Drosophila manni, Grimaldi, 2016

Grimaldi, David A., 2016, Revision of the Drosophila bromeliae Species Group (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Central American, Caribbean, and Andean Species, American Museum Novitates 2016 (3859), pp. 1-56 : 41-45

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1206/3859.1



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scientific name

Drosophila manni

new species

Drosophila manni , new species

Figures 1A View FIG , 2E View FIG ; 19A–C View FIG ; 21A, E View FIG

DIAGNOSIS: A relatively large species for the group (thorax length 1.03 mm [0.94–1.12]), body light to deep yellow overall (even abdomen and ocellar triangle); prescutellar seta ca. 0.52× length of posterior dorsocentral; aedeagus arched in lateral view, distiphallus with distinctive pair of large, ventral spines; surstylus with relatively few (7) prensisetae, tip of epandrial lobe pointed; oviscapt long (length 3.0× width), spermathecal length 1.26× the width.

DESCRIPTION: Male: Head: Frons uniform deep yellow; frontal index 1.00, top to bottom width ratio 1.47 (1.39–1.55). Ocellar triangle slightly raised above rest of front, yellow (not brown) between ocelli; triangle with anterior corner ca. 0.7× length of front. Orbital setae bronzed (lighter in lateral views), or1:or3 ratio 1.09 (1.06–1.13), or2:or1 ratio 0.60 (0.56– 0.64), postocellar setae 0.52× and ocellar setae 0.81× the frontal length, postocellar setae convergent; bases of ocellar setae lying slightly outside of tangent between medial and lateral setae; vt index 0.95. Vibrissal index 0.41 (0.33–0.50). Face slighty lighter than frons. Carina well developed, edge flattened, without sulcus, width of edge slightly less than that of pedicel. Cheek index about 0.12. Eye index 1.38 (1.34–1.42). Occiput largely deep yellow, except for infuscate brown area between occipital apodemes. Antenna slightly darker than front; pedicel with 2–3 extremely fine, light setae on inner surface; arista with 4 dorsal and 2 ventral branches, plus small terminal fork. Proboscis entirely light yellow; palpus slightly deeper yellow, with two subapical setae.

Thorax length 0.96 mm (0.94–0.99). Scutum uniformly deep yellow; 8 rows of acrostichals; 1 large pair of prescutellar setae, lengths 0.50 (0.41–0.59)× that of posterior dorsocentral setae; setae lateral to prescutellars only slightly differentiated from acrostichals; h index (not measureable). Transverse distance of dorsocentral setae 2.38× that of longitudinal distance. Scutellum same color as scutum; basal scutellars convergent; apical scutellars crossing 0.3–0.4× their lengths; scut index 1.22. Pleura same deep yellow as scutum, sterno index (not measureable). Halter very slightly infuscate. Legs slightly lighter than thoracic trunk.

Wing hyaline, veins dull yellowish, length 1.92 mm, length to width ratio 2.32 (2.20–2.44). Indices: C, 2.20 (2.15–2.25); ac, 2.52; hb, 0.56 (0.52–0.60); 4-C, 1.02 (0.98–1.06; 4V, 1.82; 5x, 1.34 (1.31–1.37); M, 0.48 (0.42–0.55). Vein C with 4–5 thicker spinules in Sc section; wing tip very slightly pointed, vein R 2+3 very slightly sinuous, not straight.

Abdomen entirely light yellow, even posterior margins of tergites; completely lacking dark, infuscate markings.

Male terminalia (fig. 19A–C): Epandrium with microtrichia, lacking setae except on ventral lobe of epandrium; ventral lobe with narrow tip (not rounded), lacking microtrichia but with ca. 6 setae. Cerci fused laterally to epandrium. Surstylus with microtrichia on lateral/outer surface, having mesal row of 7 large peglike prensisetae, plus 7–8 fine setae (several ventral ones slightly sclerotized). Subepandrial sclerite (not examined). Hypandrium slightly trapezoidal in shape, slightly longer than broad (L/W 1.15), lateral margins slightly convex, anterior edge emarginate in middle. Postgonites fused to hypandrium, each with short, minute apical seta. Aedeagus fused to aedeagal apodeme, evenly arched in lateral view, aedeagal angle 45°, shaft of aedeagus of moderate and even thickness throughout (length of shaft 7.5× the width); distiphallus long, length ca. 0.5× the aedeagal shaft, in ventral view with narrow tip, base with pair of large spines; aedeagal apodeme relatively long, rudderlike.

Female: General morphology similar to males. Measurements: Thorax length 1.11 mm; frontal width index 1.36 (0.96–1.03). or1:or3 ratio 1.05 (1.06–1.13), or2:or1 ratio 0.55, postocellar setae 0.48× and ocellar setae 0.70× the frontal length, vt index (not measurable). Vibrissal index 0.55. Cheek index about 0.12. Eye index 1.44. Prescutellar seta length 0.54× that posterior dorsocentral setae; h index (not measurable). Transverse distance of dorsocentral setae 2.96× the longitudinal distance. Scutellar seta index 0.83, sterno index (not measurable). Wing length 2.21 mm, length to width ratio 2.38. Wing indices: C, 2.52; ac, 2.39 (2.28–2.50); hb, 0.58 (0.55– 0.66); 4-C, 0.92 (0.86–0.98); 4v 1.66 (1.57–1.76); 5x 1.52 (1.44–1.61); M, 0.51 (0.46–0.57).

Female terminalia (figs. 21A, E): Oviscapt long, ca. 400 µm, length 2.8× the greatest width; valves narrow at tip in lateral view, with 19–20 marginal, peglike ovisensilla. Spermatheca relatively long, cup shaped, height 1.26× the width; basal introvert reaching about 0.40× length of capsule.

TYPE: Holotype, ♂: “Huachi Beni, BOLIVIA, Wm. M. Mann /Aug/Mulford BioExpl, 1921– 22.” Type in good condition, with distal 2/3 of abdomen removed, genitalia dissected by D.A.G. ( DBG 56 ) and stored in glass microvial on same pin as specimen. In NMNH. The locality probably refers to Huachi in El Beni Province, northeastern Bolivia, near the border with Rondônia, Brazil.

OTHER SPECIMENS: Paratypes: 3 ♀♀, 1♂ with same label data as holotype ; 1 ♀ is dissected ( DBG 54 ) (genitalia stored in microvial on specimen’s pin). Specimens in this type series are preserved in remarkably good condition, particularly given their 90 year age; cuticle of the specimens shows virtually no collapse or fading, and is very clean (the specimens may have been collected directly from their host flowers). In NMNH .

ETYMOLOGY: Patronym for William M. Mann (1886–1960), collector of the type series, myrmecologist, and eventually director of the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. Mann was the sole entomologist on the ill-fated Mulford Expedition, an engaging account of which was provided in the 1926 book White Waters and Black by the expedition’s guide, Gordon MacCreagh. Mann, aka “the entomologist” in the account, was one of the few intrepid expedition members, and for whom the book was dedicated: “To the bug-hunter, stout companion of the trail.”


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History