleMaps  . Xi Shuang Ban Na, 580 m, 10.ix.1993, Xinyue Chen , 3♂, (14064963, 14064964, 14064966); 2♂, 7.ix.1993 (14064968, no number); 1♂, 5.ix.1993 (14064967) ( SIPPE)  . Monglun Xi Shuang Ban Na, E101°15’ N21°56’, 5.ix.1993, Longlong Yang, 2♀, (14064969, 14064971); 7.ix.1993, Xinyae Chen , 1♀ (14064970) ( SIPPE)GoogleMaps  . Jinhong, E 101°15’ N21°56°, Zuyao Liu, Tianqi Wang , Heisheng Yin : 6.ix.1991, 3♂ (14062619, 14062546, 14062448); 8.ix.1991, 1♂ (14062447) ( SIPPE)  . Jinghong, [N22°0'6.97" 100°46'25.07"E], 9.ix.1991, Zuyao Liu, Tianqi Wang , Heisheng Yin , 1♀ (14062449) ( SIPPE)GoogleMaps  . Mohan Vill. , 950 m, 3-ix.2005, coll. Xue Guoxi, 2♂ ( NWAFU)  . Guangdong, Shen zhen, [22°33'59.69"N, 114° 2'25.53"E], 9.x.2012, Zhang Tao [online photograph]GoogleMaps  . Thailand: Tak, Doi Musoe, 700 m, Agric. Res. Stn at night, 9.x.1990, S. Ingrish : 1♀, 1♂, molecular sample XtrTh, identified Xenogryllus transversus  by S. Ingrish ( ZFMK)  . Mae Salid, Monkrathing, 17°30' N, 98°5' E, 700 m, 19.ix.1989 – 21.ix.1989, S. Ingrisch , 1♂, mountain forest and agricultural land [day collecting and night collecting following stridulation, Stridulation recorded by S.Ingrisch 0295DXEN.WAV [old ID CIGxentraSW03], identified Xenogryllus transversus  by S. Ingrish ( ZFMK)GoogleMaps  . Umphang, 1–6 km S., 15° 59' N, 98° 50' E, 16.x.1991, S. Ingrisch , 1♂, bamboo forest, along road and trails, stridulation recorded by S. Ingrisch 0510XENO.WAV, identified Xenogryllus transversus  by S. Ingrish ( ZFMK)GoogleMaps  . Chiang Mai, Roadside bw Samoeng and Mae Rim , 18°50'N, 99°0°, 1♂, 11.x.1991, S. Ingrisch , 1♂, stridulation recorded by S. Ingrisch 0502XENO.WAV, [old ID CIGxentraSW05], roadside at night, identified Xenogryllus transversus  by S. Ingrish ( ZFMK)  . Petchabun, Nam Nao, 16°47'N, 101°27'O, 1000 m, S. Ingrisch; 13.ix.1989 – 14.ix.1989, S. Ingrisch, 1♂, stridulation recorded by S. Ingrisch 0286XENO.WAV [old ID CIGxentraSW01], mixed Oak-Pine forest , grassy undergrowth, Bamboo thicket [day collecting and night collecting following stridulation], identified Xenogryllus transversus  by S. Ingrish ( ZFMK)GoogleMaps  .

Type locality. Mai Châu , Vietnam  .

Distribution. Southern China, Northern Vietnam and Northern Thailand.

Emended diagnosis. Species of large size, similar in size, venation and coloration to X. transversus  , from which it differs mostly by male genitalia, with pseudepiphallic lophi forming curved elongate hooks widened apically ( Fig. 8DView FIGURE 8), while lophi are straight in X. transversus  ( Fig. 8IView FIGURE 8).

Redescription. In addition to the characters of the genus, X. maichauensis  has a large size and a light brown or golden coloration ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 L–O). Fastigium slightly widened apically as in X. ululiu  and X. transversus  ( Fig. 4CView FIGURE 4). Eyes rather small, located on face, restricted to the dorsal third of head in lateral view ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 E–F). Lateral angle of dorsal disc of pronotum not carinated, with a thin yellow band underlined by a thin black line anteriorly. Hind wings tail gray brown, twice as long as pronotum.

Male. Pronotum dorsal disc more rectangular than in X. transversus  , with a wide black median longitudinal band, its posterior margin slightly bisinuate. FW venation ( Fig. 5CView FIGURE 5): 1A forming a straight angle, with 299 stridulatory teeth (n=1) located on transverse part of 1A. Dark coloration anterior to 1A not including angle of file. Harp wide. Mirror large, well-rounded, its inner limit curved. Apical field forming a triangle longer than wide, with six cell alignments.

Male genitalia ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 L–N): Characteristic Y-shaped pseudepiphallic lophi forming curved elongate hooks, widened apically, with a sharp dorsal preapical expansion ( Fig. 8DView FIGURE 8). Rami strong, convergent apically, with a ventral posterior expansion reaching base of pseudepiphallic lateral membranous lobes. Ectophallic apodemes long and thin. Ectophallic fold and endophallic sclerite almost fused, forming a wide sclerotized plate, trifurcate posteriorly; endophallic apodemes made of wide lateral lamellas.

Female: Head slightly wider than pronotum, with strong jaws visible from dorsal view ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 N–O). Dorsal disc of pronotum almost rectangular, its posterior margin slightly bisinuate. FWs light brown, anterior dark spot larger than in X. ululiu  , X. transversus  and X. marmoratus  . Dorsal field with nine strong longitudinal veins. Subgenital plate with a V-shaped apical indentation with rounded edges ( Fig. 9CView FIGURE 9). Ovipositor ( Fig. 10BView FIGURE 10) as long as FIII.

Female genitalia: Copulatory papilla ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11 E–F) conical, its apex rounded and sclerotized.

Life history traits. In Vietnam, the type specimens were found in forest, on leaves of bushes near a stream (A. Gorochov, pers. comm.). According to the information associated with the recordings made by S. Ingrish in Thailand available on the Orthoptera  Species Files online under the name X. transversus ( Cigliano et al. 2018)  , the species was found in mixed oak-pine forest on grassy undergrowth with bamboo thicket. Males call at night on vegetation.

Calling song. ( Figs 12AView FIGURE 12, 13View FIGURE 13) X. maichauensis  was recorded in Thailand by S. Ingrish ( Cigliano et al. 2018). At 24.5°C, the calling song is made of short echemes quickly repeated and composed of 2–4 long syllables (m = 3.02 ± 0.63), lasting for 179.5 ± 41.6 ms, with a period of 502 ± 42 ms. Within echemes, the first syllable has a lower amplitude than the next ones. Syllables are rather long (duration = 46.5 ± 1.7 ms) with a syllable period of 65.1 ± 1.7 ms (syllable duty cycle = 71%). The frequency spectrum shows a dominant frequency at 4.91 ± 0.07 kHz followed by two powerful harmonics.

Measurements. See Table 4.

Taxonomic discussion. The male genitalia of the specimen from Thailand shows slightly different pseudepiphallic lophi compared to the holotype from Vietnam and examined males from China, with more straight apical branches and less globular apex ( Fig. 7View FIGURE 7 L–M). Such differences are however based on too few observations to characterize a new species.


Russian Academy of Sciences, Zoological Institute, Zoological Museum


Zoologisches Forschungsmuseum Alexander Koenig














Xenogryllus maichauensis Gorochov, 1992

Jaiswara, Ranjana, Dong, Jiajia, Ma, Libin, Yin, Haisheng & Robillard, Tony 2019

Xenogryllus maichauensis

Jing, X. & Zhang, T. & Ma, L. 2018: 274
Gorochov, A. V. 1992: 9

Xenogryllus transversus

Robillard, T. & Grandcolas, P. & Desuter-Grandcolas, L. 2007: 1267
Yin, H. & Liu, X. W. 1995: 96