Epicadus trituberculatus ( Taczanowski, 1872 ),

Machado, Miguel, Teixeira, Renato Augusto & Lise, Arno Antonio, 2018, There and back again: More on the taxonomy of the crab spiders genus Epicadus (Thomisidae: Stephanopinae), Zootaxa 4382 (3), pp. 501-530: 522-529

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4382.3.4

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:87A2B333-09FF-4726-A1EF-0699FB631808

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/501D87B1-6728-A420-2390-FD77540EBD3E

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Epicadus trituberculatus ( Taczanowski, 1872 )
status

 

Epicadus trituberculatus ( Taczanowski, 1872) 

Figs 12A –DView FIGURE 12, 13A –DView FIGURE 13, 16FView FIGURE 16

Thomisus trituberculatus TaczanoWski, 1872: 92  , pl. 4, fig. 7.

Tobias trituberculatus (TaczanoWski)  . Simon 1895: 1047, fig. 1029.

Tobias paraguayensis Mello-Leitão, 1929: 91  , figs 191–195 (syntypes from “Paraguay”, deposited in MNHN 8790, examined).

Epicadus planus Mello-Leitão, 1932: 73  (holotype female from Ilhéus [14°48.985'S, 39°1.996'W, Bahia, Brazil], deposited in MNRJ 14205, examined). Silva-Moreira & Machado 2016: 297, figs 11, 12, 13, 14.

Epicadus nigronotatus Mello-Leitão, 1940: 213  (holotype female from Goitacazes [19°23'48.00"S, 40° 3'42.00"W, Linhares, Brazil], deposited in MNRJ 58252View Materials, examined).GoogleMaps 

Epicadus trituberculatus (TaczanoWski)  . Machado et al. 2017: 448, figs 2A, S3A, S4B, S8E, S9A, D.

Type material: Syntypes (quantity not specified): Iles du Salut, [5°17.000'N, 52°35.000'W, Saint Laurent du Maroni and Uassa, French Guiana], deposited in MZPW, presumably lost.GoogleMaps 

Note. Type material of E. trituberculatus  could not be traced despite the extensive search in European and South American arachnological and entomological collections. However, E. trituberculatus  could be recognized through the examination of specimens deposited in MNHN and determined by Mello-Leitão (1929). The specimens in these vials match perfectly with the original description of the species, and besides that, E. trituberculatus  presents a remarkable set of features, especially the median posterior opisthosomal projection ending in three equal-sized small tips (which give name to the species), that helps to identify it unequivocally. Moreover, we propose synonymy of E. planus  based on the vouchers deposited in MNHN that were examined and redescribed by Mello-Leitão (1929). The description of the general body coloration, and the shape and disposition of the opisthosomal projections of these specimens perfectly match the description made by Taczanowski (1872). The trifid median posterior opisthosomal projection (the main diagnosis of E. trituberculatus  ) is clearly recognizable. The only species that presents striking similarities with E. tritubeculatus  is E. camelinus  , but the large brown stains on prosoma and anterior legs of this species are constant, diagnostic and useful characters to distinguish it from E. trituberculatus  , besides the genital structures.

Other material examined. BRAZIL: Amapá: 1 male, Ilha de Maracá , 3°25'00"N, 61°40'00"W, 1–14 February 1992, A.A. Lise ( MCTP 1943View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Roraima: 1 female, Alto Alegre ( Aldeia Hali Kato ), 3°12'10"N, 63°23'30"W, 13 March –14 April 2009, C. Kirsh ( ISBP 149628)GoogleMaps  . Pará: 1 female, Santarém ( Boca do Cuminaímiri ), 2°27'07"S, 54°41'33"W, 25 October 1969, leg. EPA ( MZSP 11605View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Amazonas: 1 male, Manaus , 3°07'08"S, 60°01'17"W, 8 January 1992, A.A. Lise ( MCTP 2001View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Rondônia: 1 female, Porto Velho , 8°48'10"S, 63°55'05"W, 27 August 2010, R. Lemos ( MZSP 34731View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Mato Grosso: 8 males, 4 females, [labelled as “ Mato Grosso ”] ( MNHN 10358View Materials)  ; 1 male, Canarana / Querência ( Fazenda Tanguro ), 12°49'55''S, 52°20'21"W, 27 May 2006, D.F. Candiani ( MPEG 22621View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, 8 June 2006 (MPEG 22623); 1 male, 11 June 2006 (MPEG 22625); 1 male, 15 June 2006, N.F. Lo-Man-Hung (MPEG 22627); 1 female, 16 June 2006 (MPEG 22662); 4 males, Chapada dos Guimarães , 15°21'29"S, 55°53'52"W, 15–26 July 1992, A.A. Lise & A. Braul ( MCTP 2192View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, Poconé ( Porto Cercado ), 16°15'59"S, 56°37'35"W, 1 March 1992, A. Braul ( MCTP 2482View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Mato Grosso do Sul: 1 male, Brasilândia, Usina Hidrelétrica Engenheiro Sérgio Mota, 23°28'03"S, 46°41'58"W, 2000, leg. Equipe IBSP ( IBSP 30355View Materials) 1 male ( IBSP 35634View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Bahia: 1 male, Ilhéus , 14°49'12"S, 39°19'58"W, 12 April 1998, A.D. Brescovit et al. ( IBSP 19058View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Goiás: 1 male, Goiânia , 16°41'12"S, 49°15'53"W, 18 June 1942, F. Jaime ( MZSP 386View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Espírito Santo: 1 male, São Mateus, Reserva Floresta da Cia. Vale do Rio Doce , 19°09'05"S, 40°04'14"W, 19–25 July 1997, A.D. Brescovit et al. ( IBSP 12893View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, same locality and collector, 5–12 January 1998 ( IBSP 24328View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, same locality, 7–14 February 2000, G. Schwartz ( IBSP 37035View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, Linhares, Rio São José , 19°18'54"S, 40°07'04"W, 22 September 1942, Svans ( MZSP 7654View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, 21 September 1942 (MZSP 8594). Minas Gerais: 1 female, Marliéria, Parque Estadual do Rio Doce , 19°42'58"S, 42°44'01"W, 11–25 July 2011, G.H.F. Azevedo ( UFMG 10873View Materials)GoogleMaps  . São Paulo: 2 males, Presidente Epitácio, Usina Hidrelétrica Engenheiro Sérgio Mota, 21°45'53"S, 52°06'19"W, 16 January –13 February 1999, leg. Equipe IBSP ( IBSP 23240View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male (IBSP 23327); 1 male, Piracicaba, Campus ESALQ, 22°43'47"S, 47°39'29"W, 19 August 1946, A. Correa (IBSP 138001). Paraná: 1 female  , Jundiaí do Sul, 23°28'13"S, 50°13'27"W, 23 November 1987, A.D. Brescovit ( MCTP 38706View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 2 males, Foz do Iguaçu, Parque Nacional do Iguaçu , 25°27'37"S, 53°49'04"W, 29 March 1993, A.D. Brescovit ( MCTP 4322View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Santa Catarina: 1 male, Mondaí , 27°06'14"S, 53°26'40"W, 8 August 1998, P.P. Marques ( MCTP 10313View Materials)GoogleMaps  . Rio Grande do Sul: 1 female, São Borja, Reserva Biológica de São Donato , 29°02'47"S, 56°05'01"W, 31 January 2012, M. Machado ( MCTP 34653View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, Pirapó , 28°02'39"S, 55°12'02"W, 24 April 1994, Projeto Garabi ( MCTP 55View Materials)GoogleMaps  .

PERU: 1 female, El río Tambo, 10°57'47"S, 73°57'16"W, February 1928, H. Bassler ( AMNH)GoogleMaps  . ARGENTINA: Missiones : 1 female, Parque Nacional Iguazú, 25°35'50''S, 54°34'41"W, November 1989, M. Ramírez ( MACN 18683View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, (MACN 18953); 1 female, 11–16 December 1999 (MACN 18687); 1 female, San Javier , 27°52'19"S, 55°08'20"W, 21–30 June 1989, Projeto Garabi ( MCTP 567View Materials)GoogleMaps  ; 1 male, 22–30 October 1988 (MCTP 1661); 1 male, Santa Maria , 27°54'00"S, 55°23'00"W, November 1954, R.D. Schiapelli ( MACN 18959View Materials)GoogleMaps  .

Diagnosis. Females of E. trituberculatus  have a distinct morphology, being similar only to those of E. camelinus  in the truncated shape of the median posterior opisthosomal projection ( Fig. 12AView FIGURE 12). However, they can be distinguished by the simple coloration pattern, whereas E. camelinus  females have large brown stains on the prosoma, anterior femora and tibiae. Unlike E. camelinus  , the females of E. trituberculatus  bear three equal-sized tips at the end of the median posterior opisthosomal projection, their copulatory openings are entirely covered by the posterior folds of the epigynal plate and their secondary spermathecae are enlarged ( Figs 12C, DView FIGURE 12). In dorsal view ( Fig. 13AView FIGURE 13), males of E. trituberculatus  are almost indiscernible from those of E. dimidiaster  sp. nov. and E. taczanowskii  , but they can be distinguished by the slightly higher clypeus ( Fig. 13BView FIGURE 13) and especially by their tegulum with TF and embolus emerging from eight o’clock position ( Figs 13C, DView FIGURE 13)

Description. See description of Epicadus planus  (junior synonym) in Silva-Moreira & Machado (2016).

Distribution. ARGENTINA: Misiones; BRAZIL: Rio Grande do Sul, Santa Catarina, Paraná, Espírito Santo, Goiás, Mato Grosso, Amazonas, Pará, Amapá ( Fig. 17BView FIGURE 17).

Variation. Females of E. trituberculatus  may present the yellowish coloration in vivo, but specimens may as well be totally whitish or show a whitish opisthosoma with prosoma and legs in magenta ( Fig. 16FView FIGURE 16; see Silva- Moreira and Machado 2016: figs 1G, H, I).

MZPW

Polish Academy of Science, Museum of the Institute of Zoology

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

IBSP

Instituto Biologico de Sao Paulo

PERU

Universit� di Perugia

AMNH

American Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Thomisidae

Genus

Epicadus

Loc

Epicadus trituberculatus ( Taczanowski, 1872 )

Machado, Miguel, Teixeira, Renato Augusto & Lise, Arno Antonio 2018
2018
Loc

Thomisus trituberculatus

TaczanoWski, 1872 : 92
Loc

Tobias trituberculatus

Simon 1895 : 1047
Loc

Tobias paraguayensis Mello-Leitão, 1929 : 91

Mello-Leitão, 1929 : 91
Loc

Epicadus planus Mello-Leitão, 1932 : 73

Mello-Leitão, 1932 : 73
Silva-Moreira & Machado 2016 : 297
Loc

Epicadus nigronotatus Mello-Leitão, 1940 : 213

Mello-Leitão, 1940 : 213
Loc

Epicadus trituberculatus

Machado et al. 2017 : 448