Drosophila penispina, Grimaldi, 2016

Grimaldi, David A., 2016, Revision of the Drosophila bromeliae Species Group (Diptera: Drosophilidae): Central American, Caribbean, and Andean Species, American Museum Novitates 2016 (3859), pp. 1-56 : 37-40

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1206/3859.1



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scientific name

Drosophila penispina

new species

Drosophila penispina , new species

Figures 1B View FIG , 2A View FIG , 5C View FIG , 17–18 View FIG View FIG

Drosophila florae Sturtevant, 1921: 72 (Costa Rican specimens: misidentification).

DIAGNOSIS: Moderate body size, thorax length 0.48–1.02 mm, light brown in color; prescutellars large (0.38–0.75 prescut index), laterally with pair or two of small prescutellars (sometimes barely larger than acr); wing tip slightly pointed (vs. rounded), R 2+3 slightly sinuous (vs. straight); aedeagus large, slightly curved in lateral view (aedeagal angle 117°–124°, mean 120°), thick, length 7.5–7.8× greatest width; ventroproximal margin of distiphallus with three small spines; oviscapt distinctively long, length 2.7× the width in ventral view, spermathecal capsule large, length ca. 1.2× the width.

DESCRIPTION: Male: Head: Frontal length 0.29 mm; frontal index 0.98 (0.93–1.03), top to bottom width ratio 1.42 (1.34–1.50). Ocellar triangle slightly raised and darker than surrounding front. Orbital setae dark and bronzed (not black), or1:or3 ratio 0.93, or2:or1 ratio 0.63 (0.60–0.66), postocellar setae 0.50× (0.48–0.52) and ocellar setae 0.70× of frontal length; oc setae slightly outside of ocellar triangle; vt index 1.025 (1.00–1.05). Vibrissal index 0.54 (0.43– 0.66). Face tan, lighter than front of head. Carina edge rounded, with or without slight sulcus. Cheek index 0.95. Eye index 1.35 (1.29–1.41). Occiput diffuse, light brown. Antenna same color as face; arista with 4 dorsal and 2 ventral branches, plus terminal fork. Proboscis and palps very light yellow.

Thorax length 0.79 mm (0.48–1.02). Scutum ochre to light brown, with diffuse, slightly darker paramedian areas; 6–8 rows of acrostichal setulae, rows irregular. Pair of large prescutellar setae, 0.4–0.7× length of posterior dorsocentral setae; setae lateral to prescutellars ca. 0.3– 0.5× as long as prescutellars; h index 0.81 (0.71–0.86). Transverse distance of dorsocentral setae 2.55× (2.05–3.09×) the longitudinal distance. Scutellum same color as scutum; basal scutellars convergent to nearly parallel; scut index 0.80 (0.74–0.90); apical scutellars convergent to slightly crossed at tips. Pleura slightly lighter than scutum, sterno index 0.71 (0.71–0.83). Halter and legs light, cream colored.

Wing hyaline, veins yellowish, length 2.02 mm (1.95–2.06), length to width ratio 2.22 (2.12–2.38). Indices: C, 2.31 (2.30–2.40); ac, 2.46 (2.10–2.78); hb, 0.53 (0.51–0.58), 4-C, 0.98 (0.90–1.02); 4V, 1.66 (1.54–1.80); 5x, 1.51 (1.30–1.83); M, 0.52 (0.49–0.58).

Abdomen overall color yellowish, posterior margins of tergites with pale, brownish bands fading into yellow; bands very faintly interrupted in middle of tergites.

Male terminalia (fig. 17): Epandrium with microtrichia, only ventral lobe with setae; ventral lobe narrowed, apex pointed to blunt, with 3–8 fine setae. Cerci fused laterally to epandrium, microtrichose. Surstylus with microtrichia over half of outer surface, with inner marginal row of 7–10 peglike prensisetae (ventralmost peg weakly sclerotized in some), 10–11 setae ventrally (several of ventralmost setae more sclerotized). Hypandrium roughly trapezoidal in shape, with short, flat anterior margin, lateral margins straight to slightly convex; greatest width nearly equal to length. Gonopods fused to hypandrium and aedeagal apodeme; each lobe with fine apical seta. Aedeagus fused to aedeagal apodeme; aedeagus large, slightly curved in lateral view (aedeagal angle 117°–124°, mean 120°), thick, length 7.5–7.8× greatest width; distiphallus with three shallow points on ventroproximal margin, as seen in fully ventral view, apex of distiphallus narrowed. Aedeagal apodeme short.

Female: General morphology similar to males. Proportions: Thorax length 0.88 mm; frontal index 1.08 (1.00–1.17); frontal width index 1.08 (1.32–1.50); or1:or3 ratio 1.04 (0.88–1.16); or2:or1 ratio 0.56 (0.50–0.61); postocellar index 0.61 (0.40–0.85); ocellar index 0.65 (0.63– 0.65); vibrissal index 0.43 (0.31–0.53); cheek index 1.42 (1.36–1.46); h index 0.74 (0.66–0.82); dc distance 2.70 (2.38–3.22); scutellar index 0.76; sternopleural index 0.75 (0.67–0.83); vt index 1.03 (1.00–1.06); head width index 1.36 (1.22–1.70); prescutellar index 0.46 (0.43–0.50); wing index 2.46 (2.14–2.69); C index 2.13 (2.04–2.39; ac index 2.73 (2.42–3.28); hb index 0.54 (0.50– 0.59); 4-C index 1.16 (1.06–1.27); 4V index 1.98 (1.90–2.13); 5x index 1.53 (1.44–1.64); M index 0.62 (0.55–0.70).

Female terminalia: Valves of oviscapt long, length 2.7× the greatest width, acute at tip, ca. 320 µm long, with 15–19 ovisensilla pegs. Spermatheca dome shaped, height 1.23× the width; basal introvert reaching about 0.65× length of capsule.

TYPE: Holotype, ♂: “ DOMINICAN REPUBLIC, La Vega Prov.: 6.5 mi NE Jarabacoa, 1700 ft., 28/VII/91 Grimaldi and Stark : banana trapped.” Specimen is in good condition, pointed; abdomen removed and cleared; genitalia dissected by D.A.G. ( DBG 56 ), stored in polypropylene microvial on same pin as specimen. In AMNH.

OTHER SPECIMENS: Paratypes: 1♂ 2♀♀ (1 dissected, DBG 57), with same data as holotype (collected in series) ( AMNH) . 2 ♀♀ “ DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Pedernales, Upper Las Abejas , 38 km NNW Cabo Rojo. 18-09N, 71-38W/ 1350m. 22 July 1990. L. Masner, Mesic deciduous forest; sweeping” ( CMNH) . 1♀ (dissected, DBG 52) “DOMINICAN REPUBLIC: Pedernales 1 km S Los Arroyos , 1125 m., 18-14N, 71-45W/ 18 October 1991, R. Davidson, C. Young, S. Thompson, J. Rawlins, second growth forest” ( CMNH) . 1♂, “ San José , COSTA RICA, March 1915 / ‘Metatype’ [red printed label, des. A.H. Sturtevant for D. florae ],” dissected by D.A.G. ( DBG 21 ) . 1♀, same label as holotype, dissected by D.A.G. ( DBG 33 ) . “COSTA RICA: San José, VIII/11/56, 179.13 [field notebook number], W.B. Heed, H.L. Carson, M. Wasserman ” (from the field notes of W.B. Heed for 179.13: “Bernal brought in 2 vials from his back yard collected over mango.”). All in AMNH. “MEXICO: Veracruz, Hansen and Poff, 1972, 1♂ [no. DBG 85].” Another specimen, not designated as paratype : ♂, “ Rep de EL SALVADOR/ Santa Tecla 12 klm NW/ Oct. 1958 W.B. Heed ” [all printed labels], dissected by D.A.G. ( DBG 23 ) (in AMNH) (specimen is in poor condition, missing head and most of wings).

ETYMOLOGY: Derived directly from “penis” and - spina (Latin, “spine, thorn”), in reference to the ventral, subapical spines on the aedeagus.

COMMENTS: Specimen DBG 23, from El Salvador, is significantly smaller and darker than the other specimens (brownish with slight greenish pollinosity, vs. deep yellowish); also, its acrostichals are not in regular rows and it has two distinct pairs of prescutellars. It is on the basis of these features it was not designated as a paratype, but the male genitalia have only slight differences with that of the other specimens. Interestingly, four specimens, including the holotype, were collected in the Dominican Republic in a trap baited with yeasted bananas, and Heed (above) collected specimens over mangos in Costa Rica, indicating that the species can be attracted to fermenting fruits.


American Museum of Natural History


The Cleveland Museum of Natural History














Drosophila penispina

Grimaldi, David A. 2016

Drosophila florae

Sturtevant, A. H. 1921: 72