Xenogryllus Bolívar, 1890

Jaiswara, Ranjana, Dong, Jiajia, Ma, Libin, Yin, Haisheng & Robillard, Tony, 2019, Taxonomic revision of the genus Xenogryllus Bolívar, 1890 (Orthoptera, Gryllidae, Eneopterinae, Xenogryllini), Zootaxa 4545 (3), pp. 301-338: 304-306

publication ID


publication LSID


persistent identifier


treatment provided by


scientific name

Xenogryllus Bolívar, 1890


Xenogryllus Bolívar, 1890 

Type species: Xenogryllus eneopteroides Bolívar, 1890  . Xenogryllus Bolívar, 1890: 232  ; Kirby 1906: 106; Chopard 1968: 349; 1969: 307; Vasanth 1993: 130; Robillard & Desutter- Grandcolas 2008: 67; Cigliano et al. 2018 ( Orthoptera  Species File Online); Jing et al. 2018: 274 (Chinese Xenogryllus  ).

Synonym names:

Dindymus Kirby, 1906: 88  —incorrect spelling of Dionymus  .

Dionymus Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893: 213  — Chopard 1968: 349.

Emended diagnosis. Genus of average to large size, differing from Pseudolebinthus  by FWs as long or longer than abdomen in both sexes (shorter in Pseudolebinthus  ), hind wings longer than FWs, forming a short tail posterior to FWs. Eyes small and little prominent, located on face. Face with a whitish or yellowish mask with dark spots. FIII long and thin. Male. Dorsal disc of pronotum forming a wide trapezoid. FWs almost completely overlapping, widened basally, usually forming a characteristic box around abdomen, twice as wide as abdomen. FW cells with thin longitudinal wrinkles, including harp and mirror, absent in Pseudolebinthus  . Left and right FWs similar in sclerotization and coloration (asymmetrical in Pseudolebinthus  ). Male genitalia: Pseudepiphallic sclerite longer than rami; lophi long and sclerotized (shorter in Pseudolebinthus  ). Lophi with apical hook-like inner expansions. Pseudepiphallic sclerite with lateral membranous lobes. Rami strong and short, their apex convergent and hooklike. Female. Dorsal disc of pronotum almost rectangular. FWs as long as in male, not widened, reaching apex of abdomen. Ovipositor flattened longitudinally as in other eneopterine genera, its apex rounded and smooth. Female Copulatory papilla long, thin and conical.

Redescription. Genus of average to large size ( Figs 1–2View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2), generally light brown to ochre, with a few dark patterns on FWs. Vertex with five wide longitudinal dark bands ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4), including a wide median one prolonged on fastigium, two lateral bands more or less marked, made of aggregates of brown dots, and two thin stripes posterior to eyes. Eyes rather small, little prominent, ornamented with thin dorso-ventral dark stripes. Fastigium forming a wide rectangular rostrum slightly prominent on face. Scapes yellow with brown patterns, antennae light brown. Face with a whitish mask with dark spots ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3). Lateral part of head and lateral lobes of pronotum almost homogeneously brown. Legs brown. TI with two tympana; inner tympanum covered by a sclerotized expansion, its membrane visible along a small longitudinal slit only; outer tympanum oval in shape, its surface smooth. TI with three apical spurs; outer dorsal apical spur absent. TII with four apical spurs (two dorsal and two ventral). FIII long and thin; TIII with four outer and four inner sub-apical spurs.

Male. Dorsal disc of pronotum forming a wide trapezoid. FWs almost completely overlapping, widened basally, forming a wide box around abdomen ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5), with glandular structures on metanotum ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6). FW cells with thin longitudinal wrinkles. Left and right FWs similar in sclerotization and coloration. FWs light brown, translucent, with the following pattern of black spots on dorsal field: wide black transverse band anterior to transverse part of 1A, including file angle in some species; four corners or mirror and median area of chords with faint dark markings ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5). Harp with two complete parallel oblique veins and one incomplete oblique vein between diagonal vein and first complete oblique; harp distal angle concave. Mirror large and rounded, separated in two sub-equal parts by a sinuous accessory vein. Cell d2 crescent-like, thin and underlying mirror. Cell e1 very long and curved, underlying posterior margin of mirror. Apical field well developed, triangular, including 4–5 cell alignments. Lateral field crossed by numerous parallel branches of Sc.

Male genitalia ( Fig.7View FIGURE 7): Pseudepiphallic sclerite longer than rami; pseudepiphallic lophi very long and sclerotized, with apical hook-like inner expansions ( Fig. 8View FIGURE 8). Pseudepiphallic sclerite with lateral membranous lobes. Membrane at bases of pseudepiphallus forming a sclerotized plate; basal margin with a ventral reinforcement. Rami usually strong with convergent hook-like apex; most often with a ventral posterior expansion reaching base of pseudepiphallic membranous lateral lobes. Pseudepiphallic parameres with one strong rectangular ventral lobe covered with scale-like reliefs, with a basal lobe mostly membranous. Ectophallic arc nearly membranous. Ectophallic apodemes usually strong. Ectophallic ventral expansions well developed and sclerotized. Ectophallic fold entirely sclerotized ventrally, its lateral expansions partly fused with lateral arms of endophallic sclerite. Endophallic sclerite forming a flat plate with long latero-posterior arms and a short medio-posterior triangular expansion. Endophallic apodeme with two wide lateral lamellas and no dorsal crest.

Female. Pronotum dorsal disc almost rectangular. FWs as long as in male, reaching apex of abdomen or slightly longer, not widened as in male; light brown with a dark spot of variable size between veins CuP and CuA, near lateral angle, at ¼ of FW length; with strong longitudinal veins and faint transverse ones. Lateral field crossed by numerous parallel branches of Sc; area between R and Sc most often with a thin dark brown band. Subgenital plate variably indented apically ( Fig. 9View FIGURE 9). Ovipositor flattened longitudinally, its apex rounded and smooth ( Fig. 10View FIGURE 10). Female copulatory papilla: long, thin and conical, its sclerotization variable ( Fig. 11View FIGURE 11).

Distribution. Japan, Southern China, Taiwan, India, Sri Lanka, Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, Bangladesh and Sub-Saharan Africa.

Natural history. Xenogryllus  species live in open areas, in grassland and savannah. Males sing at night from low bushy vegetation.












Xenogryllus Bolívar, 1890

Jaiswara, Ranjana, Dong, Jiajia, Ma, Libin, Yin, Haisheng & Robillard, Tony 2019

Dionymus Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1893 : 213

Chopard, L. 1968: 349
Brunner von Wattenwyl, C. 1893: 213


Kirby, W. F. 1906: 88