Simpsonichthys macaubensis Costa & Suzart, Wilson J. E. M. Costa, 2006

Wilson J. E. M. Costa, 2006, Three new species of seasonal killifishes of the Simpsonichthys antenori species group (Teleostei: Cyprinodontiformes: Rivulidae) from the rio São Francisco basin, Brazil., Zootaxa 1306, pp. 25-39: 34-37

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Simpsonichthys macaubensis Costa & Suzart

new species

Simpsonichthys macaubensis Costa & Suzart  , new species

(Figs. 7-8)

Simpsonichthys ghisolfii  ZBK  non S. ghisolfii Costa  ZBK  , Cyrino & Nielsen; Costa, 2006: 22 (misidentification)

Holotype. UFRJ 6385, male, 38.6 mm SL; Brazil: Estado da Bahia, temporary pool near Macaubas , rio Paramirim drainage, rio Sao Francisco basin , about 13°00’S 42°30’W, altitude about 680 m ; R. Suzart, Feb. 2003.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes. UFRJ 6105, 1 female, 28.4 mm SL; UFRJ 6106, 6 males, 35.6-38.7 mm SL, 6 females, 27.2-33.7 mm SL (c&s); collected with holotype.GoogleMaps 

Diagnosis. Distinguished from all other species of the S. antenori group  by the following combination of characters: contact organs on ventral portion of flanks in males (vs. contact organs absent in S. mediopapillatus  , S. flavicaudatus  , S. flagellatus  ZBK  , and S. janaubensis  ); dorsal and anal-fin filaments slightly long, posteriorly reaching central portion of caudal fin in males (vs. short, reaching caudal-fin base in S. antenori  , or long, surpassing posterior margin of caudal fin in S. igneus  ZBK  , S. flavicaudatus  , S. flagellatus  ZBK  , and S. janaubensis  ); urogenital papilla short in males (vs. long in S. ghisolfii  ZBK  and S. mediopapillatus  ); caudal fin yellow in males (vs. bluish gray in S. antenori  ); anal fin yellow, with distal black stripe, and iridescent dots over entire anal fin in males (vs. anal fin pink anteriorly and yellow posteriorly, with gray distal stripe and iridescent dots restricted to the posterior portion of fin in S. flavicaudatus  , S. flagellatus  ZBK  , and S. janaubensis  ); no red pigmentation on anal fin in males (vs. subdistal reddish orange in S. antenori  and S. igneus  ZBK  ); caudal peduncle bars slightly curved in males (vs. zigzag shaped in S. ghisolfii  ZBK  and S. mediopapillatus  ).

Description. Morphometric data appear in Table 1. Males larger than females, the largest male examined 38.7 mm SL, largest female examined 33.7 mm SL. Dorsal profile approximately straight on head, convex from nape to end of dorsal-fin base, nearly straight on caudal peduncle. Ventral profile convex from lower jaw to end of anal-fin base, approximately straight on caudal peduncle. Body deep, compressed, greatest body depth at level of pelvic-fin base. Snout blunt. Urogenital papilla cylindrical and short in males.

Tip of dorsal fin pointed in males, slightly pointed in females; tip of anal fin pointed in males, rounded in females. Tip of both dorsal and anal fins with short filamentous rays in males, in both cases reaching vertical through center of caudal fin. Caudal fin subtruncate in males, rounded in females. Pectoral fins elliptical. Posterior margin of pectoral fins reaching vertical between base of 6th and 9th anal-fin rays in males, and between base of 1st and 3rd anal-fin rays in females. Tip of each pelvic fin reaching base of 3rd anal-fin ray in males and between base of 1st and 3rd anal-fin rays in females. Pelvic-fin bases medially united. Dorsal-fin origin in vertical through base of 2nd or 3rd anal-fin ray in males, and between base of 5th and 6th anal-fins ray in females; dorsal-fin origin between neural spines of vertebrae 7 and 9 in males, and neural spines of vertebrae 11 and 12 in females. Anal-fin origin between pleural ribs of vertebrae 6 and 8 in males, and pleural ribs of vertebrae 8 and 9 in females. Dorsal-fin rays 21-23 in males, 14-16 in females; anal-fin rays 21-23 in males, 19 in females; caudal-fin rays 21-22; pectoral-fin rays 12- 13; pelvic-fin rays 6.

Scales large, cycloid. Body and head entirely scaled, except on ventral surface of head.

Trunk squamation slightly extending onto middle of anal-fin base. Scales extending on anterior fifth of caudal fin. Frontal squamation E-patterned; E-scales overlapping medially; no scales anterior to H-scale; two or three supraorbital scales. Longitudinal series of scales 27-29; transverse series of scales 12-13; scale rows around caudal peduncle 16. Contact organ on posterior margin of each scale of ventral portion of flank in males. Small papillate contact organs on inner surface of dorsal-most ray of pectoral fin in males.

Cephalic neuromasts: supraorbital 14, parietal 2, anterior rostral 1, posterior rostral 1, infraorbital 2 + 18, preorbital 3, otic 2, post-otic 3, supratemporal 1, median opercular 1, ventral opercular 2, preopercular 15, mandibular 13, lateral mandibular 3, paramandibular 1. One neuromast on each scale of lateral line. Two neuromasts on caudal-fin base.

Basihyal subtriangular, greatest width about 75-80 % of length; basihyal cartilage about 30-35 % of total length of basihyal. Six branchiostegal rays. Second pharyngobranchial teeth 7-9. Gill-rakers on first branchial arch 4 + 11. Vomerine teeth absent. Dermosphenotic absent. Ventral process of posttemporal long. Total vertebrae 27-29.

Coloration. Males. Sides of body light gray, with 13-15 approximately straight faint gray stripes, more conspicuous on caudal peduncle, and bluish white dots. Dorsum pale brown. Venter light gray. Opercular region pale green. Iris light yellow, with dark purplish gray bar through center of eye. Unpaired fins yellow with white to bluish white dots; dorsal-fin filaments dark yellow; anal-fin filaments black; black distal stripe on anal fin. Pectoral fins hyaline. Pelvic fins yellow.

Females. Sides of body light gray, with 14-18 narrow dark gray bars; 2-3 black small spots on anterocentral portion of flanks; 1-7 irregularly arranged rounded black blotches on caudal peduncle. Dorsum dark gray. Venter light gray. Opercular region pale greenish golden. Iris light yellow, with gray bar through center of eye. Unpaired fins hyaline with faint, longitudinally elongated gray spots. Paired fins hyaline.

Distribution and habitat. Temporary pools in the Caatinga, rio Paramirim drainage, rio São Francisco basin, Estado da Bahia, Brazil (Fig. 3).

Etymology. Name in reference to the occurrence of the new species in Macaúbas, Bahia, northeastern Brazil.