Didelphimorphia

Guglielmone, Alberto A., Nava, Santiago & Díaz, Mónica, 2011, Relationships of South American marsupials (Didelphimorphia, Microbiotheria and Paucituberculata) and hard ticks (Acari: Ixodidae) with distribution of four species of Ixodes, Zootaxa 3086, pp. 1-30: 3-14

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.203193

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/546287D7-313C-3F6A-C9AC-F9F1FF5DF9A2

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Didelphimorphia
status

 

Didelphimorphia  : Didelphidae Gray  (only family for this order)

1) Amblyomma aureolatum ( Pallas, 1772)  is a South American tick whose adults are mostly found on Carnivora Bowdich  , while most records for subadult ticks are from birds ( Guglielmone et al. 2003 c).

Unknown South American country, M on Didelphis  sp. ( Guglielmone et al. 2003 c).

Brazil, Río Grande do Sul, Pelotas (31 º 46 ´S 52 º 20 ´W), M on Didelphis albiventris Lund ( Muller et al. 2005)  .

Santa Catarina, Area de Proteção Ambiental do Anhatomirim (27 º 25 ´S 48 º 34 ´W), MF on Didelphis aurita Wied-Neuweid  ; Ilha de Ratones Grande (27 º 29 ´S 48 º 34 ´W), MF on D. aurita  ; Ilha de Santa Catarina (27 º 43 ´S 48 º 31 ´W), MF on D. aurita  ( Salvador et al. 2007).

2) Amblyomma auricularium ( Conil, 1878)  is a Neotropical and Nearctic tick species prone to feed on Cingulata Illiger  ( Guglielmone et al. 2003 a).

Brazil. There is a Brazilian record for A. auricularium  on Lutreolina crassicaudata Desmarest  but tick stages found on hosts were not determined ( Linardi et al. 1991).

Panama, LU, MF on Didelphis marsupialis Linnaeus; LU, MFNL on Philander opossum (Linnaeus) ( Fairchild et al. 1966).

3) Amblyommma cajennense ( Fabricius, 1787)  is a Neotropical and Nearctic tick species with an ample tetrapod host range and locality records (1435 records for the whole Neotropical Region) but the name is considered to represent a tick species group (Lorenza Beati personal communication).

Argentina, Chaco, Riacho El Correntino (26 º 41 ´S 59 º 14 ´W), N on D. albiventris  .

Formosa, El Colorado INTA (26 º 19 ´S 59 º 21 ´W), N on L. crassicaudata ( Ivancovich & Luciani 1992)  .

Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande (20 º 27 ´S 54 º 36 ´W), A on D. albiventris  ( Costa et al. 2002).

Rio de Janeiro, Seropédica (22 º 44 ´S 43 º 42 ´W), N on D. aurita ( Santos Abel et al. 2000)  .

Santa Catarina, Ilha de Ratones Grande (27 º 29 ´S 48 º 34 ´W), MFN on D. aurita  ( Salvador et al. 2007).

Sao Paulo, Caçapava (23 º06´S 45 º 42 ´W), N on Didelphis  sp.; Campinas (22 º 54 ´S 47 º04´W), N on Didelphis  sp. ( Souza et al. 2006), A on D. albiventris ( Souza & Souza, 2008)  ; Jaguarina (22 º 40 ´S 46 º 59 ´W), N on Didelphis  sp.; Monte Alegre do Sul (22 º 39 ´S 46 º 40 ´W), AN on Didelphis  sp. ( Souza et al. 2006); Pedreira (22 º 44 ´S 46 º 57 ´W), AN on D. marsupialis  ( Lemos et al. 1997, but the host is probably D. aurita  ); Piracicaba (22 º 43 ´S 47 º 38 ´W), NL on D. albiventris ( Pérez et al. 2008)  ; Porto Martin (22 º 39 ´S 48 º 22 ´W), N on D. aurita  ( Aragão 1918).

Colombia is included in the list of A. cajennense  feeding on marsupials, but no tick stages found on hosts are provided by Wells et al. (1981).

Mexico, Tabasco, Frontera (18 º 32 ´N 92 º 38 ´W), N on Didelphis  sp. ( Keirans 1982).

Panama, LU, A on Didelphis sp. (Fairchild et al. 1966) but the host should be D. marsupialis because it is the only species of this genus found in Panama (Wilson & Reeder 2005).

4) Amblyomma coelebs Neumann, 1899  is basically a Neotropical tick species with a few records in the southern Nearctic. Adult ticks are prone to feed on Perissodactyla Owen  (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b). Brazil, LU, N on D. albiventris  (Labruna et al. 2005 a).

5) Amblyomma dissimile Koch, 1844  is a Nearctic and Neotropical species usually feeding on Amphibia Linnaeus and Squamata Oppel with sporadic findings on Mammalia Linnaeus (Guglielmone & Nava 2010 b).

Brazil, Pernambuco, Reserva Biológica (08º 39 ´S 38 º01´W), N on Monodelphis domestica Wagner, N  on D. albiventris (Botelho et al. 2002)  , but these records were found unconvincing by Guglielmone and Nava (2010 b) because the amphibian-squamatan A. dissimile  was the only tick found on rodents and marsupials after two months of work and capture of 83 mammals recognized as hosts for several species of ticks.

6) Amblyomma dubitatum Neumann, 1899  is an exclusive South American species. The usual host for all tick stages is the caviid rodent Hydrochoerus hydrochaeris (Linnaeus) (Nava et al. 2010)  .

Brazil, São Paulo, Mogi das Cruzes (23 º 31 ´S 46 º 12 ´W), N on D. albiventris  and-or D. aurita (Horta et al. 2007)  ; Piracicaba (22 º 43 ´S 47 º 38 ´W), NL on D. albiventris (Pérez et al. 2008)  .

7) Amblyomma fuscum Neumann, 1907  is an exclusive South American species whose adults feed on a variety of hosts while immature stages have been found on rodents and marsupials (Barros-Battesti et al. 2005; Martins et al. 2010).

Brazil, Pernambuco, Paudalho (07º 53 ´S 35 º 10 ´W), N on D. aurita  and D. albiventris  ; São Lourenço da Mata (08º00´S 35 º01´W), N on D. albiventris  ; Tamandaré (08º 45 ´S 35 º06´W), N on D. albiventris (Martins et al. 2010)  .

São Paulo, Guarujá (23 º 59 ´S 46 º 16 ´W), NL on D. aurita (Martins et al. 2010)  ; Iguapé (24 º 42 ´S 47 º 33 ´W), N on D. aurita (Barros-Battesti et al. 2005)  ; Serra do Mar State Park (23 º 52 ´S 46 º 26 ´W), N on D. aurita (Sabatini et al. 2010)  .

8) Amblyomma geayi Neumann, 1899  is a Neotropical species non-exclusively South American known mainly from adult ticks feeding on Pilosa Flower  : Bradypodidae Gray  and Rodentia Bowdich  : Erethizontidae Bonaparte  (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b).

Panama, LU, MF on D. marsupialis, N on Caluromys derbianus (Waterhouse) (Fairchild et al. 1966).

9) Amblyomma humerale Koch, 1844  is a species found only in South America because records for Central America and Nearctic Region are considered misidentifications as discussed in Labruna et al. (2002 a), who also state that the usual hosts for adult ticks are Testudines Linnaeus  : Testudinidae Gray  , while subadult ticks show a more ample host range than adult ticks. Differential diagnoses with Amblyomma crassum Robinson, 1926  and Amblyomma sabanerae Stoll, 1894  is difficult (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b).

Brazil, Rondônia, Jamari River (10 º 17 ´S 63 º 14 ´W), N on D. marsupialis  (Labruna et al. 2002 a).

10) Amblyomma incisum Neumann, 1906  is an exclusive South American tick whose adults are usually found on Perissodactyla  : Tapiridae Gray  , redescribed convincingly by Labruna et al. (2005 b)

Brazil. There are records of A. incisum  on South American marsupials for this country in Barros-Battesti (2008) but tick stages found on hosts are not provided.

11) Amblyomma maculatum Koch, 1844  is a Neotropical-Nearctic tick species very close morphologically to Amblyomma triste Koch, 1844  , that parasitizes an ample range of hosts (Barker et al. 2004; Estrada-Peña et al. 2005).

Venezuela is included in the range of A. maculatum  by Díaz-Ungría (1957) who mentions its presence on Didelphimorphia  in Venezuela, but the tick stages found on them were not provided.

12) Amblyomma oblongoguttatum Koch, 1844  feeds on different types of hosts from the southern Neartic into the Neotropical Region reaching Bolivia and Brazil (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b).

Panama, LU, A on Chironectes minimus (Zimmermann) (Fairchild et al. 1966).

13) Amblyomma ovale Koch, 1844  is a Nearctic and Neotropical species whose adult ticks are usually found on Carnivora Bowdich  ( Canidae Fischer  and Felidae Fischer  de Waldheim), and to a lesser extent on Perissodactyla  : Tapiridae  apart from several findings on a variety of hosts (Guglielmone et al. 2003 c).

Central or South America country, LU, NL on Didelphis  sp., N on D. albiventris  and Marmosa robinsoni Bangs  (Guglielmone et al. 2003 c).

Brazil. Barros-Battesti (2008) registers the presence of marsupials infested with A. ovale  , but the tick stages found on hosts are not provided.

Colombia. There is a vague record of A. ovale  on “marsupials” by López and Parra (1985).

14) Amblyomma pacae  Aragão, 1911 is a Neotropical species distributed beyond South America whose usual hosts for adult ticks are Rodentia  : Cuniculidae Miller and Gildney  , although records on other types of hosts are not unusual (Guzmán Cornejo et al. 2006 a).

Brazil, Rondônia, LU, N on D. marsupialis  (Labruna et al. 2005 a).

15) Amblyomma parvum  Aragão, 1908 a is a Neotropical species. Adult ticks have an ample host range, but Rodentia  : Caviidae Fischer  de Waldheim are the usual hosts for their larvae and nymphs (Nava et al. 2008).

Argentina, Formosa, El Colorado INTA (26 º 19 ´S 59 º 21 ´W), NL on D. albiventris (Ivancovich & Luciani 1992)  .

16) Amblyomma pseudoconcolor  Aragão, 1908 b is a South American species whose usual hosts are Cingulata  : Dasypodidae Gray  (Guglielmone et al. 2003 a).

South America, Guglielmone et al. (2003 a) register the parasitism of males of A. pseudoconcolor  on Philan- der sp. without any additional data.

Argentina, Formosa, El Colorado (26 º 18 ´S 59 º 23 ´W), N on D. albiventris (Ivancovich 1973)  .

17) Amblyomma romitii Tonelli-Rondelli, 1939  had been considered a junior synonym of A. extraoculatum Neumann, 1899  , but was definitively resurrected by Barros-Battesti et al. (2007). Santos Dias (1955) treat as erroneous the labeling of Singapore for the only known specimen of A. extraoculatum  because he regarded A. romittii  as a junior synonym of the former, but A. romitii  is now considered an exclusive South American tick whereas A. extraoculatum  is considered an Oriental species. Most records are from Rodentia  : Caviidae  .

Venezuela, Bolívar, South-East of Ciudad Bolívar (06º 52 ´N 63 º 29 ´W), M on D. marsupialis  (Jones et al. 1972, who originally named this tick as A. extraoculatum  ).

18) Amblyomma sabanerae Stoll, 1894  is basically a parasite of Testudines  with few records on other types of hosts with a Neotropical range from southern Mexico to Colombia. This species is very close morphologically to A. crassum  and A. humerale  (Fairchild et al. 1966; Guglielmone et al. 2003 b).

Panama, Panamá, LU, M on M. robinsoni (Fairchild et al. 1966)  .

19) Amblyomma scutatum Neumann, 1899  is a Neotropical species non-exclusively South American that usually feeds on reptiles (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b).

Brazil, LU, N on Didelphys (sic) pusilla Desmarest (= Thylamys pusillus (Desmarest) (Neumann 1899). The host in Neumann (1899) is probably wrong because Brazil is out of the range of T. pusillus (Wilson & Reeder 2005). Most probably the host is Thylamys karimii (Petter) (Giarla et al. 2010).

20) Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844  is a Neotropical species with adults feeding mostly on Carnivora  : Canidae  , nymphs on Rodentia  : Caviidae  and larvae with a more ample range of hosts (Nava et al. 2006).

Paraguay, Massi Pallarés and Benítez Usher (1982) report infestation of “marsupials” with sub-adults of A. tigrinum  . We consider these records doubtful because they were done long before the description of these stages by Estrada-Peña et al. (1993), who stress the difficulties to separate morphologically the larva and nymph of A. tigrinum  from the same stages of related species (Estrada-Peña et al. 1993, 2005).

21) Amblyomma triste Koch, 1844  , a Neotropical and Nearctic tick species (Guzmán-Cornejo et al. 2006 b) whose larvae and nymphs are mainly collected from Cricetidae Fischer  : Sigmodontinae Wagner  and Caviidae  , but to a much lesser extent on birds (Nava et al. 2011).

Brazil, São Paulo, Pedreira (22 º 44 ´S 46 º 57 ´W), A on D. marsupialis  (Lemos et al. 1997, but the host is probably D. aurita  ).

Uruguay, LU, NL on Monodelphis dimidiata (Wagner) (Venzal et al. 2008 a).

22) Amblyomma varium Koch, 1844  is a Neotropical species non-exclusively South American that usually feeds on Pilosa  : Bradypodidae-Megalonchydae Ameghino (Onofrio et al. 2008).

Panama, Panamá, Canal Zone nearby Panamá City (08º 57 ´N 79 º 32 ´W), F on D. marsupialis (Fairchild et al. 1966)  .

23) Haemaphysalis leporispalustris (Packard, 1869)  is established in the Nearctic and Neotropical Regions, parasitizing usually Lagomorpha Brandt  : Leporidae Fischer  , although it was also found on an ample range of hosts. Colombia, Bolívar, Socorro (09º 14 ´N 74 º 25 ´W), N on Metachirus nudicaudatus (Geoffroy) (Kohls 1960)  . Costa Rica. Campbell et al. (1979) register the presence of H. leporispalustris  infesting Didelphimorphia  in this country but tick stages found on hosts are not stated.

24) Ixodes affinis Neumann, 1899  is a Nearctic and Neotropical tick species, but there is confusion about the presence (and hosts) of I. affinis  in the southern range of its distribution because they may represent Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca, 1935  a or Ixodes pararicinus Keirans and Clifford, 1985  as discussed in Guglielmone et al. (2003 b). Therefore, data below should be considered tentative. See also I. aragaoi  for unjustified synonym with I. affinis  .

Panama, Colón, Piña (09º 16 ´N 80 º03´W), MF on D. marsupialis (Fairchild et al. 1966)  .

25) Ixodes amarali Fonseca, 1935  b is a South American tick species whose adults are mostly found on Didelphimorphia  and to a lesser extent on sigmodontin rodents, but most nymphs are found on Sigmodontinae (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  .

Brazil, LU in the northeastern area of the country, F on Monodelphis domestica (Wagner) (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  .

Ceará, São Benedito (04º02´S 40 º 45 ´W), F on D. albiventris (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  .

Paraíba, Princesa Izabel (07º 44 ´S 37 º 59 ´W), F on M. domestica (Fonseca 1958)  .

Pernambuco, Pesqueira (08º 21 ´S 36 º 43 ´W), F on M. domestica (Fonseca 1958)  ; Triunfo (07º 49 ´S 38 º06´W), FNL on M. domestica (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  .

Rio de Janeiro, Seropedica (22 º 42 ´S 43 º 42 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Faccini et al. 1999, but the host is probably D. aurita  ).

Additional geographical information from parasitism on non-marsupial hosts

Brazil, Alagoas, Anadias (09º 41 ´S 36 º 18 ´W), N on Rodentia  ; Palmeira dos Indios (09º 24 ´S 36 º 37 ´W), N on Rodentia (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  .

Ceará, Viçosa (04º 27 ´S 37 º 47 ´W), N on Rodentia (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  .

Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte (19 º 55 ´S 43 º 56 ´W), F on Bolomys lasiurus (Lund)  (= Necromys lasiurus (Lund))  , F on Oryzomys subflavus (Wagner)  (= Cerradomys subflavus (Wagner)) (Botelho and Linardi 1996)  ; Guaraciaba (20 º 33 ´S 43 º00´W), N on Rodentia (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  ; Ouro Preto (20 º 23 ´S 43 º 30 ´W), N on Oligoryzomys microtis (Allen) (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  . The last host is mainly established in the Amazonian (Wilson & Reeder 2005; Oliveira & Bonvicino 2006) and the actual host is most probably different to O. microtis  .

Pernambuco, Bom Conselho (09º09´S 36 º 41 ´W), N on O. subflavus (Wagner)  (= C. subflavus (Wagner))  ; Garanhuns (08º 53 ´S 36 º 29 ´W), FNL on O. subflavus  (= C. subflavus  ) (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999).

26) Ixodes aragaoi Fonseca, 1935  a, is a South American species very close to Ixodes pararicinus  that is found on a variety of hosts (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b). Durden and Keirans (1996) and Guzmán-Cornejo and Robbins (2010), among others, consider I. aragaoi  to be a synonym of I. affinis  but this is unjustified as discussed in Onofrio et al. (2009).

Brazil. Pinter et al. (2005) register the presence of I. aragaoi  sub-adults on “marsupials”.

27) Ixodes boliviensis Neumann, 1904  is very close to Ixodes diversifossus Neumann, 1899  (Nearctic distribution); this last name will prevail if they are demonstrated to be synonyms. Under the current conditions I. boliviensis  is a Neotropical species found on a vast array of hosts but more often on carnivores from southern Mexico to Bolivia (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b).

Panama, Chiriqui, LU, F on D. marsupialis (Fairchild et al. 1966)  .

Colombia, Boyacá, Muzo (05º 32 ´N 74 º06´W), N on D. marsupialis  (Osorno Mesa 1942, who states that the tick found is near to I. boliviensis  ).

28) Ixodes fuscipes Koch, 1844  is a South America species found usually on rodents (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b). Brazil, Santa Catarina, Florianápolis (27 º 36 ´S 48 º 33 ´W), N on L. crassicaudata (Arzua et al. 2005)  .

29) Ixodes lasallei Méndez Arocha and Ortiz, 1958  is a South American tick species prone to feed on rodents (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b).

Venezuela, Amazonas, Cerro La Neblina (00º 48 ´N 66 º00´W), MFNL on Marmosa demerarae Thomas  (Guerrero 1996); Río Cunucunuma at North-North West of La Esmeralda (03º 39 ´N 65 º 21 ´W), N on P. opossum (Jones et al. 1972)  . The last host is probably Philander mondolfi Lew, Pérez-Hernández and Ventura  , and surely is not P. opossum  because there are no Venezuelan populations of this species (Patton & Silva 2007).

30) Ixodes longiscutatus Boero, 1944  is a species found only in South American whose ecology need of further studies, but Sigmodontinae  appears to be the most relevant host for its larvae and nymphs (Venzal et al. 2008 b).

Argentina, Misiones, Ruta 14 and Río Victoria (26 º 57 ´S 54 º 27 ´W), F on P. opossum  (= Philander frenatus (Olfers) (Ivancovich & Luciani 1992)  , but this record is considered doubtful by Venzal et al. (2008 b).

31) Ixodes loricatus Neumann, 1899  is a Neotropical species with adult ticks usually found on South American didelphimorphs. Relevant hosts for larvae and nymphs are marsupials and sigmodontin rodents. All tick stages of I. loricatus  were considered to be highly specific to Didelphidae (Hoogstraal & Aeschlimann 1982)  , but Nava et al.

(2004) clearly show that rodents are important for its life cycle. This study revealed that in the southern range of the distribution of I. loricatus  adults were only found on Didelphidae  and larvae and nymphs on Sigmodontinae  .

Argentina, LU, MF on Didelphis paraguayensis Allen (= D. albiventris) (Aragão 1935).

Buenos Aires, LU, AN on Didelphis azarae Temminck  (= D. albiventris  ) and L. crassicaudata (Mauri & Navone 1988)  , F on Didelphys  (sic) azarai (sic) Temminck (= D. albiventris  ) (Neumann 1910, who previously classified this tick as I. angustus Neumann, 1889  , and this error has been repeated until recently by several authors but I. angustus  is a Nearctic-Palearctic species); Delta del Paraná (33 º 43 ´S 59 º 15 ´W), MF on L. crassicaudata (Keirans 1982)  ; Delta del Paraná INTA (34 º 25 ´S 58 º 35 ´W), MFN on D. albiventris  , MFN on L. crassicaudata (Ivancovich & Luciani 1992)  , which is a controversial record for ticks classified first as Ixodes brunneus Koch, 1844  , and then as I. luciae  as discussed in the note below; La Balandra (34 º 56 ´S 57 º 42 ´W), F on L. crassicaudata (Nava et al. 2004)  .

Chaco, Campo Bermejo (26 º 38 ´S 59 º03´W), F on L. crassicaudata  ; Campo Winter (26 º 44 ´S 59 º 17 ´W), MF on D. albiventris (Ivancovich & Luciani 1992)  , MFN on L. crassicaudata (Ivancovich 1973)  ; Colonia Benítez INTA (27 º 19 ´S 58 º 56 ´W), ML on D. albiventris  ; Estancia La Aurora (26 º 44 ´S 58 º 59 ´W), F on D. albiventris (Ivancovich & Luciani 1992)  ; Ruta 90 and Río de Oro (26 º 25 ´S 59 º 23 ´W), MFN on D. albiventris (Ivancovich 1973)  ; General José de San Martín (26 º 32 ´S 59 º 21 ´W), F on L. crassicaudata (Ivancovich & Luciani 1992)  .

Córdoba, Morteros (30 ° 42 ´S 62 º00´W), MF on D. albiventris  (Guglielmone et al. 2007 a).

Corrientes, Corrientes (27 º 28 ´S 58 º 50 ´W), FL on D. albiventris (Gómez et al. 2000)  .

Formosa, Colonia El Colorado (26 º 18 ´S 59 º 24 ´W), MF on L. crassicaudata  ; Colonia Villafañe (26 º 12 ´S 59 º03´W), M on D. albiventris  ; El Colorado (26 º 19 ´S 59 º 23 ´W), F on D. albiventris  ; El Colorado INTA (26 º 19 ´S 59 º 21 ´W), MF on D. albiventris  , MFNL on L. crassicaudata  , F on P. opossum  (= P. frenatus  ); Laguna Blanca (25 º08´S 58 º 15 ´W), F on P. opossum  (= P. frenatus  ) (Ivancovich & Luciani 1992).

Misiones, Cuartel Victoria (26 º 44 ´S 54 º 20 ´W), F on D. albiventris (Ivancovich & Luciani 1992)  .

Salta, LU, M on D. paraguayensis (= D. albiventris) (Aragão 1935).

Note: the record in Aragão (1935) is considered doubtful for the reason explained for I. loricatus  in Brazil under the heading “ Additional information from parasitism on non-marsupial hosts ”.

Santa Fe, Funes (32 º 55 ´S 60 º 48 ´W), M on D. albiventris (Nava et al. 2004)  ; Malabrigo (29 º 20 ´S 59 º 59 ´W), MF on D. paraguayensis  (= D. albiventris  ), F on L. crassicaudata  (Aragão 1935); Santa Clara de Saguier (31 º 20 ´S 61 º 49 ´W), F on D. albiventris (Nava et al. 2004)  ; Sauce Viejo (31 º 46 ´S 60 º 49 ´W), F on D. albiventris  ; Sauce Viejo Aeropuerto (31 º 43 ´S 60 º 48 ´W), F on L. crassicaudata  ; North of Sauce Viejo (31 º 42 ´S 60 º 48 ´W) (Faccioli 2011).

Note: Ivancovich and Luciani (1992) present records of I. luciae  from man, D. albiventris  and L. crassicaudata  in Delta of Paraná River which corresponds to the southernmost record for this species of tick. The authors state that the ticks were classified as I. brunneus  but this diagnosis was later changed to I. luciae These  specimens (all collected on December 20, 1976) were kept in three vials at the Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Colonia Benítez, Chaco, Argentina; vial numbered 451 with a label of I. brunneus  contained one nymph (host non-stated), vial 452 with I. brunneus  label contained seven males, two females and three nymphs (host non-stated) and a vial with repeated number 452 and with an Ixodes  label contained one male and four females (from L. crassicaudata  ). However, the vial 451 contained a nymph of the Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904  tick group, and all the remaining 17 ticks were identified as I. loricatus  . We are not absolutely certain that all ticks indicated in Ivancovich and Luciani (1992) were revised because in the article it is stated that they found one female of I. luciae  on man, eight males, one female and four nymphs on D. albiventris  and one male, one female and four nymphs on L. crassicaudata  . However, what is certain is: 1) most of the alleged records of I. luciae  are in fact I. loricatus  , 2) I. auritulus  were first confused with I. brunneus  and later with I. luciae  , 3) the alleged infestation of man with I. luciae  is most probably the result of tick misidentification. Consequently, we regard records of I. luciae  on D. albiventris  and L. crassicaudata  in Ivancovich and Luciani (1992) as I. loricatus  .

Brazil, LU, MF on Didelphis quica Temminck (= P. frenatus) (Neumann 1899); ML on D. albiventris (Keirans 1982), F on C. minimus, ML on D. marsupialis (Keirans 1985).

Meridional Region, LU, N on D. quica (= P. frenatus) (Neumann 1899).

Northeast Region, LU, MF on D. albiventris (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999).

Alagoas, Palmeira dos Indios (09º 24 ´S 36 º 37 ´W), F on D. albiventris (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  .

Ceará, Coité (07º 25 ´S 38 º 43 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999, the host is most probably D. albiventris  ).

Goiás, Anápolis (16 º 19 ´S 48 º 57 ´W), MF on D. albiventris  , F on Philander  sp. (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999), MF on Didelphis  sp. (Cooley & Kohls 1945, the host is most probably D. albiventris  ), F on Metachirus opossum (Linnaeus)  (= P. opossum  ) (Fonseca & Aragão 1952).

Note: the Didelphis  sp. hosts above are considered to be D. albiventris  because it is the only species for the genus established in that locality.

Mato Grosso do Sul, Parque Estadual do Prosa (20 º 26 ´S 54 º 38 ´W), MFNL on D. albiventris (Miziara et al. 2008)  .

Minas Gerais, Araxá (19 º 35 ´S 46 º 56 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (most probably D. albiventris  ), M on Marmosa  sp. (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999); Belo Horizonte (19 º 49 ´S 43 º 57 ´W), F on D. albiventris (Schumaker et al. 2000)  ; Mar de Espanha (20 º 52 ´S 43 º00´W), MF on D. marsupialis  (Keirans 1982, but the host is surely D. aurita  because D. marsupialis  is not established in this locality).

Paraíba, João Eugenio (coordinates unknown), F on Didelphis  sp. (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999).

Paraná, Antonina (25 º 26 ´S 48 º 42 ´W), F on P. opossum  (= P. frenatus  ) (Arzua et al. 2005); Caiobá (25 º 50 ´S 48 º 33 ´W), M on M. opossum  (= P. frenatus  ) (Guimaraes 1945); Campo Largo (25 º 28 ´S 49 º 32 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp.; Castro (24 º 39 ´S 50 º04´W), F on D. albiventris  ; Curitiba (25 º 25 ´S 49 º 17 ´W), M on D. albiventris  , F on D. marsupialis  but most probably D. aurita  ; Pinhao (25 º 42 ´S 51 º 40 ´W), MN on D. albiventris  ; MN on P. opossum  (= P. frenatus  ) (Arzua et al. 2005); Matinhos (25 º 49 ´S 48 º 33 ´W), FNL on P. opossum  (= P. f re n a t u s) (Barros & Baggio 1992; Arzua et al. 2005); Ponta Grossa (25 º06´S 50 º 10 ´W), MFN on D. albiventris  , MFN on D. marsupialis  but most probably D. aurita  , MFN on L. crassicaudata (Barros & Baggio 1992)  ; Ponta Grossa "Parque Estadual Vila Velha" (25 º 12 ´S 50 º05´W), MF on D. albiventris  , MFL on D. marsupialis  but most probably D. aurita  , FN on L. crassicaudata  ; Quatro Barras "Morro do Anhangava" (25 º 23 ´S 48 º 59 ´W), MF on P. opossum  (= P. fre  n a tu s); Río Ivaí (coordinates unknown), MF on Didelphis  sp., MF on P. opossum  (= P. frenatus  ); Tunas do Paraná "Parque Estadual de Campinhos" (25 º02´S 49 º03´W), F on P. opossum  (= P. frenatus  ) (Arzua et al. 2005).

Pernambuco, Caruarú (08º 16 ´S 35 º 58 ´W), F on D. albiventris  ; Garanhuns (08º 52 ´S 36 º 29 ´W), MF on D. albiventris (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  ; Reserva Ecológica de Gurjaú (08º 14 ´S 35 º00´W), A on Didelphis  sp., A on D. albiventris  , A on D. marsupialis  but most probably D. aurita  , N on Monodelphis americana (Müller)  , N on Marmosa  sp.; N on Marmosa murina (Linnaeus) (Botelho et al. 2004)  .

Rio de Janeiro, Gavea (22 º 58 ´S 43 º 14 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Cooley & Kohls 1945); Teresópolis (22 º 24 ´S 42 º 57 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Labruna et al. 2002 b); Tijuca (22 º 56 ´S 43 º 15 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Cooley & Kohls 1945). The hosts are most probably D. aurita  .

Rio Grande do Sul, LU, NL on Microdelphys sorex (Hensel)  (= Monodelphis sorex (Hensel) (Neumann 1899)  ; Eldorado do Sul (30 º05´S 51 º 25 ´W), M on D. marsupialis  ; Guaiba (30 º04´S 51 º 44 ´W), M on D. marsupialis (Evans et al. 2000)  ; Pelotas (31 º 46 ´S 52 º 20 ´W), MFNL on D. albiventris  , FN on D. marsupialis  , F on L. crassicaudata  (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999; Brum et al. 2003; Muller et al. 2005). Most probably the hosts identified as D. marsupialis  in Rio Grande do Sul are in fact D. aurita  . If this is confirmed the southern distribution of D. aurita  in Cerqueira and Tribe (2008) will increase about 240 km.

Santa Catarina, Ilha de Ratones Grande (27 º 29 ´S 48 º 34 ´W), MF on D. aurita  ( Salvador et al. 2007); Joinville (26 º 18 ´S 48 º 50 ´W), F on D. marsupialis  (Keirans 1985, the host is most probably D. aurita  ).

São Paulo, Caçapava (23 º06´S 45 º 42 ´W), A on D. aurita (Souza et al. 2006)  ; Cotia (23 º 36 ´S 46 º 55 ´W), F on D. marsupialis  (Labruna et al. 2002 b, but the host is most probably D. aurita  ); Francisco Morato (23 º 15 ´S 46 º 45 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999); Fundação Parque Zoológico São Paulo (23 º 38 ´S 43 º 38 ´W), A on D. aurita (Labruna et al. 2004)  ; Ipiranga (21 º 48 ´S 47 º 42 ´W), F on D. aurita  (Aragão 1918); Itapevi (23 º 33 ´S 46 º 56 ´W), F on D. aurita  (Barros-Battesti et al. 2000, several adult ticks were named as Ixodes didelphidis Fonseca  and Aragão, 1952); Mogi das Cruzes (23 º 38 ´S 46 º 11 ´W), F on D. aurita (Horta et al. 2006)  , A on D. albiventris  and-or D. aurita (Horta et al. 2007)  ; Mogi das Cruzes-Serra de Itapety (23 º 26 ´S 46 º09´W), F on D. marsupialis  but most probably D. aurita  , N on Marmosa  sp., MF on P. opossum  (= P. frenatus  ) (Labruna et al. 1997); Monte Alegre do Sul (22 º 39 ´S 46 º 41 ´W), A on D. albiventris (Souza et al. 2006)  ; Pirassununga (21 º 59 ´S 47 º 25 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Labruna et al. 2002 b), A on D. albiventris  and-or D. aurita (Horta et al. 2007)  ; Ribeirão Pires (23 º 43 ´S 46 º 24 ´W), F on Marmosa  sp. (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999); Sampaio Moreira (coordinates unknown), F on Marmosa  sp. (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999); São Paulo (23 º 31 ´S 46 º 37 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp., F on D. albiventris  , MF on D. marsupialis  but most probably D. aurita  , M on Marmosa  sp. (Barros- Battesti & Knysak 1999), A on D. albiventris  and-or D. aurita (Horta et al. 2007)  ; Serra do Mar State Park (23 º 52 ´S 46 º 26 ´W), A on D. aurita (Sabatini et al. 2010)  .

Colombia. In the tick collection of the Instituto Nacional de Tecnología Agropecuaria, Estación Experimental Agropecuaria Rafaela ( INTA), Rafaela, Argentina there is a female labeled as Ixodes loricatus  , from Metachirus nudicaudatus  , 25 noviembre 1970, La Tirana (06º 50 ´N 75 º 34 ´W), Antioquia, gift from the United States National Tick Collection ( USNTC), Statesboro, U.S.A. It is part of a lot of eight female ticks maintained in the USNTC under accession number RML 57488View Materials. We compared this specimen with bona fide I. loricatus  females from Argentina and Brazil and with the descriptions contained in Marques et al. (2004) and Onofrio et al. (2009) because the types of I. loricatus  are not available (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b). The results are in the note below.

Note: the Colombian specimen, almost unfed, resembles at first sight under low magnification I. loricatus  although it is pale brown and the coxae not as dark as in Argentinian and Brazilian specimens. However, this situation changed drastically when morphological details were compared under high stereoscopy magnification. The Colombian specimen differs from the Argentinian and Brazilian ticks as follows: pronounced ridges lateral to each porose area surpassing the posterior border of the basis capituli giving the impression of sharp cornua, a feature absent in I. loricatus  ; scutum obviously longer than wide (ratio 1.5) while it is just longer than wide (ratio 1.2) in I. loricatus  ; coxae I with two acute spurs with the external longer than the internal, while the spurs are less acute in I. loricatus  ; hypostome pointed, while it is blunt in I. loricatus  ; presence of a dark elevated borders on the ventral basis capituli which is absent from the Argentinian and Brazilian I. loricatus  . We conclude that the alleged specimen of I. loricatus  from Colombia is not a representative of this species. Lorenza Beati examined the specimens in RML 57488View Materials ( USNTC) and found that they are not I. loricatus  and their morphologies are similar to the specimen deposited in INTA. Additional studies are needed to determine if these specimens belong to a known species or represent a still undescribed taxon.

Guatemala. Monroy Lefebre and Cejas González (1988) state that I. loricatus  is established in this country, but locality, hosts and tick stages found on them are not provided. This is a controversial record that will be further discussed below.

Panama, Note: Fairchild et al. (1966) allegedly found a bona fide female of I. loricatus  in Darién, Tacarcuna Station (08º05´N 77 º 17 ´W) on Metachirus nudicaudatus  on September 1, 1958. This specimen is kept in the United States Tick Collection under accession number RML 37477View Materials where it was examined by Valeria C. Onofrio, who concluded that it is not I. loricatus  and species identification is under way. Therefore, Panama is excluded form the range of this species.

Paraguay, LU, A on D. albiventris (Whitaker & Abrell 1987).

Cordillera, probably from Sapucay (25 º 19 ´S 56 º 55 ´W), MF on Didelphis  sp. (Keirans 1982), but we were unable to locate this place with the coordinates provided by the author.

Presidente Hayes, Fortín Juan de Zalazar (23 º06´S 59 º 18 ´W), MF on D. albiventris  (Valeria C. Onofrio, personal communication). These ticks are deposited in the Gorgas Memorial Laboratory Tick Collection, and the locality is named “Juan de Zalazar” and allegedly located in the Boquerón Department. However, there is no Paraguayan locality named “Juan Zalazar” but “Fortín Juan de Zalazar” often named as “Fortín Zalazar” is located in the Department Presidente Hayes, close to the borderline with the Department Boquerón.

Uruguay, LU, MFN on D. albiventris, NL on M. dimidiata (Venzal et al. 2003).

Maldonado, Barra del Arroyo Maldonado (34 º 58 ´S 54 º 56 ´W), F on D. albiventris (Nava et al. 2004)  .

Montevideo, Paso de la Arena (34 º 53 ´S 56 º09´W), MF on L. crassicaudata (Wolffhugel 1933)  .

Venezuela, Araguá, Rancho Grande Biological Station (10 º 21 ´N 67 º 36 ´W), NL on Monodelphis brevicaudata (Erxleben) (Jones et al. 1972)  . See the note about M. brevicaudata  in I. luciae  .

Miranda, east of Caracas (10 º 29 ´N 66 º 44 ´W), L on M. robinsoni (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Note: Jones et al. (1972) consider the precedent diagnosis of I. loricatus  as tentative. There are other records from Venezuelan marsupials in Vogelsang and Cordero (1940) but the tick stages found on hosts and morphological support for the identification are not provided, bringing uncertainty about the presence of this tick in the country.

Additional geographical information from parasitism on non-marsupial or undetermined hosts

Argentina, Buenos Aires, Hudson (34 º 45 ´S 58 º06´W), LN on Akodon azarae (Fischer)  ; Punta Lara (34 º 47 ´S 58 º01´W), L on A. azarae, Ramallo  (33 º 32 ´S 59 º 52 ´W), N on Oligoryzomys flavescens (Waterhouse)  ; San Nicolás (33 º 20 ´S 60 º 13 ´W), NL on A. azarae (Nava et al. 2004)  .

Salta, Parque Nacional El Rey (24 º 41 ´S 64 º 40 ´W), NL on Calomys  sp. (Nava et al. 2004).

Santa Fe, Reserva Natural de la Universidad Nacional del Litoral (31 º 23 ´S 60 º 55 ´W), L in nests of sigmodontine rodents (Manzoli et al., 2006); Santa Clara de Saguier (31 º 20 ´S 61 º 49 ´W), NL on Akodon  sp. (Nava et al. 2004).

Tierra del Fuego, LU, F from an unknown hosts (Neumann 1901). This is a controversial record that will be further discussed below.

Brazil, Minas Gerais, Pacau (15 º 14 ´S 43 º 41 ´W), F on Agouti paca (Linnaeus)  (= Cuniculus paca (Linnaeus))  (Aragão 1918).

São Paulo, Araraquara (21 º 47 ´S 48 º 10 ´W), F on undetermined host; Barueri (23 º 29 ´S 46 º 51 ´W), M on undetermined host; Biritiba Mirim (23 º 34 ´S 46 º01´W), F on undetermined host; Bragança Paulista (22 º 57 ´S 46 º 32 ´W), M on undetermined host; Taubaté (23 º02´S 45 º 33 ´W) (Marques et al. 2004).

Note: Aragão (1936) has a record of I. loricatus  on an undetermined host at Curralinho (01º 43 ´S 49 º 43 ´W) in the state of Pará that represents the northernmost record of this species in Brazil. However, it should be noted that this diagnosis was made before the description of I. luciae  in 1940. The armature of coxae (crucial for differential diagnosis between these species) was not considered in the key used by this author bringing some uncertainty about the identification. We can not say that this diagnosis is erroneous but being cautious it is considered that it at least requires confirmation.

Mexico, Tabasco, Frontera (18 º 32 ´N 92 º 38 ´W), MF on Ateles geoffroyi Kuhl  (Keirans 1982, 1985).

Note: this Mexican record of I. loricatus  is controversial. This tick species has not been found yet on Mexican marsupials or rodents but only once on this unusual monkey host for I. loricatus  . We doubt about the origin of the specimens (see also the discussion section).

Uruguay, Canelones, Solymar Norte (34 º 47 ´S 55 º 56 ´W), L on O. flavescens (Nava et al. 2004)  .

32) Ixodes luciae Sénevet, 1940  is a Neotropical species close morphologically and in host usage to the precedent species, I. loricatus  . The only study on the ecology of I. luciae  shows the relevance of sigmodontin rodents as hosts for larvae and nymphs of this tick (Díaz et al. 2007, 2009) because all specimens but two were found on them. However, other authors present several records of sub-adults ticks on Didelphidae  (see below).

Argentina, LU, M on D. paraguayensis (= D. albiventris) (Cooley & Kohls 1945).

Salta, road to Isla de las Cañas (22 º 57 ´S 64 º 33 ´W), N on Micoureus constantiae (Thomas)  (= Marmosa constantiae Thomas  ), N on Thylamys  sp., N on Thylamys venustus (Thomas)  , F on L. crassicaudata (Autino et al. 2006)  .

Tucumán, El Siambón (26 º 40 ´S 65 º 24 ´W), N on Thylamys cinderella Thomas (Autino et al. 2006)  .

Note: the Argentinian record for I. luciae  in Buenos Aires province, Delta del Paraná INTA (34 º 25 ´S 58 º 35 ´W) on D. albiventris  and L. crassicaudata  in Ivancovich and Luciani (1992) was changed to I. loricatus  after examining the specimens as stated in the note of I. loricatus  in Argentina (see details in the note under I. loricatus  in Argentina).

Belize, Middlesex (17 º01´N 88 º 30 ´W), MF on Didelphis mesamericana Allen  (= D. marsupialis  ) (Cooley & Kohls 1945).

Bolivia, Santa Cruz, Buen Retiro (17 º 16 ´S 63 º 42 ´W), MFNL on D. paraguayensis  (= D. albiventris  ) (Fonseca 1959).

Brazil, Acre, Assis (10 º 56 ´S 69 º 34 ´W), A on D. marsupialis  (Marcelo B. Labruna, personal communication).

Pará, Igarapé Açú (01º07´S 47 º 37 ´W), MF on P. opossum (Barros-Battesti & Knysak 1999)  .

Rondônia, LU, MF on Monodelphis sp. (Labruna et al. 2005 a, most probably the host is Monodelphis glirina (Wagner); Jamari River headwaters (10 º 18 ´S 63 º 14 ´W), F on D. marsupialis (Labruna et al. 2009).

Colombia. There are records of I. luciae  in Wells et al. (1981) and Osorno-Mesa (1942 as I. loricatus spinosus Nuttall, 1910  , a preoccupied name replaced by I. loricatus vogelsangi Santos Dias, 1954  ) on South American marsupials, but there is no information about tick stages found on hosts.

Costa Rica. Guglielmone et al. (2003 b) state that I. luciae  is present in the country but no host and tick stages are provided.

Ecuador. Guglielmone et al. (2003 b) state that I. luciae  is found in the country, but no host and tick stages are provided.

French Guiana, Cayena, Cayenne, (04º 56 ´N 52 º 19 ´W), F on D. marsupialis (Floch & Fauran 1958)  .

Guatemala, Izabal, Bobos (15 º 21 ´N 88 º 48 ´W), MF on D. mesamericana  (= D. marsupialis  ); Escobas (15 º 41 ´N 88 º 38 ´W), F on D. mesamericana  (= D. marsupialis  ) (Cooley & Kohls 1945).

Honduras. Onofrio et al. (2002) state that I. luciae  is established in this country, but hosts and tick stages found on them are not provided.

Mexico, Chiapas, Finca Germania (15 º04´N 92 º 31 ´W), MF on Didelphis  sp. (Vázquez 1946 as Ixodes scuticrenatus Vázquez, 1946  ).

Colima, La Barragana (19 º 20 ´N 103 º 45 ´W), MF on D. marsupialis (Guzmán-Cornejo et al. 2007)  .

Tabasco, Frontera (18 º 32 ´N 92 º 38 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Keirans 1982).

Veracruz, North-East of las Minas (19 º 41 ´N 97 º09´W), M on Didelphis  sp. (Guzmán-Cornejo et al. 2007).

Nicaragua. Jones et al. (1972) state that I. luciae  is established in this country, but hosts and tick stages found on them are not provided.

Panama, Bocas del Toro, Almirante (09º 18 ´N 82 º 24 ´W), N on M. robinsoni (Fairchild et al. 1966)  .

Colón, Alhajuela (09º 11 ´N 79 º 38 ´W), MF D. mesamericana  (= D. marsupialis  ) (Cooley & Kohls 1945), M on D. marsupialis (Fairchild 1943)  ; Camp Piña (09º 16 ´N 80 º03´W), MF on D. marsupialis  , F on P. opossum  ; Fort Gulick (currently named Fuerte Espinar) (09º 18 ´N 79 º 53 ´W), F on P. opossum (Fairchild et al. 1966)  .

Comarca de Kuna Yala (previously known as Comarca San Blas), Río Mandinga (09º 29 ´N 79 º05´W), M on D. marsupialis (Fairchild et al. 1966)  .

Darién, Tacarcuna Station (08º 10 ´N 77 º 18 ´W), A on D. marsupialis (Fairchild et al. 1966)  .

Panama, Cerro Azul (09º 12 ´N 79 º 21 ´W), A on D. marsupialis  , F on P. opossum  ; Cerro Campana (08º 41 ´N 79 º 56 ´W), A on D. marsupialis (Fairchild et al. 1966)  ; Panamá City (08º 58 ´N 79 º 32 ´W), F on D. marsupialis (Bermúdez et al. 2010)  .

Peru, Loreto, 13 de Febrero (04º02´S 73 º 26 ´W), F on P. opossum  ; Belén (03º 50 ´S 73 º 13 ´W), F on Caluromys lanatus (Olfers)  ; Ex Petroleros (04º05´S 73 º 27 ´W), F on P. opossum  ; Fundo San Martín (03º 58 ´S 73 º 24 ´W), F on P. opossum  ; Los Delfines (03º 51 ´S 73 º 21 ´W), F on P. opossum  ; Moralillo (03º 54 ´S 73 º 21 ´W), F on P. opossum  , F on Marmosops  sp., now identified as Marmosops impavidus Tschudi  by one of the authors (MMD) Palo Seco (04º00´S 73 º 26 ´W), F on M. nudicaudatus  , L on Micoureus Lesson  (= Marmosa  ) sp. (most probably Micoureus regina (Thomas)  , F on Philander andersoni Pine  ; Paujil (04º04´S 73 º 27 ´W), F on D. marsupialis  , F on P. opossum  ; Peña Negra (03º 52 ´S 73 º 20 ´W), MF on P. opossum  ; San Juan (03º 59 ´S 73 º 25 ´W), F on P. opossum  , F on P. andersoni  ; San Lucas (04º06´S 73 º 22 ´W), F on P. andersoni (Díaz et al. 2007)  .

Surinam, LU, F on Didelphis sp. (Keirans 1985).

Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad, Bush Bush Forest (10 º 24 ´N 61 º00´W), A on D. marsupialis  , A on Marmosa  sp. (Aitken et al. 1968).

Venezuela, Amazonas, Boca Mavaca (02º 31 ´N 65 º 16 ´W), F on P. opossum  ; Capibara (02º 36 ´N 66 º 20 ´W), F on P. opossum (Jones et al. 1972)  ; Cerro Tamacuari (01º 41 ´N 64 º 26 ´W), MF on P. opossum  (Guerrero 1996); Tamatama (03º09´N 65 º 50 ´W), FN on M. robinsoni  , F on P. opossum (Jones et al. 1972)  ; however these localities are out of the distribution range of P. opossum  as stated by (Patton & Silva 2007) and the hosts should be either P. mondolfii  or P. andersoni  .

Araguá, Rancho Grande Biological Station (10 º 21 ´N 67 º 36 ´W), NL on M. brevicaudata (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Barinas, Altamira (08º 49 ´N 70 º 30 ´W), M on D. marsupialis  , N on M. brevicaudata  ; south-west of Altamira (08º 47 ´N 70 º 31 ´W), NL on M. brevicaudata (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Carabobo, Aguirre (10 º 11 ´N 68 º 19 ´W), NL on M. brevicaudata  ; Montalbán (10 º 12 ´N 68 º 19 ´W), N on M. robinsoni  , NL on M. brevicaudata  ; south-east of Montalbán (10 º 10 ´N 68 º 20 ´W), F on D. marsupialis  , L on M. robinsoni (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Distrito Federal, south-west of Caracas (10 º 27 ´N 67 º09´W), M on D. marsupialis (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Falcón, La Pastora (11 º 12 ´N 68 º 35 ´W), MF D. marsupialis  , NL on M. brevicaudata (Jones et al. 1972)  ; San Esteban (11 º 28 ´N 69 º 22 ´W), M on D. marsupialis (Keirans 1982)  .

Guárico, south-east of Caracas (09º 56 ´N 66 º 32 ´W), MF on D. marsupialis (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Miranda, near Turgua (10 º 21 ´N 66 º 44 ´W), N on Marmosa cinerea (Temminck)  (= Marmosa demerarae (Thomas)  , because the name cinerea  was preoccupied); Naiguatá (10 º 29 ´N 66 º 44 ´W), MF on Didelphis  sp. (Méndez Arocha & Ortiz, 1958, the host is most probably D. marsupialis  ); South of Río Chico (10 º 15 ´N 65 º 59 ´W), N on M. brevicaudata  (Jones et al. 1972, but the host is doubtful because there is no evidence of its presence in Miranda).

Yaracuy, Aroa (10 º 25 ´N 68 º 53 ´W), MF D. marsupialis  ; north-west of Urama (10 º 34 ´N 68 º 26 ´W), M on D. marsupialis  , N on M. cinerea  (= M. demerarae  ) (Jones et al. 1972).

Zulia, south-west of Machiques (09º 58 ´N 72 º 42 ´W), N on M. brevicaudata (Jones et al. 1972)  , but the host is most probably Monodelphis palliolata (Osgood)  .

Note: the following Venezuelan records are from Jones et al. (1972) who considered the specimens as probable I. luciae  without further comments. In the light of the many records of I. luciae  in Venezuela we treat these records as provisionally valid.

Amazonas, Río Cunucunuma at North-North West of La Esmeralda (03º 39 ´N 65 º 21 ´W), L on Caluromys philander (Linnaeus)  , L on M. murina  .

Distrito Federal, South-West of Caracas (10 º 27 ´N 67 º 20 ´W), L on M. brevicaudata  .

Falcón, North-West of La Pastora (11 º 12 ´N 68 º 36 ´W), NL on M. brevicaudata  ; Mirimire (11 º09´N 68 º 53 ´W), M on D. marsupialis  .

Guárico, South-East of Caracas (09º 58 ´N 66 º 33 ´W), L on M. brevicaudata  , but the host is most probably M. palliolata  or a related species instead of M. brevicaudata  .

Miranda, South of Caracas (10 º 25 ´N 66 º 55 ´W), L on M. robinsoni  .

Trujillo, West-North West of Valera (09º 23 ´N 70 º 40 ´W), L on M. robinsoni  .

Note: all records of M. brevicaudata  have to be considered cautiously because considerable controversy exists about it and related species (Pine & Handley 2007).

Additional geographical information from parasitism on non-marsupial or undetermined hosts

Argentina, Salta, West South West of Pulares (25 º05´S 65 º 37 ´W), N on Calomys callosus  (probably) from Autino et al. (2006), but host and locality position reevaluated.

Brazil, Amazonas, Santa Isabel do Río Negro (02º 23 ´S 65 º04´W), F on undetermined host (Onofrio et al. 2010).

Mato Grosso do Sul, Dos Irmãos do Buriti (20 º 41 ´S 55 º 17 ´W), F on undetermined host (Onofrio et al. 2010).

Pará, Belém (01º 26 ´S 48 º 29 ´W), MF on undetermined host; Mirabá (05º 20 ´S 49 º07´W), F on undetermined host; São João de Pirabas (00º 46 ´S 47 º 10 ´W), F on undetermined host; Tucuruí (03º 40 ´S 49 º 42 ´W), M on undetermined host (Onofrio et al. 2010).

Rondônia, Amorim Farm (10 º 38 ´S 63 º 31 ´W), N on undetermined host (Labruna et al. 2005 a); Campo Novo de Rondônia (10 º 36 ´S 63 º 37 ´W), MF on undetermined host (Onofrio et al. 2010); Line C (10 º 26 ´S 63 º 21 ´W), N on undetermined host (Labruna et al. 2005 a); Monte Negro (10 º02´S 63 º08´W), NL on undetermined host; Porto Velho (08º 45 ´S 63 º 54 ´W), MF on undetermined host (Onofrio et al. 2010).

Panamá, Darién, Cerro Pirre (07º 51 ´N 77 º 44 ´W), N on Oryzomys  sp. (Fairchild et al. 1966).

Perú, Loreto, Ninarumi (03º 51 ´S 73 º 22 ´W), N on Hylaeamys perenensis (Allen)  ; Varillal (03º 53 ´S 73 º 22 ´W), N on H. perenensis (Díaz et al. 2007)  .

Venezuela, Distrito Federal, Caracas (10 º 29 ´N 66 º 55 ´W), MF on dog (Méndez Arocha & Ortiz 1958).

33) Ixodes pararicinus Keirans and Clifford, 1985  in Keirans et al. (1985) is a South American species with several hosts for all parasitic stages (Venzal et al. 2005; Autino et al. 2006).

Argentina, Salta, Parque Nacional El Rey (24 º 15 S, 64 º 40`W), L on T. venustus (Beldoménico et al. 2003)  . Peru, Loreto, Fundo San Martín (03º 58 ´S 73 º 24 ´W), L on Monodelphis adusta (Thomas) (Díaz et al. 2007)  .

34) Ixodes rubidus Neumann, 1901  is a Nearctic-Neotropical species but it is not established in South America. Their usual hosts are carnivore mammals (Guglielmone et al. 2003 b).

Guatemala, Chimaltenango, Yepocapa (14 º 29 ´N 90 º 56 ´W), F on Didelphis  sp. (Fairchild et al. 1966).

35) Ixodes venezuelensis Kohls, 1953  is a Neotropical tick species feeding on Didelphimorphia  and Rodentia  with Sigmodontinae  playing a relevant role as hosts for all parasitic stages (Durden & Keirans 1994).

Costa Rica, Heredia, LU (10 º 25 ´N 84 º00´W), N on Marmosa mexicana Merriam, N  on P. opossum (Durden & Keirans 1994)  .

Panama, Darién, LU, F on M. adusta (Durden & Keirans 1994)  .

Venezuela, northern region, LU, FN on M. brevicaudata (Durden & Keirans 1994)  .

Amazonas, LU, L on Philander sp. (Durden & Keirans 1994); Boca Mavaca (02º 31 ´N 65 º 16 ´W), NL on D.

marsupialis  ; Casiquiare Canal Capibara (02º 36 ´N 66 º 21 ´W), L on P. opossum  ; Río Cunucuma north-north west of La Esmeralda (03º 39 ´N 65 º 21 ´W), NL on P. opossum (Jones et al. 1972)  . Most probably the species of Philander  in Jones et al. (1972) are P. andersoni  or P. mondolfii  .

Araguá, Sierra Maestra (coordinates unknown), FN on M. brevicaudata (Kohls 1953)  .

Barinas, Altamira (08º 49 ´N 70 º 30 ´W), NL on M. brevicaudata (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Falcón, LU, N on M. brevicaudata (Durden & Keirans 1994).

Táchira, LU, L on Marmosa sp. (Durden & Keirans 1994).

Trujillo, West-Northwest of Valera (09º 23 ´N 70 º 40 ´W), FNL on M. brevicaudata (Jones et al. 1972)  ; these last authors have a record considered “probable I. venezuelensis  ” for this state at east of Trujillo (09º 22 ´N 70 º 17 ´W), L on Marmosa dryas (Thomas)  (= Gracilinanus dryas (Thomas)  .

See the note about M. brevicaudata  in I. luciae  .

Additional geographical information from parasitism on non-marsupial hosts

Colombia, Antioquía, Valdivia (07º 11 ´N 75 º 27 ´W), F on Melanomys caliginosus (Tomes) (Kohls 1953)  .

Costa Rica, Alajuela, LU (10 º 30 ´N 84 º 30 ´W), F on Heteromys desmarestianus Gray (Durden & Keirans 1994)  .

Venezuela, Amazonas, South East of Boca Mavaca (02º 22 ´N 65 º08´W), N on Myoprocta pratti Pocock  ; North of Raya (05º 25 ´N 67 º 36 ´W), N on Proechimys guyannensis (Geoffroy) (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Apure, North of Nula (07º 18 ´N 71 º 54 ´W), N on Proechimys semispinosus (Tome) (Jones et al. 1972)  , but this host is not established in Venezuela and the species of Proechimys  found in the state of Apure are uncertain (Gómez-Laverde et al. 2008).

Aragua, Rancho Grande (10 º 21 ´N 67 º 36 ´W), F on Ichthyomys pittieri Handley and Mondolfi  (Guerrero 1996).

Bolívar, South East of El Dorado (06º 13 ´N 61 º 28 ´W), N on P. guyannensis  ; North East of Icaburú (04º 34 ´N 61 º 30 ´W), N on P. guyannensis (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Carabobo, Montalbán (10 º 12 ´N 68 º 20 ´W), NL on Dasyprocta aguti (Linnaeus)  (= Dasyprocta leporina (Linnaeus) (Jones et al. 1972)  ; Bejuma (10 º 10 ´N 68 º 15 ´W), F on I. pittieri  (Guerrero 1996).

Mérida, East of Tabay (08º 38 ´N 71 º02´W), Oryzomys minutus (Tomes)  (= Microryzomys minutus (Tomes) (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Miranda, South of Caracas (10 º 25 ´N 66 º 55 ´W), F on Heteromys anomalus (Thompson) (Jones et al. 1972)  .

Trujillo, East of Trujillo (09º 22 ´N 70 º 18 ´W), NL on O. minutus  (= M. minutus  ) (Jones et al. 1972).

36) Rhipicephalus microplus (Canestrini, 1888)  is an extremely important tick species that affects the cattle industry in most tropical and sub-tropical areas of the world, and is found occasionally on mammalian hosts different to artiodactyls.

Argentina. Boero (1954) and Boero and Boehringer (1967) present vague information of infestation of R. microplus  on South American marsupials.

37) Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806)  species complex has a world wide distribution feeding mainly on domestic dogs, but there are also records on a wide variety of hosts. The number of species that forms this complex is undetermined.

Argentina and Peru. Santa Cruz et al. (1998) and Need et al. (1991) present records of ticks of R. sanguineus  complex on South American marsupials for Argentina and Peru, respectively, without stating tick stages found on hosts.

USNTC

U.S. National Tick Collection