Dermestidae

Iorio, Osvaldo Di & Turienzo, Paola, 2009, Insects found in birds’ nests from the Neotropical Region (except Argentina) and immigrant species of Neotropical origin in the Nearctic Region 2187, Zootaxa 2187 (1), pp. 1-144 : 32-42

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.11646/zootaxa.2187.1.1

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/5924C023-8310-9F6E-04EA-FDACFD27CCCA

treatment provided by

Felipe

scientific name

Dermestidae
status

 

Dermestidae

[Unidentified sp.]

COLOMBIA: Department of Meta, El Porvenir, 4º 45’ N, 71º 25’ W ( Barreto et al. 1984) GoogleMaps .

Ostomidae

[Unidentified sp.]

COLOMBIA: Department of Meta, El Porvenir, 4º 45’ N, 71º 25’ W ( Barreto et al. 1984) GoogleMaps .

Scarabaeidae

[Unidentified sp.]

COLOMBIA: Department of Meta, El Porvenir, 4º 45’ N, 71º 25’ W ( Barreto et al. 1984) GoogleMaps .

Tenebrionidae

[Unidentified sp.]

COLOMBIA: Department of Meta, El Porvenir, 4º 45’ N, 71º 25’ W ( Barreto et al. 1984) GoogleMaps .

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Psammolestes arthuri (Pinto, 1926)

= Psammolestes coreodes [non Bergroth, 1911]: Lent 1939: 258-260 [hosts; distr.].

= Psammolestes salazari Aldana et al. 1996 : Lent 1997 [syn.].

( Hicks 1959 following Lent 1939); ( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979); ( Carcavallo et al. 1998a, 1998b); ( Emperaire & Romaña 2006, following Sick 1984).

VENEZUELA: Estado Yaracuy: Valles del Yaracuy, Distrito San Felipe, Carretera San Javier – Marín, II- 1938, Anduze & Pifano leg. ( Pifano 1938); Yaracuy ( Lent & Jurberg 1965); Edo. Guarico: 482 exx. in 64 of 126 examined nests (Gamboa C. 1963, 1965); Zaraza, sent by Torrealba ( Lent 1939); Zaraza ( Lent & Jurberg 1965); ( Machado-Allison & Perez 1967); (Gamboa C. 1970); ( Hicks 1971); ( Sick 1981, 2001); Estado Portuguesa: Municipio Guanare, hacienda “La Productora, IV-1973, 3 males, 3 females ( Carcavallo et al. 1995); Estados Portuguesa, Guárico, Cojedes, Lara (Municipio S. Planas) , Táchira (Municipio San Antonio de Caparo), Apure (Municipio Guasdualito) in 68 examined nests ( Carcavallo et al. 1975) (Table 1); associated with Triatoma maculata ( Tonn et al. 1978b) ; associated with Triatoma maculata ( García da Silva & Luz 1993) ; Estado Apure: Elorza, 26 de enero de 1995, 1 male Holotype [ LEHL], Fernando Ramon leg., 7- II-1995, 1 female Allotype [ LEHL], 1 female Paratype [ LEHL], 2 males Paratypes [ LEHL], Alberto Valderrama, Juan Salazar, Fernando Ramon & Elis Aldana leg. ( Aldana et al. 1996); Elorza (7º 69’ N, 35º W), eggs and 34 nymphs [ LEHL], San Carlos de Cojedes (9º 40’ N, 68º 35’ W), 9-II-1996, 23 nymphs [ LEHL] ( Aldana et al. 1997).

COLOMBIA: Table 1; ( D´Alessandro et al. 1984; Barreto et al. 1984); Atlantic coastal area of Guajira department ( Hastriter 1998).

Note: Tonn et al. (1978b) gives the states from Venezuela where T. maculata was found in the nests of P. rufifrons , saying only that “en éstos [the nests] se encontró [ T. maculata ] muchas veces asociado a Psammolestes arthuri ”. This record is subsequently referred to as P. rufifrons inornatus by Lent & Wygodzinsky (1979) [the proper subspecies from Venezuela and Colombia]; but also [erroneously] it is cited as P. rufifrons sincipitalis (p. 132, fig. 1), a subspecies distributed in eastern Bolivia, north Paraguay, and the southwestern portion of the state of Mato Grosso. Locality given by D’ Alessandro et al. (1984) was El Porvenir-Carimagua without an exact place location, the birds’ nests were referred to as belonging to P. rufifrons and the instars found were the total number. In the same year, Barreto et al. (1984) gave the exact place and discriminated the instars found per nest (Table 1).

Rhodnius prolixus Stål, 1859

VENEZUELA: in rare times in these nests (Gamboa C. 1970); in 1 of 68 examined nests ( Carcavallo et al. 1975); in 2 of 113 examined nests ( Carcavallo & Tonn 1985); ( Carcavallo et al. 1998b); ( Ribeiro Júnior et al. 2006: p. 327, tabela 1, following Carcavallo et al. 1998b).

Note: Carcavallo & Tonn (1985) also attributed to Gamboa (1963) the presence of R. prolixus in nests of P. rufifrons but this bird was mentioned only by Gamboa (1970). Since the bird's name was given by Carcavallo & Tonn (1985) in the same erroneous manner as Gamboa (1970), it is evident that 1963 is an error and should have been 1970.

Triatoma maculata (Erichson in Schomburgk, 1848)

VENEZUELA: in 2 of 68 examined nests ( Carcavallo et al. 1975); Estados Anzoategui, Guárico, Portuguesa and Zulia ( Tonn et al. 1978b); in company of P. arthuri ( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979) ; in company of P. arthuri ( Carcavallo & Martínez 1985) ; associated to Psammolestes arthuri ( García da Silva & Luz 1993) ; ( Carcavallo et al. 1998a following Carcavallo & Martínez 1985); ( Carcavallo et al. 1998b).

Note: it is clear that all records of T. maculata in nests of Furnariidae from Venezuela ( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979) in company of P. arthuri are provenient from the original date of Tonn et al. (1978b), given for P. rufifrons , also referred as P. rufifrons inornatus ( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979) , the subspecies proper from Venezuela and Colombia. Tonn et al. (1978b) is cited by Carcavallo & Martínez (1985) and Carcavallo et al. (1998b) for T. maculata .

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis sp.

VENEZUELA: Estado Carabobo: Pirapira, 2 parasitized nestlings of Icterus icterus (Linnaeus, 1766) inside a nest ( Skutch 1969).

Note: The sequence related by Skutch (1969) was as follows: “By the morning of 21 June there were two newly hatched Troupials. When they were only three or four days old, the nestlings were heavily infested with tórsalos, the white larvae of a dipterous insect that formed relatively huge swellings under the skin. One nestling bore 10 of these parasites, including three on its head and three on one leg. When the nestlings were 10 days old, ... ... the tórsalos that had infested them had gone, leaving superficial scars that were already disappearing; but the nestling who had fewer of these larvae was far ahead of the more heavily parasitized one in size and the development of its plumage. One left the nest on 11 July, while the other, doubtless the one who had had the heavier infestation of tórsalos, remained two days longer. The first departed at the age of about 21 days, the second at 23 days.” HYMENOPTERA

Formicidae : Myrmicinae

[Unidentified sp.]

COLOMBIA: Department of Meta, El Porvenir, 4º 45’ N, 71º 25’ W ( Barreto et al. 1984) GoogleMaps .

Scelionidae

Telenomus capito De Santis & Loiácono

COLOMBIA: Department of Meta, El Porvenir, 4º 45’ N, 71º 25’ W, in 144 of 583 unbroken eggs of P. arthuri in 1 of 22 examided nests ( Barreto et al. 1984) GoogleMaps .

THYSANOPTERA

Phlaeothripidae

[Unidentified sp.]

COLOMBIA: Department of Meta, El Porvenir, 4º 45’ N, 71º 25’ W ( Barreto et al. 1984) GoogleMaps .

Phacellodomus rufifrons rufifrons (Wied-Neuwied, 1821)

= Birds’nests: Neiva & Lent 1936; Lent & Viana Martins 1940: 877; Hicks 1959 [following Neiva & Lent 1936]; Mello 1982: 288 [following Costa Lima 1934].

= “joão-de-pau”: Sick 1981: 503, 2001: 563.

= “João Graveto”: Azevedo & Faria Jr. 2004.

= “João-Graveto” (Passerifoemes, Furnaridae ): Tosta 2005.

= Phacellodomus rufifrons: Lent 1935: 381 ; Costa Lima 1940; Hicks 1959 [following Costa Lima 1940]; Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967 [corrected bird identification]; Mello 1977; Barbosa 1980; Silva & Lustosa 1993; Gurgel-Gonçalves et al. 2006 [following Gurgel-Gonçalves et al. 2004]; Cabrera, 2006 [following Gurgel- Gonçalves et al. 2004]; Fernandes Cardoso 2006: 17 [following Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967]; Azevedo & Faria Jr. 2007.

= P. rufifrons rufifrons: Lent & Viana Martins 1940: 880 ; Hicks 1959: 448 [following Lent 1939].

= Synallaxis sp. : Costa Lima 1934; Corrêa et al. 1964 [following [Costa] Lima 1934; Hicks 1959 [following Costa Lima 1934].

BLATTARIA

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

ORTHOPTERA

Grylloidea

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993, only as “grilos”).

COLEOPTERA

Cerambycidae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

Chrysomelidae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

Coccinellidae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

Curculionidae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

Scarabaeidae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

Tenebrionidae : Lagriinae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993, predator).

Triatominae

Pastrongylus diasi Pinto & Lent, 1946

BRAZIL: Goiás: Usina Hidroelétrica Corumbá IV, area of Municípios Luziânia, 19-II-2005 until 21-I-2006, 1 n V in one nest from a total of 203 ( Fernandes Cardoso 2006).

Note: First time that this species is found in a bird’s nest. Until Lent & Wygodzinsky (1979) and Carcavallo et al.

(1998b), its biology was unknown.

Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965

= Psammolestes coreodes [non Bergroth, 1911]: Costa Lima 1934; Lent 1935, 1939; Costa Lima 1940; Lent & Viana Martins 1940: 880 [distr.; hosts]; Pellegrino 1951; Pellegrino & Brener 1951a, 1951b; Pellegrino 1953, following Dias 1945; Hicks 1959: 252 [host; refs.], partim (sensu Costa Lima 1940, Lent 1935, 1939 and Neiva & Lent 1936); Sick 1981: 503, 2001: 563 [distr.; host].

[ BRAZIL]: ( Lent & Viana Martins 1940); ( Lent & Jurberg 1965); ( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979); ( Carcavallo & Martínez 1985, following Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967); ( Carcavallo et al. 1998a); ( Turienzo & Di Iorio 2007, following Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979).

Note: the record of P. coreodes for P. rufifrons was erroneously included in the revision of insects associated to birds’ nests from Argentina ( Turienzo & Di Iorio 2007) , following Lent & Wygodzinsky (1979), when these last authors are the only known record for this association, and no previous one from Argentina is known.

BRAZIL: Goiás ( Sick 1981, 2001: 563, as “joão-de-pau”, following Carvalho, 1969): Municipio de Formosa, 1975, 491 exx. in 21 of 48 examined nests (Table 1), 1976, in 3 of 4 examined nests (Barbosa 1980); Municipio de Formosa, between the villages JK and Vila Boa, crossing-over of River Canabrava and Route BR-020 [162 km from Brasilia], 1975-1976, 491 exx. in 21 of 52 examined nests (Table 1) ( Mello 1981); Alvorada do Norte, in 2 nests, Mambaí, in 8 nests, Pose, in 7 nests, Simolandia, in 4 nests ( Silva & Lustosa 1993) (Table 1); Usina Hidroelétrica Corumbá IV, area of Municípios Luziânia, Santo Antônio do Descoberto, Alexânia, Abadiânia and Silvânia (Table 1), 19-II-2005 until 21-I-2006, 195 eggs, 116 n I, 110 n II, 253 n III, 341 n IV, 447 n V, 421 males and 248 females in 135 positive nests from a total of 203 ( Fernandes Cardoso 2006); Minas Gerais: Lassance, 1 ex., captured by J.C. Penido ( Costa Lima 1934; Lent 1935: 381; Neiva & Lent 1936; Lent 1939: 258; Lent & Viana Martins 1940: 877, 880); same colector, only from Brasil ( Costa Lima 1940); 413 exx. (Table 1) (Pellegrino 1951); ( Hicks 1959, following Costa Lima 1934, 1940, Lent 1939, Neiva & Lent 1936); ( Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967); ( Corrêa et al. 1964, following [Costa] Lima 1934; Mello 1982, following Costa Lima 1934); Bambui ( Dias, 1945, fide Pellegrino 1953); Municipios Pirapora, Presidente Vargas, Santa Quiteria, Pará de Minas, Jaboticatubas ( Martins et al. 1940, cited by Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967); Cidade Industrial [Belo Horizonte] ( Pellegrino & Brener 1951a; Pellegrino & Brener 1951b, 246 exx.; Lucena & Lucena 1965, following Pellegrino & Brener 1951b); Municipio Mambaí, 60 exx. in 6 of 12 examined nests ( Mello, 1982); south region of Minas Gerais, 556 nymphs and 365 adults in 90 of 233 examined nests (Table 1) ( Barretto & Carvalheiro 1968a); Municipio de Itamogi (Table 1) (Barretto & Albuquerque 1969); Distrito Federal: 156 km northeast from Brasilia, BR-020 highway ( Mello 1977); (Gurgel-Gonçalves et al. 2004, following Mello 1981 and Silva & Lustosa 1993); ( Gurgel-Gonçalves et al. 2006, following Gurgel-Gonçalves et al., 2004); ( Cabrera, 2006, following Gurgel-Gonçalves et al., 2004); ( Fernandes Cardoso 2006, following Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967).

Note: Mello Simões Barbosa (1980: Tabela 11) and Mello (1981: Tabela II) gave the total of nests and the positives for P. tertius sampled per month, and all instars found in each nest in a following table (Tabela 13 and Tabela IV of Mello Simões Barbosa [1980] and Mello 1981 respectively). Some nests were omitted in the table of instars per nest: one nest in May [1975] (2 positive from a total of 8 examined nests), one nest in August 1975 (2+ from 2), one in September 1975 (2+ from 3), and all nests of 1976 (2+ of 2 in February, and 1+ of 2 in April). This gives as a result a difference of 6 nests between the total (27+ of 52) given by Mello Simões Barbosa (1980) and Mello (1981) respect to the total given here (Table 1). Thus the total of specimens of P. tertius found in 1975 (491 exx.) corresponds to 21 nests (Table 1) and not to 24.

Note: Cabrera (2006) wrongly gives the nests of P. rufifrons on the palm Mauritia flexuosa , based on Gurgel- Gonçalves et al. (2004). These latter authors compared their nests of P. ruber on the palm M. flexuosa with those of P. rufifrons on tress of Cerrado following Mello (1981) and Silva & Lustosa (1993).

Note: Fernandes Cardoso (2006) gave a table with 165 places where Triatominae were wanted, including the nests that where negative and positive, but total nests were 203. Thus each row of the table can correspond to more than one nest by place.

Rhodnius neglectus Lent, 1954

BRAZIL: Goiás: Usina Hidroelétrica Corumbá IV, area of Municípios Luziânia, Santo Antônio do Descoberto , Alexânia, Abadiânia and Silvânia (Table 1), 19-II-2005 to 21-I-2006, 36 eggs in 135 positive nests from a total of 203 examined nests ( Fernandes Cardoso 2006) .

Triatoma sordida [ sordida (Stål, 1859) ]

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: bordering area with to the northeastern region of Sao Paulo, 12 nymphs and 5 adults in 2 nests (Table 1) ( Barretto & Carvalheiro 1968b); ( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979).

HYMENOPTERA

Apidae

Centris (Trachina) fuscata Lepeletier, 1841

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: São Gonçalo do Rio Preto, Parque Estadual do Rio Preto (Azevedo & Faria Jr. 2004), 18° 07’ S, 43° 20’ W, 23/ 25-IX-2003, males occupying empty spaces among the twigs in three of four examined birds’ nests; activity intensity at each sleeping shelter: active bird’s nest occupied by three birds on massive flowering tree [ Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, 1823 ]> active bird’s nest occupied by four birds on unidentified tree without flowers> abandoned nest on massive flowering tree; 5 exx. [ ECBH] (Azevedo & Faria Jr. 2007) GoogleMaps .

Note: This is “primeiro registro do uso de ninhos por machos apenas como dormitório noturno quatro ninhos localizados em uma sucupira-preta (n = 2), abundantemente florida, e em uma imbiruçu (n = 2) que não apresentava floração. Em cada árvore havia um ninho abandonado e outro abrigando três e quatro pássaros. A chegada dos machos ao dormitório iniciava-se aproximadamente às 16:45 e prosseguia até às 17:45 (pouco antes da chegada dos pássaros residentes)” (Azevedo & Faria Jr. 2007).

Partamona helleri (Friese, 1900)

= “abelha eussocial”: Azevedo & Faria Jr. 2004.

[ BRAZIL]: “Ninhos livres ou semi-expostos, ... ninhos abandonados de aves” ( Pedro & Camargo 2003); “utilização de ninhos abandonados” (Azevedo & Faria Jr. 2004), abandoned nests as substrate for their own nests (Azevedo & Faria Jr. 2007, following Pedro & Camargo 2003); “ninhos de pássaros livres, principalmente de João-Graveto ( Passeriformes , Furnaridae )” ( Tosta 2005, following Pedro 1998); ( Roubik 2006).

Note: There are no specimens labelled as found in a bird’s nest among the numerous specimens examined by Pedro & Camargo (2003). Original citation was not indicated but according to Tosta (2005), it seems to be Pedro (1998).

LEPIDOPTERA

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

DIPTERA

[Unidentified sp.]

= “larva de ciclorrafa”: Silva & Lustosa 1993.

BRAZIL: Goias ( Silva & Lustosa 1993).

Phacellodomus rufifrons [sensu lato]

= “joão-de-pau”: Sick 1981: 503, 2001: 563.

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965

= Psammolestes coreodes [non Bergroth, 1911]: Sick, 1981, 2001.

BRAZIL: Sergipe ( Sick 1981: 503, 2001: 563, following Carvalho, 1969).

Note: Sergipe is located between the distribution of P. rufifrons rufifrons and P. rufifrons specularis .

Phacellodomus rufifrons sincipitalis Cabanis, 1883

= birds’ nests: Noireau & Dujardin 2001.

BLATTARIA

[Unidentified spp.]

BRAZIL ( Lent 1939).

COLEOPTERA

[Unidentified spp.]

BRAZIL ( Lent 1939).

HEMIPTERA

Aradidae

Aradus brasiliensis Usinger, 1936

BRAZIL: Mato Grosso: Salôbra, 24-VIII-1940, 1 female [ FIOC], 1 female [ IEA] ( Wygodzinsky 1943), Bodoquena, XI-1941, 1 female [ FIOC] ( Wygodzinsky 1943).

Aradus falleni Stål, 1858

BRAZIL: Mato Grosso: Salôbra, Zona da N.O.B., 18/ 29-X-1938, 1 female [ FIOC] ( Wygodzinsky 1943) .

Aradus penningtoni Drake, 1942

BRAZIL: Mato Grosso: Salôbra, Zona da N.O.B., 18/ 29-X-1938, 11 exx. [ FIOC], 1 male [ IEA] ( Wygodzinsky 1943); Salôbra, 24-VIII-1940, 1 female [ FIOC], 1 female [ IEA] ( Wygodzinsky 1943).

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Psammolestes coreodes Bergroth, 1911

BRAZIL: in 6 of 14 examined nests ( Lent 1939); Mato Grosso: Salôbra ( Lent & Viana Martins, 1940; Lucena & Lucena 1965, following Lent & Viana Martins 1940); Salobra, 33 exx. [in one nest?] ( Travassos 1941); ( Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967, following Travassos 1941); south of Mato Grosso ( Barretto 1971, following Lent 1939); Table 1 ( Barretto 1971).

Note: Travassos & Freitas (1943) only mentioned the collection of several living specimens of P. coreodes , but they did not mention any bird’s nest. In the same page, these authors recorded Triatoma sordida from a nest of P. rufifrons sincipitalis , but it was not stated whether it was found in the same nests together with P. coreodes (which can be deducted, as Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967 did).

Triatoma sordida [ sordida (Stål, 1859) ]

BRAZIL: Mato Grosso: 2 a [males] ( Travassos & Freitas 1943; Barretto 1971); Salôbra ( Barretto & Carvalheiro 1968b following Travassos & Freitas 1943); Table 1 ( Barretto 1971); ( Lent & Wygodzinsky 1979); ( Noireau & Dujardin 2001, following Barretto 1971).

EMBIOPTERA

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL ( Lent 1939)

LEPIDOPTERA

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: larva and pupa ( Lent 1939)

HYMENOPTERA

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: ( Lent 1939)

Phacellodomus rufifrons specularis Hellmayr, 1925

BLATTARIA

Blattidae

Pseudoischnoptera sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

ISOPTERA

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978) .

PSOCOPTERA

= Corrodentia: Lins Duarte 1978: 60.

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978)

COLEOPTERA

[Unidentified spp.]

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: [10 km from Victória], two species with larvae in the lower four nests [of superimposed nests in one branch] ( Lent 1935: 382, according to R. von Ihering, in litteris).

Chrysomelidae : Bruchinae

Spermophagus sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

Curculionidae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

Histeridae

Saprinus sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

Tenebrionidae

Lobopoda sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

Epitragus sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

Phobelius sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965

= Psammolestes coreodes [non Bergroth]: Lent 1935, 1939; Neiva & Lent 1936: 157 [hosts]; Pellegrino & Brener, 1951: 565-566; Hicks 1959: 252, partim [sensu Lent 1935]; Lucena & Lucena 1965: 160-168.

= Triatoma sp. : Hicks 1959: 252 [host; ref.], sensu Lent 1935: 382 [“Triatomideos”].

= Psammolestes sp. : Hicks 1959: 251 [host; ref.], sensu Pinto & Lent 1935: 337 + fig. 5; Lins Duarte 1978.

BRAZIL: Without locality date ( Lent & Jurberg, 1965); ( Mello, 1982); Pernambuco ( Lent 1939 acoording to von Ihering): 10 km from Victória, between Recife and Gravatá, 1 ex., captured by R. von Ihering in nest of “casaco de couro” or “ferreiro” Dendrocolaptidae , sent by Travassos ( Lent 1935: 382, 383, 394; Lucena & Lucena 1965, in nest of “casaco de couro” or “ferreiro” following Lent 1935); ( Hicks 1959, as Triatoma sp. in [nest of] “casaco de couro” or “ferreiro” following Lent 1935: 382; as Psammolestes sp. in “birds’ nests Dendrocolaptidae , following Pinto & Lent 1935); several localities, 383 nymphs and 370 adults in 70 (40.0 %) of 170 examined nests (Table 1) ( Lucena & Lucena 1965); ( Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967, following Lucena & Lucena 1965); ( Carcavallo & Martínez 1985, following Barretto & Carvalheiro 1967); Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974); ( Lent & Wygodzinsky, 1979).

Note: R. von Ihering sent to Lent (1935: 382) a description of the nest of “casaco de couro” or “ferreiro” from Permanbuco, saying that it was inhabited by Coleoptera and triatomines (identity of the nest was not known by von Ihering at the moment of writing the note sent to Lent). In the following page, Lent (1935: 383) makes a comment about having received one specimen of Psammolestes coreodes found by R. von Ihering in a nest of Dendrocolaptide from Pernambuco, 10 km from Victoria (which is likely the same nest described in the previous page). Lent (1935) never stated that the nest belonged to Phacellodomus , and he compared this finding with the previous finding of a specimen from Minas Gerais: Lassance, 1 ex., captured by J.C. Penido [ Costa Lima 1934, as Synallaxis sp. ; Lent 1935, as P. rufifrons (p. 381)]. First, according to the description of the nest ( Lent 1935: 382) and a photograph of the nest sent by R. von Ihering, published by Pinto & Lent (1935), there is no doubt that the bird is a species of Phacellodomus .

Hicks (1959: 252) recorded “ Triatoma sp. ” in nests of “casaco de couro” or “ferreiro” based on Lent (1935: 382), but this record is obviously an error due to the triatomines mentioned by von Ihering to Lent (1935: 382),

which were identified as “ Psammolestes coreodes ” in the same work ( Lent 1935: 383). Hicks (1959: 251) also recorded Psammolestes sp. in “birds´nests, Dendrocolaptidae ” based on Pinto & Lent (1935), who illustrated the nest of von Ihering from Pernambuco. Later, Lent & Viana Martins (1940) recorded P. coreodes as occurring in Pernambuco but without a host indication. As was stated by Lucena & Lucena (1965), the bird mentioned by Lent (1935) from Pernambuco as host of “ Psammolestes coreodes ” collected by von Ihering proved to be P. rufifrons specularis , the subspecies present in this part of Brazil.

HYMENOPTERA : Formicidae

Azteca sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

Camponotus sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

Crematogaster sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974). Pseudomyrmex sp.

BRAZIL: Pernambuco: March to June 1970 ( Lins Duarte 1978, following Leal & Farias 1974).

Phacellodomus sp.

HYMENOPTERA : Vespidae

[Unidentified sp.]

= “vespas sociais”: Sick 1981, 2001.

[ BRAZIL]: implanted in the nests ( Sick 1981, 2001).

Phacellodomus striaticollis [ striaticollis (D’Orbigny & Lafresnaye, 1838) ]

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis gagnei Couri, 1983

URUGUAY: [locality not stated], larvae removed from nestlings and allowed to pupate, P. Mason leg. ( Couri 1986).

Philornis glaucinis Dodge & Aitken, 1968

URUGUAY: [locality not stated], larvae removed from nestlings and allowed to pupate, P. Mason leg. ( Couri 1986).

Philornis trinitensis Dodge & Aitken, 1968

URUGUAY: [locality not stated], larvae removed from nestlings and allowed to pupate, P. Mason leg. ( Couri 1986).

Pseudoseisura cristata (Spix, 1824)

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae : Triatominae

Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965

BRAZIL: Bahía: Curaçá (287 m), near São Francisco river , 08º 58’ S, 39º 53’W, 63 exx. in 7 (20.6 %) of 34 examined nests ( Dias-Lima et al. 2003) GoogleMaps .

Triatoma pseudomaculata Correa & Espínola, 1964

BRAZIL: Bahía: Curaçá (287 m), near São Francisco river, 08º 58’ S, 39º 53’W, 13 exx. in 7 (20.6 %) of 34 examined nests ( Dias-Lima et al. 2003); caatinga of Northeastern Brazil ( Noireau et al. 2005, following Dias- Lima et al. 2003).

Note: T. pseudomaculata was recorded by Carbajal de la Fuente et al. (2007: 115-116) as commonly found inhabiting “hollow trees associated with birds” following Dias-Lima et al. (2003). These last authors recorded T. pseudomaculata in nests of P. cristata and also in a hollow tree but not in “hollow trees associated with birds.”

Synallaxis ruficapilla Vieillot, 1819

HYMENOPTERA : Formicidae

[Unidentified sp.]

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais: Viçosa, campus Universidade Federal de Viçosa , 20º 45’ S, 42º 53’ W, one nest colonized by ants after it was abandoned by the bird ( Simon et al. 1999) GoogleMaps .

Synallaxis spixi Sclater, 1856

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis masoni Couri, 1986

URUGUAY: Colonia: Route 12, Km 194, XI-1983 / I-1984, P. Mason leg., 1 male paratype, 1 female paratype ( Couri 1986); ( Nihei & Bencke 2003).

GALBULIDAE

Galbula ruficauda Cuvier, 1816

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis aitkeni Dodge, 1963

TRINIDAD: Ft. Read, 27-V-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male Holotype # 65039 [ USNM], 1 female Allotype [ USNM], 1 male Paratype, 3 females Paratypes, ex nest ( Dodge 1963), 1 male Paratype [ FIOC] ( Couri 1989); Vega de Oropouche, Sangre Grande, 9-IV-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 3 males Paratypes, ex nest, 25-III-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male Paratype, ex nest, 23-IV-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 21 females Paratypes [1 female Paratype [ FIOC] ( Couri 1989)] with pinned puparia, ex nest; Vega de Oropuche, La Fortuna State, 11/ 12- V-1959, Aitken & Downs leg., 3 males Paratypes, ex nest; Vega de Oropouche, 25-III-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male Paratype, ex nest, 21-IV-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 23 females Paratypes, ex nest; Melajo Forest, Sangre Grande, 1/ 6-VII-1956, Aitken & Downs leg., 2 males Paratypes, ex nest, 9 females Paratypes, ex nest ( Dodge 1963); more than 300 larvae from a single nest ( Couri 1983a); Fort Real, B.W.T., 27-V-1958, Aitken & Downs col., 1 male paratype, ex nest; Vega de Oropouche, Sangre Grande, 23-V-1958, Aitken & Downs col., paratype, ex nest ( Couri 1989); ( Couri et al. 2007a).

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968

TRINIDAD: Vega de Oropouche, 23-IV-1958, 6 males, 1 female ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis rufoscutellaris Couri, 1983

BRAZIL: Alagoas: Quebrangulo [9º 15’ S, 36º 24’ W], 1988, a large quantity of free-living coprophagous larvae and 20 adult flies (9 females collected) found in the incubation chamber ( Teixeira et al. 1990; Teixeira 1999); ( Couri et al. 2007a).

HIRUNDINIDAE

Petrochelidon fulva cavicola (Vieillot, 1808)

SIPHONAPTERA : Ceratophyllidae

Ceratophyllus (Ceratophyllus) celsus apricus Jordan, 1929

CUBA ( Costa Lima & Hathaway 1946); Soledad [untraced], 4-IV-1925, J.[C] Bequaert leg., 1 male Type [ USNM], # 41439, original designation by Jordan, 1929: 37, from nest ( Adams & Lewis 1995).

Progne chalybea (Gmelin, 1789)

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968

[ TRINIDAD]: locality and data not given ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999). Pygochelidon cyanoleuca (Vieillot, 1817)

= Notiochelidon cyanoleuca: Tipton & Mendez 1966 .

HEMIPTERA

Cimicida e

Ornithocoris pallidus Usinger, 1959

BRAZIL: Minas Gerais ( Sick 2001): Viçosa ( Usinger 1966).

Note: Ribeiro Júnior et al. (2006) vaguely mention that “nos ninhos das andorrinhas vivem insetos hemípteros semelhantes aos percevejos dos galinheiros (cimicídeos)” a paragraph extracted from Sick (1981: 63). Reduviidae : Emesinae

[ Emesa sp. ]

[ BRAZIL] ( Sick 1981, 2001, only as “Emisinae”).

Note: Emesa sp. was referred also for nests of Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766) or “guaxe” ( Sick 2001). SIPHONAPTERA : Ceratophyllidae

Dasypsyllus lasius venezuelensis (I. Fox & Anduze, 1947)

PANAMA: Chiriqui: near Cerro Punta , III-1962, C.L. Hayward & V.J. Tipton leg., 193 males, 242 females from nests in building's as well as earth banks; fleas very numerous in the sand below the scanty nesting material in one hole in an earth bank ( Tipton & Mendez 1966) .

HYDROBATIDAE

Oceanodroma castro (Harcourt, 1851)

SIPHONAPTERA : Ceratophyllidae

Parapsyllus cedei Smit, 1970

ECUADOR: Galapagos Islands: Plaza (islet just to the east of Isla Santa Cruz ), 12-II-1966, 3 males Paratypes, 1 female Paratype, 27-VII-1966, 1 male Paratype, 29-VII-1966, 1 male Paratype, 30-VII-1966, 7 males Paratypes, 8 females Paratypes, 31-VII-1966, 2 males Paratypes, 2 females Paratypes, all M.P. Harris leg., from nests ( Smit 1970) .

Oceanodroma tethys (Bonaparte, 1852)

SIPHONAPTERA : Ceratophyllidae

Parapsyllus cedei Smit, 1970

ECUADOR: Galapagos Islands: Isla Genovesa , 18-V-1966, M.P. Harris leg., 1 female Paratype, from nest ( Smit 1970) .

ICTERIDAE

Cacicus cela (Linnaeus, 1758)

= birds’ nests: Grandcolas 1998: 127 [habitat].

= Cacicus birds’ nests: van Baaren & Deleporte 2001; van Baaren et al. 2002a, 2002b.

BLATTARIA

Blaberidae

Blaberinae

Phoetalia pallida Brunner von Wattenwyl, 1865

FRENCH GUIANA: near the French Guiana coast, close to the Counamama creek, VII-1998, 1 nymph in one nest, 4 nymphs in one nest, 1 female + 26 newly born first instar nymphs in one nest, and 2 females + 10 nymphs in one nest from 10 positive of 25 collected nests in a big colony ( van Baaren et al. 2002b).

Epilamprinae

Epilampra grisea DeGeer, 1773

FRENCH GUIANA: near the French Guiana coast, close to the Counamama creek, VII-1998, 1 female in one nest from 2 positive of a total of 17 collected nests in a small colony ( van Baaren et al. 2002b).

Zetoborinae

Schultesia nitor Grandcolas, 1991

( Grandcolas 1998, following Grandcolas, 1991 b, 1993).

FRENCH GUIANA: presence significantly correlated with the presence of broken eggs or corpses of birds in the nests ( van Baaren & Deleporte 2001, following van Baaren, Deleporte & Grandcolas unpublished data); ( van Baaren et al. 2002a following Grandcolas 1991 a, 1993); in 9 nests of 10 positive of 25 collected nests in a big colony ( van Baaren et al. 2002b).

Note: results of S. nitor were not discriminated by nests of C. cela and/or Psarocolius decumanus in the big colony: a total of 1 male, 1 female, and 35 nymphs were found, with a mean of 2.6 ± 0.3 individuals per nest; some last instar nymphs were completely inside the dry skin of a dead adult yellow-rumped cacique [together with last instar nymphs of Phoetalia pallida ] ( van Baaren et al. 2002b).

Blattidae

Pelmatosilpha guianae Hebard, 1926

FRENCH GUIANA: near the French Guiana coast, close to the Counamama creek, VII-1998, 1 female in one nest from 10 positive of 25 collected nests in a big colony ( van Baaren et al. 2002b).

Pseudophyllodromiidae

Chorisoneura sp. n. aff. gatunae Hebard, 1921

FRENCH GUIANA: near the French Guiana coast, close to the Counamama creek, VII-1998, only one individual in each of six nests from 10 positive of 25 collected nests in a big colony, generally found in the same nests with other species of cockroaches (five observations out of seven), not in the botton with the other species, but higher on the walls of the nests ( van Baaren et al. 2002b).

HEMIPTERA

Reduviidae

Psammolestes tertius Lent & Jurberg, 1965

BRAZIL: Maranhão: [locality not stated] ( Rebêlo et al. 1998).

DIPTERA : Muscidae

Philornis angustifrons (Loew, 1861)

VENEZUELA ( Vogelsang & Fernandez Yépes 1952; Schafer 1957; Couri 1983a); ( Hicks 1962); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis deceptivus Dodge & Aitken, 1968

TRINIDAD: Fishing Pond, 12-II-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male Holotype with pinned puparium, # 65046 [ USNM], 1 female Allotype with pinned puparium, ex C. cela , 3 males Paratypes, 2 females Paratypes, ex C. cela , 19-II-1958, Aitken & Downs leg., 4 males Paratypes, 4 females Paratypes, ex C. cela ; Biche Canque, 24-I- 1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 6 males Paratypes, 4 females Paratypes, ex C. cela ; Guaico, 216- III-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 3 males Paratypes, 2 females Paratypes, ex C. cela ; Caigual, 24-II-1959, Aitken leg., 1 male Paratype, 2 females Paratypes, ex C. cela ( Dodge & Aitken 1968) ; ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis downsi Dodge & Aitken, 1968

TRINIDAD: Biche, 24-I-1957, Aitken & Downs leg., 1 male Paratype, ex nest ( Dodge & Aitken 1968); ( Couri 1983a); ( Teixeira 1999).

Philornis sp.

PANAMA: significant nestling mortality in colonies ( Smith 1968; Arend 1985a, following Smith 1968, 1980); ( Merino 2002, following Smith 1968).

PERU: Department of Madre de Dios, Manu National Park, 1lº 51’ S, 7lº 19’ W, many cacique nestlings have heavy botfly infestations ( Robinson 1988).

Cacicus haemorrhous (Linnaeus, 1766)

= “guaxe ( Cassicus [sic] haemorrhous )”: Lutz & Neiva 1912 [host]

= Cassicus [sic] sp.: Séguy 1946, 1950; Hicks 1959: 220 [refs.; host].

= Cacicus sp. : Hicks 1959: 484 [host; refs.]; Teixeira 1999: 85 [host]

= “guaxe”: Sick 1981: 653, 2001: 792 [inquilines].

FIOC

Fundacao Instituto Oswaldo Cruz

IEA

Instituto DI Entomologia Agraria

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Dermestidae

Loc

Dermestidae

Iorio, Osvaldo Di & Turienzo, Paola 2009
2009
Loc

Triatoma sp.

Hicks, E. A. 1959: 252
Lent, H. 1935: 382
1959
Loc

Psammolestes sp.

Hicks, E. A. 1959: 251
Pinto, C. & Lent, H. 1935: 337
1959
Loc

Cassicus

Hicks, E. A. 1959: 220
1959
Loc

Cacicus sp.

Teixeira, D. M. 1999: 85
Hicks, E. A. 1959: 484
1959
Loc

P. rufifrons rufifrons:

Hicks, E. A. 1959: 448
Lent, H. & Viana Martins, A. 1940: 880
1940
Loc

Psammolestes coreodes

Lent, H. 1939: 258
1939
Loc

Psammolestes coreodes

Lucena, D. T. de & Lucena, N. T. de 1965: 160
Hicks, E. A. 1959: 252
Neiva, A. & Lent, H. 1936: 157
1936
Loc

Phacellodomus rufifrons: Lent 1935: 381

Fernandes Cardoso, S. M. 2006: 17
Lent, H. 1935: 381
1935