Rhamdia quelen ( Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 )

Angrizani, Rafael Costa & Malabarba, Luiz Roberto, 2020, GeneticdiversityandspeciesdelimitationinRhamdia (Siluriformes: Heptapteridae) in South America, with a redescription of R. quelen (Quoy & Gaimard, 1824), Zootaxa 4801 (1), pp. 85-104 : 93-98

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4801.1.3

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:D573DC51-D29A-4C32-9752-2A93CDDB0B93

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/5A6887EC-9073-A763-738A-FEA7FED5BA31

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Rhamdia quelen ( Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 )
status

 

Rhamdia quelen ( Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)  

Fig. 4 View FIGURE 4 , Table 2 View TABLE 2

Pimelodus quelen Quoy & Gaymard, 1824: 228   , pl. 49, figs. 3-4 (description; type locality: Rio de Janeiro Bay ).

Rhamdia quelen Eigenmann & Eigenmann, 1888:126   (new combination). - Silfvergrip, 1996 (description; invalid neotype designation).

Neotype of Rhamdia quelen ( Quoy & Gaimard, 1824)   , by present designation: MNRJ 51746 View Materials , Brazil, Rio de Janeiro State, Cachoeira de Macacu, tributary of the Rio Soarinho, Rio Macacu drainage, Baía de Guanabara hydrographic basin 22 o 38’6”S 42 o 43’6”W; P. A. Buckup and D. F. Moraes Jr. 21 Feb 1995. GoogleMaps  

Examined material: Rhamdia quelen   . All from Brazil: MCP 11030 View Materials , 2, 97.2–100.0 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Sanga de Areia, Rio Tubarão basin, 28 o 28’00”S, 49 o 01’60”W. UFRGS 21369, 2, 7.2–21.5 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, São Martinho, Guabiroba river, Rio Tubarão basin, 28 o 10’52”S 48 o 58’25”W. UFRGS 21378, 2, 15.2–19.5mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Tubarão, Pouso river, Rio Tubarão basin, 28 o 24’39”S 49 o 05’56”W. UFRGS 18488, 1, 9.6 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, São João Batista, Tijucas river, 27 o 16’00”S 48 o 49’15”W. UFRGS 21083, 1, 6.8 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Nova Trento, Nova Trento stream, Rio Tijucas basin, 27°16’47”S 48°56’20”W. UFRGS 21084, 1, 5.2 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Nova Trento, Mesquita river, 27°17’40”S 48°58’27”W. UFRGS 21085, 1, 8.5 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Nova Trento, Santa Paulina stream, Rio Tijucas basin, 27°15’23”S 48°56’45”W. MCP 16538 View Materials , 18, 96.3–228.6 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Apiúna, São Luiz stream, Rio Itajaí basin, 27 o 01’60”S 49 o 23’00”W. MCP 16560 View Materials , 24, 119.4– 210.5 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Gaspar, Canas stream, Rio Itajaí basin, 26 o 57’00”S 48 o 56’00”W. MCP 25518 View Materials , 3, 202.5– 246.9 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Rio dos Cedros, Cedros river, Rio Itajaí basin, 26 o 44’00”S 49 o 16’60”W. UFRGS 21505, 7, 102– 148.2 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Luiz Alves, Luiz Alves river, Rio Itajaí basin, 26°44’18”S 48°57’32”W. UFRGS 21514, 4, 89.2–140.5 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Ilhota braço, 26°50’38”S 48°52’10”W. UFRGS 21512, 3, 85.1–144.2 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Luiz Alves, Luiz Alves river, Rio Itajaí basin, 26°43’53”S 48°52’32”W. UFRGS 21513, 4, 102.4– 144.4 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Luiz Alves, Luiz Alves river, 26°44’26”S 48°53’02”W. MCP 16584 View Materials , 1, 164.0 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Águas Mornas, Rio Teresópolis, Rio Cubatão basin, 27 o 45’00”S 48 o 56’00”W. MZUSP 36480, 9, 128.2– 190.2 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Joinville, Lindo stream, Rio Cubatão basin, 26 o 10’00”S 48 o 54’00”W. MCP 28727 View Materials , 4, 121.5–150.0 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Florianópolis, Rio Ratones basin, 27 o 30’40”S 48 o 29’11”W. MCP 28758 View Materials , 2, 149.3– 151.2 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Garopaba, little stream, Lagoa do Ribeirão basin, 27 o 57’15”S 48 o 38’45”W. MCP 28762 View Materials , 1, 230.0 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Garopaba, little stream, Lagoa de Macacu basin, 28 o 00’39”S 48 o 39’21”W. MCP 6895, 1, 196.2 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Corupá, Rio Itapocu, 26 o 26’00”S 49 o 15’00”W. MZUSP 36465, 1, Santa Catarina State, Corupá, Rio Itapocu, 26 o 25’00”S 49 o 15’00”W. UFRGS 21086, 1, 92.5 mm SL, Santa Catarina State, Massaranduba, Massaranduba stream, Rio Itapocu basin, 26°36’41”S 48°57’39”W. LBP 20154 View Materials , 2, 6.2-80.2 mm SL, State of Santa Catarina, Jaraguá do Sul, Cavalo stream, Rio Itapocu basin, 26°28’12”S 49°10’56”W. MHNCI 8065, 4, 91.5–140.7 mm SL, Paraná State, Morretes, Rio Caninana, Rio Nhumdiaquara basin, 25 o 28’37”S 48 o 50’04”W. MHNCI 10663, 8, 91.5–239.0 mm SL, Paraná State, Morretes, Rio Caninana, Rio Nhumdiaquara basin, 25 o 28’37”S 48 o 50’04”W. MHNCI 1382, 1, 237.5 mm SL, Paraná State, Antonina, Cachoeira river, 25°25’21.64”S 48°44’7.40”W. MHNCI 1383, 1, 233.5 mm SL, Paraná State, Antonina, Rio Cachoeira, 25°25’21.64”S 48°44’7.40”W. MHNCI 1384, 1, 195.1 mm SL, Paraná State, Antonina, Cachoeira river, 25°25’21.64”S 48°44’7.40”W. MHNCI 1385, 1, 248.8 mm SL, Paraná State, Antonina, Cachoeira river, 25°25’21.64”S 48°44’7.40”W. MHNCI 1386, 1, 252.2 mm SL, Paraná State, Antonina, Cachoeira river, 25°25’21.64”S 48°44’7.40”W. MHNCI 1387, 1, 250.6 mm SL, Paraná State, Antonina, Cachoeira river, 25°25’21.64”S 48°44’7.40”W. MHNCI 6340, 3, 145.0– 220.5 mm SL, Paraná State, Antonina, Capivari river, Rio Cachoeira basin, 25 o 25’43”S 48 o 42’43”W. MHNCI 7878, 4, 25.0- 85.5 mm SL, Paraná State, Guaraqueçaba, Rio Velho, Rio Morato basin, 25 o 18’24”S 48 o 19’44”W. UFRGS 12459, 1, 74.2 mm SL, Paraná State, Guaraqueçaba, Serra Negra stream, 25 o 10’26”S 48 o 25’13”W. MCP 12178 View Materials , 8, 100.8- 222.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Juquiá, Rio Juquiá, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 19’00”S 47 o 36’60”W. MZUSP 22578, 2, 144.3– 203.9 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Betari river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 34’00”S 48 o 40’00”W. MZUSP 28413, 1, 132.8 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Ouro Grosso stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 35’00”S 48 o 35’60”W. MZUSP 35303, 10, 95.5–108.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Miracatu, Grande stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 16’60”S 47 o 27’00”W. MZUSP 36543, 5, 116.9– 234.4 mm SL, State of São Paulo, Juquiá, Fundo stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 20’00”S 47 o 38’00”W. MZUSP 37991, 3, 129.7– 255.4 mm SL, São Paulo State, Barra do Turvo, Rio Pardo, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 42’00”S 48 o 34’60”W. MZUSP 38600, 1, 126.5 mm SL, São Paulo State, Juquiá, Poço Grande stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 19’60”S 47 o 37’60”W. MZUSP 39997, 6, 134.9– 189.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Barra do Turvo, Pardo river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 42’00”S 48 o 34’60”W. MZUSP 40104, 32, 99.0– 163.5 mm SL, São Paulo State, Miracatu, Ribeirão dos Morais stream, Rio Ribeirão do Iguape basin, 24 o 16’60”S 47 o 27’00”W. MZUSP 42093, 1, 284.4 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iguape, marginal lagoon, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 19’00”S 47 o 30’00”W. MZUSP 42254, 1, 313.9 mm SL, São Paulo State, Registro, Rio Votupoca, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 30’00”S 47 o 51’00”W. MZUSP 42584, 12, 148.9– 160.7 mm SL, São Paulo State, Ribeira, Rio Ribeira do Iguape, 24 o 39’00”S 49 o 00’00”W. MZUSP 45183, 1, 174.2 mm SL, São Paulo State, Eldorado, Rio Batatal, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 32’00”S 48 o 07’00”W. MZUSP 53551, 1, 139.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Betari river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 35’00”S 48 o 37’00”W. MZUSP 55163, 1, 91.2 mm SL, São Paulo State, Eldorado, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 29’24”S 48 o 03’14”W. MZUSP 58455, 7, 87.5–140.7 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Monjolos stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 33’13”S 48 o 40’40”W. MZUSP 60192, 4, 87.5–108.9 mm SL, São Paulo State, Barra do Turvo, Fria stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 44’19”S 48 o 30’35”W. MZUSP 60231, 8, 88.5–140.7 mm SL, Paraná State, Adrianópolis, Rio Pardo, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 47’55”S 48 o 33’05”W. MZUSP 61701, 1, 89.7 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Ouro Grosso stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 33´06”S 48 o 40’32”W. MZUSP 61735, 1, 119.1 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Rio Batatal, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 35’26”S 48 o 16’23”W. MZUSP 62352, 1, 88.8 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Iporanga river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 29’51”S 48 o 35’21”W. MZUSP 65713, 1, 125.0 mm SL, São Paulo State, Sete Barras, Rio Ipiranga, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 10’46”S 47 o 51’27”W. MZUSP 68287, 1, 98.2 mm SL, São Paulo State, Cajati, Rio Queimado, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 48’02”S 48 o 13’32”W. MZUSP 68288, 7, 98.9–128.9 mm SL, São Paulo State, Cajati, Rio Queimado, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 48’02”S 48 o 13’32”W. MZUSP 69392, 1, 126.8 mm SL, São Paulo State, Sete Barras, Basban stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 12’19”S 47 o 53’51”W. MZUSP 70609, 4, 100.4– 107.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Ribeira, Palmeiras stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 36’21”S 49 o 04’58”W. MZUSP 70611, 9, 100.4–265.0 mm SL, São Paulo State, Itapirapuã Paulista, Rio Criminosas, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 34’16”S 48 o 10’22”W. MZUSP 72952, 4, 265.0– 292.9 mm SL, São Paulo State, Registro, Rio Jacupiranga, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24°28’48”S 47°50’24”W. MZUSP 72959, 1, 207.5 mm SL, São Paulo State, Pariquera, Rio Pariquera- Mirim, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin. MZUSP 72960, 1, 207.5 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Pilões river, 24°42’36”S 47°52’48”W. MZUSP 72961, 1, 283.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iporanga, Rio Iporanga, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24°34’48”S 48°35’24”W. MZUSP 78664, 5, 100.2– 207.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Itairiri, Areado river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 15’01”S 47 o 09’35”W. MZUSP 78666, 3, 88.6–98.7 mm SL, São Paulo State, Pedro de Toledo, Rio Taquari, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 11’51”S 47 o 17’22”W. MZUSP 79603, 7, 98.1–141.4 mm SL, Paraná State, Cerro Azul, Bonito stream, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24°49’24”S 49°15’39”W. MZUSP 79957, 1, 137.8 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iguape, Rio Espraiado, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 23’11”S 47 o,21’09”W. MZUSP 79959, 2, 103.0–105.0 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iguape, Rio Espraiado, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 21’55”S 47 o 18’31”W. MZUSP 79961, 1, 106.1 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iguape, Rio Espraiado, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 23’11”S 47 o 21’09”W. MZUSP 81654, 8, 83.6–157.1 mm SL, São Paulo State, Itaoca, Rio Palmital, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 36’12”S 48 o 52’24”W. MZUSP 82608, 1, 143.2 mm SL São Paulo State, Iporanga, Betari river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24°34’48”S 48°35’24”W. MZUSP 83023, 1, São Paulo State, Iguape, Momuna river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 42’57”S 47 o 41’27”W. MZUSP 84377, 8, 92.6– 97.2 mm SL, São Paulo State, Sete Barras, Preto river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 11’33”S 47 o 53’25”W. MZUSP 84396, 4, 90.7–93.5 mm SL, São Paulo State, Sete Barras, Ipiranga river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 10’46”S 47 o 51’14”W. MHNCI 8997, 4, 168.9– 208.6 mm SL, Paraná State, Bocaiúva do Sul, Capivari river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24 o 59’56”S 48 o 37’41”W. MHNCI 9853, 3, 166.0– 204.6 mm SL, Paraná State, Bocaiúva do Sul, Faxinal river, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 25 o 02’50”S 48 o 36’19”W. UFRGS 12399, 1, 30.2 mm SL, São Paulo State, Iguape, stream of Ribeira de Iguape, 24°39’00”S 47°29’17”W. LBP 6843, 3, 22.3–205.7 mm SL, São Paulo State, Miracatu, Rio Fau, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24°12’44”S 47°28’61”W. LBP 7496, 3, 105.6– 135.1 mm SL, São Paulo State, Registro, Rio Ribeira do Iguape basin, 24°23’29”S 47°50’06”W. LBP 7395, 7, 72.4-155.5 mm SL, São Paulo State, Itapeúna, Jaguary river, Rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, 24°35’41”S 48°12’53”W. LBP 7432, 1, 42.4 mm SL, São Paulo State, Jacupiranga Pindauba river, Rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, 24°45’25”S 48°04’07”W. LBP 16840 View Materials , 1, 66.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Miracatu, Rio Fau, Rio Ribeira de Iguape basin, 24°12’26”S 47°28’36”W. LBP 20201 View Materials , 1, 138.0 mm SL, São Paulo State, Cajati, tributary of Ribeira de Iguape river, 24°48’05”S 48°14’16”W. UFRGS 18706, 2, 60.2–82.0 mm SL, São Paulo State, Peruíbe, Bananal river, Rio Itanhaém basin, 24°11’45”S 46°59’40”W. LBP 20214 View Materials , 1, 92.4 mm SL, São Paulo State, Itanhaém, tributary of Itanhaém river, 24°13’39”S 46°55’35”W. UFRGS 13691, 2, 78.2–81.3 mm SL, São Paulo State, Ubatuba, Picinguaba river, 23°21’00”S 44°52’12”W. LBP 7890, 1, 184.85 mm SL, São Paulo State, Ubatuba, Indaiá river, 23°24’15”S 45°03’50”W. MNRJ 46842, 3, 80.96–134.67 mm SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Jororo stream, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 33’15”S, 42 o 40’3” 8W. MNRJ 43525, 3, Rio de Janeiro State, Cachoeira de Macacu, Macacu river, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 29’12”S 42 o 39’42”W. MNRJ 14962, 2, 159.30– 161.75 mm de SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Macacu river, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 29’12”S 42 o 39’43”W. MNRJ 13746, 4, 94.36–118.73 mm SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio Branco, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 33’55”S 42 o 37’43”W. MNRJ 13730, 6, 115.27– 150.66 mm SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Soarinho river, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 38’6”S 42 o 43’6”W. MNRJ 47193, 1, 137.37 mm SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Cachoeiras de Macacu, Rio Brancor, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 33’37”S 42 o 40’34”W. MNRJ 41526, 7, 112.63– 183.80 mm SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Mage, Surui river, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 36’2”S 43 o 5’30”W. MNRJ 43305, 3, 118.61– 155.79 mm SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Nova Iguacu, Rio Tinguá, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 39’08”S 43 o 24’06”W. MNRJ 41132, 1, 236.46 mm SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Itaboraí, Rio Caceribu, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 40’17”S 42 o 53’13”W. MNRJ 43148, 1, 120 mm SL, Rio de Janeiro State, Nova Iguaçu, Baía de Guanabara basin, Rio Tinguá, Baía de Guanabara basin, 22 o 35’25”S 43 o 25’59”W.

Diagnosis. Rhamdia quelen   differs from the neotype of R. quelen, sensu Silfvergrip   by longer caudal-peduncle length (17.6–21.5% SL vs. 14.6% SL); and shorter dorsal-spine length (7.8–10.5 % SL vs. 15.4% SL). Differs from Rhamdia gabrielae   by larger dorsal base length (13.8–17.1% SL vs. 11.4–13.1% SL); from R. eurycephala   by smaller head width in orbit line (61.1–68.8 % HL vs. 75.18–89.58% HL); from R. laticauda   , R. foina   , R. poeyi   and R. itacaiunas   by the upper lobe of caudal fin shorter than lower lobe (vs. upper lobe longer than the lower lobe); from R. humilis   and R. nicaraguensis   by having serrations on both anterior and posterior faces of pectoral fin spine (vs. serrations only at anterior face in R. humilis   and serrations only at posterior face in R. nicaraguensis   ); from R. xetequepeque   and R. muelleri   by smaller orbits (13.2–17.8% HL vs. 30.5–36.9% in R. xetequepeque   , 21.7–37.8% in R. muelleri   ); from R. jequitinhonha   by wider interorbital distance (34.8–39.6% HL vs. 24.2% HL); from R. laukidi   and R. cinerascens   by longer snout (38.8–44.1% HL vs. 29.0–36.9% HL in R. laukidi   and 32.5–35.4% HL in R. cinerascens   ); from R. guatemalensis   by absence of dark lateral longitudinal conspicuous band (vs. dark lateral longitudinal conspicuous band present); from R. saijaensis   by larger head length (24.0–26.7% SL vs. 20.9–23.4% SL); from R. reddelli   , R. enfurnada   , R. zongolicensis   , R. macuspanensis   , R. laluchensis   and R. guasarensis   by the lack of morphological adaptations to troglobitic life.

In addition to the characteristics used in the diagnosis, the species can also be recognized by the following additional characters: dorsal fin with six branched rays; tip of last branched dorsal-fin ray reaching or not the anterior insertion of adipose fin; head length 23.4–26.7% of SL, with a straight dorsal profile; the snout is longer than deep the maxillary barbels are very long, at the minimum exceeding the origin of pelvic fin and at the maximum exceeding the origin of the anal fin; the external mental barbels are very long, exceeding the posterior insertion of the pectoral fin; the internal mental barbels are long, exceeding the origin of the pectoral fin; the eyes are large measuring 13.3–17.8% of SL; the sensory channels in head are simple; the spines of the pectoral fin measure 10.6–14.0% of SL, have serrations on both sides along their entire length; the anal fin never reaches the posterior insertion of the adipose fin; the upper lobe of the caudal fin is shorter than the lower lobe.

Description. Measurements in Table 2 View TABLE 2 . Body elongated and deep; cross section of trunk roughly circular at dorsal-fin origin and along dorsal-fin base, gradually compressed posteriorly through caudal peduncle. Anterodorsal profile of body convex from supraoccipital to dorsal-fin base. Dorsal-fin base nearly straight, posteroventrally slanted, and gently convex from dorsal fin to base of adipose fin. Ventral body profile slightly curved from mouth to caudal-fin base. Body widest at pectoral girdle and deepest at dorsal-fin origin. Caudal peduncle slightly longer than deep. Number of post-Weberian vertebrae 39 or 40.

Head deep. Dorsal head profile straight and posterodorsally very slanted from snout tip to supraoccipital in lateral view. Head shape somewhat trapezoidal in dorsal view. Snout slightly rounded anteriorly in dorsal view, as long than deep. Distance between posterior nares slightly smaller than between anterior nares. Mouth wide, subterminal, gape larger than interorbital distance; snout projecting slightly beyond lower jaw. Gape transverse, with fleshy rictal fold at corners. Rictal fold large. Both upper and lower lips with several longitudinal plicae. Barbels flattened in cross section, wide at their bases and tapering towards distal tip. Maxillary barbel longest; length variable exceeding origin of anal fin; inserted above upper lip and posterolateral to anterior nares. Two pairs of mental barbels. External mental barbels surpassing all pectoral-fin insertion. Inner mental barbels aligned to and shorter than external mental barbels, surpassing origin of pectoral fin. Gular fold distinct and V-shaped. Branchiostegal rays six or seven. Gill rakers thick and moderately long, with nine or ten rakers on first ceratobranchial. Eye large, slightly elliptical (greatest length in longitudinal axis), with rim circumscribed with deep, continuous invagination, distinctly more pronounced at lateral border. Eye positioned dorsolaterally, centered approximately at midpoint between tip of snout and corner of opercular membrane, and widely separated by large interorbital space. Pupil rounded. Sensory channels of head simple.

Dorsal fin with two unbranched rays and six branched rays, distal margin convex; length of dorsal-fin base larger than fin height. First unbranched dorsal-fin ray small and not externally visible, second unbranched dorsal fin ray stiffened in proximal portion and segmented in distal portion. Dorsal-fin origin anterior to middle distance between pectoral and pelvic-fin origins; insertion of last branched ray just at vertical through pelvic-fin origin. Tip of last branched dorsal-fin ray at most reaching anterior insertion of adipose fin. Adipose fin long; within ascending curve in lateral profile and posterior lobe conspicuously free from body. Adipose-fin origin at vertical right after posterior insertion of pelvic fin and posterior termination of anal-fin base at midlength of caudal peduncle.

Pectoral fin within one unbranched and seven to nine branched rays; when adpressed reaching approximately origin of third branched ray of dorsal fin. Unbranched ray of pectoral fin stiffened, nearly straight and with strong serrations on both sides and along entire length. Pelvic fin rounded, approximately same size of pectoral fin, with one unbranched and five branched rays, surpassing genital papilla, never reaching anal-fin origin. Pelvic-fin origin nearly at body midlength, just at vertical through insertion of last dorsal-fin ray. Anal fin rounded, with two or three unbranched rays anteriorly, followed by eight to ten branched rays; when adpressed never exceeds vertical through posterior insertion of adipose fin. Anal-fin base smaller than dorsal-fin base length. Caudal fin deeply forked, lobes rounded; dorsal lobe smaller in height and length; seven branched rays in dorsal lobe and eight or nine branched rays in ventral lobe.

Color in alcohol. Body brown or gray with or without very small dark brown irregular spots. Head and fins brown or gray without spots. Ventral portion of body and head white. Maxillary barbels same color as body.

Distribution and habitat. Occurs along the hydrographical basins of the Brazilian Atlantic coast, from rivers draining to the Baía de Guanabara, Rio de Janeiro State, in the north to the Rio Tubarão basin, Santa Catarina State, in the South.

TABLE 2. Morphometric data of Rhamdia quelen, sensu stricto as defined in this paper (N=50).

  min-max Mean±SD Neotype
Standard length (mm) 93.71–247.8 157.06 150.66
Percent of Standard Length
Maxillary-barbel length 61.0–85.1 71.8±7.2 76.5
Pectoral-girdle width 17.8–21.5 19.4±0.7 19.6
Pelvic-girdle width 8.7–10.6 9.6±0.4 9.2
Body depth 16.6–20.8 18.4±1.2 18.4
Pre-dorsal distance 33.1–37.2 35.3±1.1 34.5
Dorsal-fin to caudal-fin distance 50.2–54.2 52.1±1.1 50.9
Dorsal-fin to adipose-fin distance 3.0–7.5 4.5±1.2 3.0
Pre-pectoral distance 22.2–25.9 24.0±0.9 23.5
Pre-pelvic distance 45.8–50.8 48.6±1.4 47.2
Pre-anal distance 66.3–70.1 68.3±0.9 68.7
Pelvic-fin to anal-fin distance 18.2–22.6 20.4±1.1 21.5
Adipose-fin to caudal-fin distance 9.1–11.3 10.1±0.6 9.7
Caudal-peduncle length 17.2–22.1 19.5±1.2 19.1
Caudal-peduncle depth 8.3–10.5 9.8±0.5 10.2
Pelvic-fin length 11.1–15.5 13.2±1.0 12.3
Anal-fin base length 10.8–14.4 12.7±1.0 13.4
Anal-fin length 18.1–22.8 20.7±1.1 21.5
Dorsal-fin base length 13.8–17.1 15.5±0.7 16.4
Dorsal-fin height 11.6–16.9 14.5±1.4 15.2
Dorsal-fin spine length 7.8–10.5 9.1±0.7 9.3
Pectoral-fin spine length 10.6–14.0 12.4±0.9 12.4
Adipose-fin base length 34.9–41.4 38.0±1.9 37.7
Head length 23.4–26.7 25.2±0.9 24.8
Percent of Head Length
Snout length 38.8–44.1 41.1±0.9 40.2
Snout height 34.6–41.0 38.6±1.4 39.3
Head height 53.5–63.4 58.2±2.5 58.4
Orbital diameter 13.3–17.8 15.2±1.4 14.3
Interorbital distance 34.8–39.6 36.9±1.2 37.0
Mouth length 43.6–49.3 46.6±1.7 47.6
Maxillary-barbels distance 34.4–40.0 37.9±1.3 37.1
Anterior nares distance 20.0–26.7 23.1±1.5 20.8
Anterior nares to posterior nares distance 12.2–15.8 14.1±0.9 14.1
Posterior nares to orbit distance 15.7–20.8 18.2±1.3 17.1
Posterior nares distance 17.1–22.0 20.2±1.4 20.9
External mental-barbels distance 35.1–39.9 37.5±1.4 36.6
Internal mental-barbels distance 15.1–19.6 17.3±1.0 15.9
Distance between mental-barbel 8.2–11.1 10.1±0.6 10.1
External mental-barbel length 90.1–129.9 109.2±11.7 129.8
Internal mental-barbel length 48.8–74.2 63.5±6.9 60.4
Head width at eye level 61.1–68.8 65.6±2.1 62.6
MCP

Pontificia Universidade Catolica do Rio Grande do Sul

UFRGS

Universidade Federale do Rio Grande do Sul

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

MHNCI

Museu de Historia Natural Capao de Imbuia (Brazil)

MNRJ

Museu Nacional/Universidade Federal de Rio de Janeiro

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Siluriformes

Family

Heptapteridae

Genus

Rhamdia

Loc

Rhamdia quelen ( Quoy & Gaimard, 1824 )

Angrizani, Rafael Costa & Malabarba, Luiz Roberto 2020
2020
Loc

Rhamdia quelen

Eigenmann & Eigenmann 1888: 126
1888
Loc

Pimelodus quelen

Quoy & Gaymard 1824: 228
1824