Chaunax atimovatae , Ho, Hsuan-Ching & Ma, Wen-Chun, 2016

Ho, Hsuan-Ching & Ma, Wen-Chun, 2016, Revision of southern African species of the anglerfish genus Chaunax (Lophiiformes: Chaunacidae), with descriptions of three new species, Zootaxa 4144 (2), pp. 175-194: 176-181

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4144.2.2

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:39BEEF12-011C-48E8-9C38-5476922F5845

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/631087A3-1563-9012-FF0B-4863596E78B7

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Chaunax atimovatae
status

sp. nov.

Chaunax atimovatae  sp. nov.

New English name: Southern frogmouth Figures 1View FIGURE 1 A–C, 2; Tables 1–3.

Holotype. SAIABAbout SAIAB 81724View Materials (149), 26°10.2'S, 33°17.6'E, off Mozambique, 505–509 m, 30 Sep. 2007.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes. 13 specimens, 104–211 mm SL. AMS I.28137-006 (2, 108–111), 22°19' 06"S, 43°06' 06"E, NW Tulear , Madagascar, 330–335 m, 2 Dec. 1988GoogleMaps  . MNHNAbout MNHN 1977-0030View Materials (1, 119), 22°17'10"S, 43°4'1"E, Madagascar, 450 m, 29 Nov. 1973GoogleMaps  . MNHNAbout MNHN 1977-0036View Materials (1, 105), 12°40'59"S, 48°16'1"E, Madagascar, 314 m, Apr. 1971GoogleMaps  . SAIABAbout SAIAB 3306View Materials (1, 118), KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, 238 m, 10 Jan. 1973  . SAIABAbout SAIAB 11484View Materials (1, 139), off Natal , KwaZulu- Natal, South Africa, 146 m, 11 Jan. 1973  . SAIABAbout SAIAB 34164View Materials (1, 211), Maputo, southern Mozambique, Dec. 1987  . SAIABAbout SAIAB 74601View Materials (3, 104–131), 18°2.1'S, 37°37.2'E, Beira , northern Mozambique, 162–200 m, 12 Aug. 2002GoogleMaps  . SAIABAbout SAIAB 81904View Materials (1, 106), 25°5.5'S, 35°18.4'E, off Mozambique, 347–353 m, 7 Oct. 2007GoogleMaps  . USNMAbout USNM 307534View Materials (2, 122–162), 22°19'51"S, 43°06'06"E, northern Tulear , Madagascar, 330–335 m, Vityaz, cr. 17, st. 2644, 2 Dec. 1988GoogleMaps  .

Non-types (*indicates specimens with meristic data taken). Madagascar: MNHNAbout MNHN 1977-0023View Materials (2, 69.6–82.1), 25°28'59"S, 46°46'1"E, 350–360 m, 30 May 1973GoogleMaps  . MNHN 1977-0027 (1, 72.8), 23°36'0"S, 43°31'5"E, 395–410 m, 26 Feb. 1973. MNHN 1977-0029 (3, 43.1–111), 22°18'0"S, 43°4'8"E, 400 m, 27 Nov. 1973. MNHN 1977-0033 (2, 35.9–67.8), 18°55'01"S, 43°55'59"E, 250 m, 24 Nov. 1973. MNHNAbout MNHN 1994-0312View Materials (1, 107), 20°57' 0"S, 55°13'59"E, Réunion Island, 450–580 m, 1 Sep. 1982GoogleMaps  . MNHNAbout MNHN 1994-0314View Materials (1, 76.4), 20°49' 59"S, 55°34'59"E, Réunion Island, 605–620 m, 4 Sep. 1982GoogleMaps  . MNHN 1994-0315 (2, 67.0–131), 20°57'0"S, 55°13'59"E, 300–410 m, 9 Sep. 1982. MNHN 2013-1225 (2, 56.7–83.8), 22°14'6"S, 43°4'5"E, 470–475 m, 2 Dec. 1973. MNHN 2014-1107 (1, 123), 15° 35'8.4"S, 45°41'55.8"E, 197–217 m, 10 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1169 (5, 39.1–71.1), 15°34'45"S, 45°42'30"E, 227–283 m, 10 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1211 (1, 87.6), 15°33'37.2"S, 45°42'5.4"E, 350–580 m, 11 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1264 (2, 31.3–35.2), 14°29'3"S, 47°26'50.4"E, 257– 251 m, 6 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1602 (1, 68.5), MNHN 2014-1628 (1, 37.7), 12°30'16.8"S, 48°23'12"E, 301– 298 m, 27 Jun. 2009. MNHN 2014-1664 (5, 68.8– 101), 15° 34'12.612"S, 45°43'10.812"E, 287–450 m, 10 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1699 (1, 39.5), 14°51'56.4"S, 46°56'34.2"E, 236–297 m, 13 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1719 (1, 95.5), 13°23'31.2"S, 47°58'4.2"E, 3 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1756 (2, 52.6–79.7), 14°29'39.6"S, 47°26'27"E, 379– 332 m, 14 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1764 (1, 87.8), 12°32'7.8"S, 48°12'27"E, 485– 468 m, 27 Jun. 2009. MNHN 2014-1781 (4, 38.7–105), MNHN 2014-1815 (1, 95.4), MNHN 2014-1838 (2, 33.5–60.1), MNHN 2014-1840 (1, 40.9), 14°49'53.4"S, 46°59'9"E, 446– 340 m, 7 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1846 (1, 110), 12°46'18"S, 48°12'48.6"E, 355–380 m, 2 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1855 (3, 31.3–32.7), 14°30'10.8"S, 47°26'35.4"E, 325– 274 m, 6 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1878 (2, 22.0–22.9), 14°48'12"S, 46°59'9"E, 620–637 m, 7 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1900 (1, 69.3), 15°25'4.8"S, 46°0'16.2"E, 313– 274 m, 12 Jul. 2009. MNHN 2014-1962 (2, 38.0–40.0), 12°31'18.6"S, 48°19'33"E, 346–376 m, 27 Jun. 2009. MNHN 2014-2169 (1, 79.2), 12°43'15.6"S, 48°13'1.8"E, 442–491 m, 29 Jun. 2009. SAIABAbout SAIAB 189524View Materials (3, 31.5–45.2), 25°28'S, 44°25'E, Sud-Est Pointe Barrow , 203–210 m, 10 May 2010, coll. M. Lee & S. RibesGoogleMaps  . SAIABAbout SAIAB 189525View Materials (1, 31.5), 25°03'S, 43°59'E, Sud-Ouest Pointe Barrow , 300–309 m, 11 May 2010, coll. M. Lee & S. RibesGoogleMaps  . * USNMAbout USNM 307546View Materials (2, 60.0– 100), 22°19'30"S, 43°03'12"E, northern Tulear , 450–500 m, Vityaz, Cr. 17, st. 2645, 2 Dec. 1988GoogleMaps  . South Africa: * SAIABAbout SAIAB 4709View Materials (1, 76.0), 34°02'S, 25°42'E, Algoa Bay , Eastern Cape, 27 May 1970GoogleMaps  . * SAIABAbout SAIAB 4710View Materials (1, 150), 32°09'S, 29°00'E, Xora River mouth, Eastern Cape, Aug. 1947GoogleMaps  . * SAIABAbout SAIAB 16533View Materials (1, 77.0), 29°13'S, 31°29'E, Tugela River mouth, KwaZulu-Natal, 1920. * SAIABAbout SAIAB 49355View Materials (1, 84.0), 35°1.3'S, 19°44'E, off west coast, 145 m, 5 Jul. 1986GoogleMaps  . Mozambique: * SAIABAbout SAIAB 28513View Materials (1 of 3, 104), S of Maputo, Dec. 1987  . No data: *SAIAB 4713 (1 of 5, 125).

Diagnosis. A species of the Chaunax abei  species group with the following combination of characters: mixture of bifurcate and simple spinules on dorsal surface; when fresh, dorsal surface with green spots surrounded by yellow, mostly inter-connected; when preserved, dorsal surface with brown spots loosely arranged; 9 or 10 gill rakers on second gill arch; and usually 12 or 13 neuromasts in pectoral series and 34–36 in lateral-line proper.

Chaunax atimovatae Chaunex  heemstraorum  Chaunax hollemani 

sp. nov. sp. nov. sp. nov.

H Types H All types H All types

(mm) 149 104.0$216.0 (n=13) 163 95.1$163.0 (n=9) 194.5 114.9$178.7 (n=5)

SL Mean (Range) SD Mean (Range) SD Mean (Range) SD Description. Morphometric and meristic data are provided in Tables 1–3; data for holotype is provided below followed by range for types in parentheses.

Dorsal-fin rays III, 12; pectoral-fin rays 13 (13, rarely 12); anal-fin rays 7; caudal-fin rays 9. Head length 2.5 (2.3–2.6) in SL; head width 5.7 (5.6–6.2) in SL and 2.3 (2.3–2.5) in HL; pre-dorsal length 1.9 (1.9–2.2) in SL; pregill opening length 1.5 (1.5–1.6) in SL; pre-preopercular length 3.7 (3.5–3.9) in SL and 1.5 (1.4–1.6) in HL; upper jaw 5.1 (4.6–5.0) in SL and 2.0 (1.9–2.1) in HL; illicial length 8.4 (7.0–9.4) in HL; eye diameter 6.6 (5.2–6.6) in HL; post-dorsal-fin length 6.2 (5.4–6.4) in SL and 2.5 (2.0–2.8) in HL; post-anus length 3.2 (3.0–3.7) in SL and 1.3 (1.1–1.5) in HL; post-anal-fin length 6.5 (6.5–7.6) in SL and 2.6 (2.6–3.1) in HL; caudal-peduncle depth 4.9 (4.8– 5.3) in HL; caudal-fin length 3.5 (3.1–3.6) in SL and 1.4 (1.3–1.5) in HL.

Head globular, skull elevated posteriorly; trunk and tail robust, weakly compressed, tapering posteriorly; ventral surface of belly flattened; skin thick, loose and flaccid; caudal peduncle short, slightly depressed. Eyes rounded, directed laterally, covered by dermal membrane, broadly connected to adjacent skin, forming clear window; interspace between eyes broad, convex.

Illicium relatively slender, its length less than eye diameter; esca depressed, forming a large central plate bearing many dark brown cirri; second dorsal-fin spine close to illicium, embedded under skin and not detectable externally; third dorsal-fin spine situated at about midpoint of pre-dorsal distance, embedded beneath skin. Illicial trough oval, slightly concave, uniformly narrow, its length about twice its width. Origin of soft dorsal fin slightly behind middle of body; pectoral fin emerging laterally near middle of body, slightly anterior to vertical through gill opening; pelvic fin on breast, well anterior to pectoral fin; anus situated about three-fourths of way along body; anal-fin origin about four-fifths of way along body, tip nearly reaching caudal-fin base when depressed.

Both nostrils anterior to eye; anterior nostril surrounded by fleshy membrane, its rim taller posteriorly than anteriorly; posterior nostril a circular depression; mouth wide, superior, its opening nearly vertical; lower jaw robust, protruding slightly in front of upper jaw; maxilla tapering, narrow dorsally, broadly expanded ventrally; blunt spine on symphysis of lower jaw.

Broad transparent membrane on first gill arch; first ceratobranchial well-connected to opercular wall, and first epibranchial entirely free of it; gill filaments present on second to fourth gill arches, two rows of gill filaments on second and third gill arches, single row of gill filaments on fourth gill arch; filaments on inner rows of third and fourth gill arches about two-thirds length of filaments on other arches; inner surface of fourth gill arch completely connected to body. Single row of 14 (12–15) rakers on 1st gill arch, 3 (3–4) on upper limb and 11 (8–11) on lower limb, 10 (9 or 10) rakers on outer row of 2nd arch, 9 (9 or 10) rakers on outer row of 3rd arch, and single row of 8 (7 or 8) rakers on 4th arch.

Interspaces of lateral-line neuromast complex slightly longer than width of complex; 3 (2–4, usually 3) pairs of short spines bridging each neuromast. Lateral-line neuromast counts: supraorbital (AB) 11 (11 or 12); premaxillary (AC) 8; upper preopercular (BD) 2; infraorbital (CD) 7 (6 or 7); lower preopercular (DG) 3; mandibular (EF) 6 (5 or 6); hyomandibular (FG) 3; pectoral (GH) 14 (11–14); anterior lateral-line proper (BB') 4 (4 or 5); supratemporal (BB) 6; and lateral-line proper (BI) 35 (32–37), including 3 (2 or 3) on caudal-fin base.

Dorsal surface covered by simple, stout spinules, except for eye window, lips, distal fifth of dorsal surface and entire ventral surface of pectoral fin, distal half of dorsal surface and entire ventral surface of pelvic fin, entire anal fin and its base, membranes of dorsal fin, anus, and caudal-fin rays. Broad band of 4–9 rows of spinules in front of illicial trough (3 or 4 rows in specimens smaller than 100 mm SL). Ventral surface covered by slightly shorter, firm spinules. Jaws and body margin along lateral line densely covered with simple, stout cirri; cirri absent from head, jaws and ventral surface.

Coloration. When fresh, background of dorsal surface reddish gray dorsally and pale ventrally; small irregular green spots surrounded by yellow, mostly inter-connected on dorsal surface; bright white flap-like cirri along margins of body and jaws. When preserved, dorsal surface covered by small irregular gray spots on uniformly grayish background; pale ventrally. Cirri on esca dark brown. Gill chamber, buccal cavity and gill rakers pale; peritoneum black with small pale patches.

Size. The largest known specimen has a length of 211 mm SL.

Distribution. Known from the Western Indian Ocean off Madagascar, Mozambique and South Africa, westernmost record appears to be on the southern coast of South Africa ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3), collected at depths 145– 637 m.

Etymology. The specific name is from a field trip of the "Atimo Vatae" (Madagascan for "deep south"), a trawler from Fort Dauphin, from which many Madagascan specimens were collected, including those in the type series.

Rakers of 1st gill arch n 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 C. apus  5 1 3 2 C. atimovatae  1 4 1 8 4* 1 C. flammeus  1 1

C. heemstraorum  31 4 20 7 * C. hollemani  5 1* 3 1 C. penicillatus  5 1 3 1

C. russatus  2 2 C. suttkusi  7 1 3 3 Rakers of 2nd gill arch n 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 1 5 C. apus  6 5 1 C. atimovatae  14 6 8 *

C. flammeus  1 1

C. heemstraorum  31 3 22 * 6 C. hollemani  5 5*

C. penicillatus  5 2 3

C. russatus  2 2 C. suttkusi  7 2 4 1 Rakers of 3rd gill arch n 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2 1 3 1 4 C. apus  6 5 1 C. atimovatae  14 10* 4

C. flammeus  1 1

C. heemstraorum  31 21 10 *

C. hollemani  5 1 4*

C. penicillatus  5 2 3

C. russatus  2 2 C. suttkusi  7 2 4 0 1 Rakers of 4th gill arch n 7 8 9 1 0 1 1 1 2???? C. apus  6 4 2

C. atimovatae  14 3 11 *

C. flammeus  1 1

C. heemstraorum  31 10 20 * 1

C. hollemani  5 1 4*

C. penicillatus  5 5

C. russatus  2 2 C. suttkusi  7 1 5 1

Remarks. Chaunax atimovatae  sp. nov. is most similar to Chaunax abei  from the northwestern Pacific region in having bifurcated spinules mixed with simple ones on its dorsal surface, but these bifurcated spinules are much less numerous and quite scattered. The background of body of C. atimovatae  sp. nov. is grayish with numerous tiny black melanophores (visible under magnification) whereas that of C. abei  is pale and lacks this pigmentation. The new species is also similar to C. breviradius  from the South China Sea region in having a similar coloration when fresh; it differs from C. breviradius  in having bifurcated spinules mixed with simple ones on dorsal surface (vs. simple spinules only), and relatively more neuromasts in the lateral-line proper (BI) (usually 34–36 vs. 30–32).

SAIAB

South African Institute for Aquatic Biodiversity

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History