Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973

Ulysséa, Mônica Antunes, 2021, Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical ant genus Hylomyrma Forel, 1912 (Hymenoptera: Formicidae: Myrmicinae), with the description of fourteen new species, Zootaxa 5055 (1), pp. 1-137 : 115-120

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5055.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:C00259C2-CB84-42EA-AB16-38DD47153DC6

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5589182

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/4A4D4F09-FFDA-FFD0-F0A5-F2A1FC35FAE8

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973
status

 

Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973

Figures 73 View FIGURE 73 , 74 View FIGURE 74 , 75 View FIGURE 75 , 80F, 80J View FIGURE 80 , 81C View FIGURE 81 , 82C View FIGURE 82 , 88 View FIGURE 88 (map)

Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973: 253 (W, Q). Holotype: BRIT. HONDURAS [ BELIZE: Cayo]: Belmopan , 7.viii.1972, S. & J. Peck, 2 nd growth forest, #244 (1W) ( MCZENT00035424 MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined]. Paratypes: same data as holotype (1Q) ( MCZENT00594551 MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined] ; (5W 2Q) ( MZSP67454 View Materials , MZSP67455 View Materials , MZSP67456 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined] ; Caves Branch , viii.1972, S. & J. Peck (5W) ( MZSP67457 View Materials , MZSP67458 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined] ; same data (10W 3Q) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined] ; [Stann Creek]: Humming Bird Pass , 27mi NW Stann Creek, 19.viii.1972, S. & J. Peck, #246, forest litter, berlesate (1W) ( MZSP67459 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined] ; same data (1W 1Q) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined]. MEXICO: VeraCr.[Veracruz]: Pueblo Nuevo, nr. Tetzonapa, Aug.14 -53, E.O. Wilson col., #221, rain forest (1W) ( MZSP67460 View Materials ) [ MZSP] [examined] ; same data (2W) ( MCZ35424 View Materials ) [ MCZC] [examined].

Diagnosis. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum slightly diverge towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae mostly smooth or filled with thinner striae; irregular striae on mesosoma mostly longitudinal, interspaces between thick and thin striae distinguishable by smooth areas; dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; petiole ventral surface almost entirely covered with transverse striae, anterior region smooth; node dorsal surface mostly covered with irregular striae; subpostpetiolar process smooth at middle and laterally striate; profemur and protibia mostly smooth; striae length on tergum slightly shorter than postpetiole length; branched setae of two types: 1) thin setae with multiple small branches of subequal size arising from the main axis; 2) thick setae flattened at its final half, with several branches of subequal size.

Redescription. WORKER (n=6) ( Fig. 73A–C View FIGURE 73 ): HL 0.94 (0.88–0.97); HW 0.86 (0.84–0.92); ML 0.56 (0.54–0.60); SL 0.60 (0.60–0.66); MOD 0.22 (0.22–0.25); PNW 0.62 (0.60–0.65); WL 1.20 (1.16–1.26); PSL 0.26 (0.22–0.26); PL 0.56 (0.52–0.60); PW 0.28 (0.25–0.28); PPL 0.32 (0.28–0.34); PPW 0.33 (0.33–0.35); GL 1 (1–1.14); TL 4.58 (4.40–4.88); CI 91.49 (91.30–95.83); SI 69.76 (69.56–75); OI 25.58 (23.80–27.17). Small-sized. Shiny integument. Brownish body, lighter appendices, darker gaster. Mostly thin setae, unbranched or branched, long to midsized, suberect to subdecumbent; branched setae of two types: 1) thin setae with multiple small branches of subequal size arising from the main axis, mostly in mesosoma ( Fig. 80F View FIGURE 80 ); 2) thick setae flattened in its final half, with several branches of subequal size, mainly in postpetiole and gaster ( Fig. 80J View FIGURE 80 ).

Head subquadrate; posterior margin straight to slightly concave at middle. Mandible masticatory margin with 6 teeth. Anterior margin of clypeus straight medially, with a pair of small teeth laterally; median area of clypeus with 7–9 regular to irregular, longitudinal and thick striae converging to a point on the anterior margin, interspaces between thick striae mostly smooth. Frontal triangle with 1–3 striae. Short scape, not reaching head posterior margin; apical antennomere as long as previous 3 antennomeres together. Frontal carina slightly concave posterior to antennal socket. Eye reniform, midsized, larger diameter with 11 ommatidia. Irregular and longitudinal striae on head dorsum, slightly divergent towards posterior margin, interspaces between thicker striae mostly smooth or filled with thinner and regular to irregular striae. Head lateral and laterodorsal regions with irregular to vermicular striae converging to eye margin; anterior laterodorsal region rugose; gena striate, 2–5 irregular and semicircular striae circumscribe the torulus, not reaching eye margin. Interspaces between striae on head ventral surface distinguishable.

Mesosoma covered with irregular striae mostly longitudinal, interspaces between thick and thin striae distinguishable by smooth areas; transverse striae on pronotum anterior region (DV) directed towards lateral of pronotum, striae mostly longitudinal in other regions (DV). Promesonotal junction and metanotal groove discernible by a slight depression. Transverse carina inconspicuous. Dorsal margin of mesosoma discontinuous, convex. Propodeal lobe bidentate, dorsal tooth slightly longer and more acute than the shorter and blunt ventral tooth; dorsal tooth length is slightly shorter than propodeal spine length. Propodeal spine short, straight (LV), divergent (DV), sculptured. Procoxa with transverse striae of uniform thickness; irregular and transverse striae on C2 and C3. Profemur and protibia mostly smooth.

Dorsal margin of petiole discontinuous; ventral surface almost entirely covered with transverse striae, anterior region smooth. Convex node; transverse, regular to irregular, striae on anterior surface continuing on lateral surface, interspaces distinguishable; mostly longitudinal, regular to irregular striae of variable thickness on dorsal surface, interspaces distinguishable. Postpetiole and lateral regions of subpostpetiolar process with regular, longitudinal, adjacent striae; subpostpetiolar process weak, straight to convex, smooth at middle.

First gastral segment striation thinner than postpetiole striae; striae length on tergum slightly shorter than postpetiole length; sternite striation weakly marked, covering all the basal region.

QUEEN (n=4) ( Fig. 74A–C View FIGURE 74 ): HL 0.98 (0.94–1); HW 0.90 (0.90–0.95); ML 0.61 (0.58–0.62); SL 0.66 (0.64– 0.70); MOD 0.26 (0.26–0.28); PNW 0.78 (0.74–0.82) CMS 1.44 (1.40–1.50); PSL 0.30 (0.26–0.30); PL 0.63 (0.63–0.70); PW 0.30 (0.28–0.30); PPL 0.34 (0.34–0.40); PPW 0.40 (0.38–0.42); GL 1.30 (1.24–1.36); TL 5.30 (5.18–5.58); CI 91.83 (91.83–95.92); SI 73.33 (71.11–73.68); OI 28.88 (28.88–29.78). Large-sized. Color, pilosity, and some sculpture characters shared with conspecific workers, only slightly larger. Larger diameter of eye with 15 ommatidia. Longitudinal, regular to irregular and thick striae of variable thickness on scutum going from an anterior central point towards transcutal suture, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae. Longitudinal striae on anepisternum and katepisternum with interspaces distinguishable, striae mostly regular on anepisternum, irregular to vermicular on katepisternum. Axilla and scutellum with longitudinal, regular to irregular and slightly vermicular, with interspaces distinguishable. Scutoscutellar sulcus inconspicuous. Transverse and irregular striae on propodeum (DV). Lateral of mesosoma with longitudinal, mostly irregular to vermicular striae directed in part to propodeal dorsum and in part to propodeal spine, interspaces between thicker striae filled with thinner striae. Wings as in Fig. 81C. View FIGURE 81

MALE (first description) (n=1) ( Fig. 75A–C View FIGURE 75 ): HL 0.75; HW 0.68; ML 0.44; SL 0.25; MOD 0.30; PNW 0.62; WL 1.30; PL 0.54; PW 0.26; PPL 0.30; PPW 0.30; GL 1.06; TL 4.39; CI 90.66; SI 36.76; OI 44.11. Head, mesosoma and appendices light brown, other parts dark brown. Mandible with 5 teeth. Interspaces between thicker striae on head dorsum partly smooth and partly filled with thinner striae. Scutum mostly smooth on anterior region and with few thinner, regular to irregular striae on posterior region, interspaces distinguishable. Anepisternum mostly covered with longitudinal, regular and thinner striae, interspaces distinguishable; katepisternum mostly smooth. Scutellum with regular to irregular striae, thicker than scutum striae, interspaces distinguishable. Propodeum with irregular striae assuming multiple directions, interspaces distinguishable. Dorsal region of propodeal lobe forming a blunt tooth, ventral region rounded. Petiole dorsum covered with irregular striae assuming multiple directions, interspaces distinguishable. Postpetiole and gaster missing. Wings as in Fig. 82C View FIGURE 82 .

Etymology. Versutus (Latin) = crafty, sly. Probably the name versuta refers to the difficulty in identifying this species, given its similarity with H. balzani , according to comments made by Kempf (1973).

Comments. The study of the type specimens, in addition to specimens from Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, and Panama, have allowed us to understand that this species has both unbranched and branched setae. The observation of the branched setae is difficult, because in some specimens the lateral branches are small, and also because sometimes both short and long branches collapse to the seta main axis, giving the wrong impression that the setae is unbranched and thick.

Hylomyrma versuta is very similar to H. plumosa . There are not great differences in body sculpture. In H. versuta , the propodeum is laterally covered by thinner striae (microsculpture) with indistinguishable interspaces between irregular and thicker striae (macrosculpture), whereas H. plumosa has thinner striae (microsculpture) with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed on irregular and thicker striae (macrosculpture). The conspicuous and trifid setae of H. plumosa are easily observed, but H. versuta has unbranched and branched setae. Hylomyrma versuta and H. plumosa are restricted to Central America, co-occurring near La Virgen and in La Selva Biological Station, Heredia, Costa Rica. Hylomyrma plumosa is only known from these two localities ( Fig. 85 View FIGURE 85 ), but H. versuta has a broader distribution, from southern Mexico to western Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ). Molecular analysis using UCE and COI also confirms the proximity of these two species, with H. plumosa sister to the H. cf. dentiloba sp.2– H. versuta clade ( Pierce et al. 2017). We emphasize that H. cf. dentiloba sp.2 is understood here as the true H. dentiloba , but the voucher specimens of sp.2 still need to be examined.

Pierce et al. (2017) stated that there are no known morphological differences between H. versuta and H. dentiloba , with both species being differentiated only in their geographical distribution. However, we found that H. versuta can be distinguished from H. dentiloba (the H. cf. dentiloba sp.2) in the striation with distinguishable interspaces on the head dorsum (vs. striation with indistinguishable interspaces), the mesosoma and petiolar node covered by thinner striae with indistinguishable interspaces between on irregular and thicker striae (vs. thinner striae with indistinguishable interspaces superimposed irregular and thicker striae), the profemur predominantly smooth (vs. with regular and transverse striae weakly marked), the protibia predominantly smooth (vs. mainly covered with regular and weakly marked striae), and the longer striae on tergum of the first gastral segment (vs. shorter striae). Also, Hylomyrma versuta can be distinguished from H. jeronimae (the H. cf. dentiloba sp.1) in the longitudinal striation on the mesosomal dorsum (vs. striae assuming multiple directions), the striae interspaces on the mesosoma distinguishable (vs. indistinguishable), and the discontinuous dorsal margin of petiole (vs. continuous).

Hylomyrma versuta also resembles H. reitteri (characteristic in parentheses), from which it can be distinguished in the irregular striae on the dorsum of head and mesosoma (vs. regular striae), the transverse striae on the ventral surface of petiolar node (vs. smooth surface), and the long striae on tergum of the first gastral segment (vs. short striae, restrict to its basal region). The two species are allopatric; Hylomyrma versuta occurs in Central America and Colombia, and H. reitteri in eastern Brazil and Paraguay.

There is morphological variation across the range of H. versuta . Striae on the petiolar dorsum vary from being irregular and longitudinal or vermicular or transversal. The first two conditions are present in the type specimens of H. versuta , and all three can be observed in the material from Chiquiri, Panama, and Costa Rica. Additionally, the striae on the mesosomal dorsum of the specimens from Puntarenas Province, Costa Rica, vary from being more regular to irregular, and mostly longitudinal to forming semi-ellipses. The specimens from Chocó, Colombia, have an anteriorly divergent and posteriorly convergent striation on the most lateral regions of the mesial area of the head dorsum, and a drop-shaped eyes. Notwithstanding these two extremes of variation, and even being the first record to South America, we refer to the specimens from Colombia as H. versuta until we have the opportunity to re-evaluate this material deposited at MCZC.

Intercastes are also present in this species, having the combination of the following characters: one inconspicuous central ocellus, and the metanotal groove discernible by a depression. In some specimens, darker areas on the head dorsum coincident with the ocelli location in winged queens are also observed.

Distribution. Hylomyrma versuta is recorded in southern Mexico, Belize, Costa Rica, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, and western Colombia ( Fig. 88 View FIGURE 88 ).

Natural history. This species inhabits sites at elevations between 50 and 1520 m. Most specimens were collected in the leaf-litter in wet montane forests, and a few were sampled in dry forest, bamboo, coffee and cardamom plantations. One specimen was collected from the stomach contents of Incilius coniferus (Cope, 1862) in Nicaragua. Wilson observed a H. versuta nest (firstly identified as H. columbica and later as H. versuta by Kempf) in captivity; workers captured flies, springtails, and other selected small invertebrates offered in the feeding chamber, where they fed directly the larvae ( Wheeler & Wheeler 1960).

Additional material examined (178 workers, 1male,16queens,21intercastes): BRIT. HONDURAS [ BELIZE: Cayo]: Caves Branch, 4–14.aug.1972, B-248, hi-canopy for., S. & J. Peck, berlese (1Q) [ MCZC]; Belmopan, 1- 15.aug.1972, B-243, sift under termite nest, Berlese, S. & J. Peck (1Q) [ MCZC]; Pine Mtn. Ridge Rubber Camp, Macal River, N 1651′57″, W88 58′3″, 415m, 21 Feb 1992, leg Gary D. Alpert (1W, lost specimen) [ MCZC]. COLOMBIA: Chocó: 10km SW S.[San] José del Palmar, Rio Torito   GoogleMaps , 1-4.june.1978, C. Kugler col., Finca Los Guaduales, 800m, in Guadua sp. litter (17W) [ MCZC]. COSTA RICA: Alajuela: 27k N & 8k W San Ramón, 14.vi. 1997, 950m, R. Anderson, #18698B, 10°13′30″N, 84°35′30″W, wet premontane forest, litter, 97-014 A, E.B. San Ramón, #97-014B (1W) [ MZSP]; Guanacaste: Parque Rinco de la Vieja, F. Fernández, oct.96 (1W) [ IHVL]; Maritza Field Station   GoogleMaps , 850m, 13.ii.1996, R. Anderson, #17663, Dry and Wet montane, Forest litter (6W) [ MZSP]; same except 875m, #17736, Forest transition litter, sample B (9W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17736 (2W) [ UFSC, UFGD]; 875m, #96-009, #17678, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans. litter (1W) [ MZSP]; 17.ii.96, #17737, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans., sample C (1W) [ MZSP]; #17737 (2W) [ DZSP]; #17737 (2W) [ MCZC]; #17735, sample B (3W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; #17734, sample A (1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; #96-010, 13.ii. 96, 950m, #17667, Dry tropical, wet mountain forest trans. litter (5W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; 13.xi.1996, #17668 (4W, one covered with gold) ( MZSP67461 View Materials ) [ MZSP]; #96-019, 17.ii. 96, 875m, #17666 (9W) [ MZSP]; Pitilla Field Station   GoogleMaps , 600m, 2.v.1995, R. Anderson, #17723, Berlese   GoogleMaps leaf litter, old growth Dry   GoogleMaps tropical forest, sample C, litter (4W) [ MZSP]; same except #17720 (2W) [ USNM]; #17722 (1W) [ MZSP]; Cacao Field Station   GoogleMaps , 96-008, 850m, 13.ii.96, R. Anderson, #17681, Dry   GoogleMaps tropical wet montane forest trans. litter (5W) [ MZSP]; #17681 (3W) [ UTLP, IHVL, CASC]; Heredia: P. Viejo, La Selva Biol. Station   GoogleMaps , 3.june.1996, M.E. Kaspari col., MEK45148.00b, H. dentiloba M. Kaspari comp. type MCZ (2W) [ MCZC]; 11km ESE La Virgem, 10.35, -84.05 + 2km, 300m, 10.iv.2004, ALAS #03/WF/02/all montane wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1Q 2W) ( MZSP67471 View Materials , MZSP67672 View Materials , MZHY87) [ MZSP]; La Selva Biological Station   GoogleMaps , 10.41639, -84.02 + 500m, 50m, 16.iii.2004, TEAM #AMI-1-W-006-05, mature wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1Q 2W) [ JTLC]; Puntarenas: Est   GoogleMaps . Biol. Las Cruces, 4k S San Vito, 1150m, 19.vi.98, R. Anderson, 8°47′3″N, 82°59′36″W, Upper wet montane forest, litter extraction, 18662B (2W) [ MZSP]; same except 18662A (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662D (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662G (2W) [ MZSP]; 18662H (3W) [ MZSP]; 5k SW Est. Biol. Las Cruces, 1400m, 22.vi.98, R. Anderson, 18665C, 8°47′13″N, 82°59′13″W, Wet cloud forest, litter extraction (2W) [ MZSP]; same except 18665E (2W) [ MZSP]; 18665D (1W) [ MZSP]; 18665I (1W) [ MZSP]; 18665H (1W) [ MZSP]; 1425m, 18666A (2W) [ MZSP]; 18666B (2W 1Q 1I) [ MZSP]; 1100m, 8°47′N, 82°59′W, Wet cloud for, litter, 18660 (2W) [ MZSP]; 11k SW Est. Biol. Las Cruces, 9.vii.1999, 1450m, R. Anderson, #19908, 8°46′43″N, 83°01′50″W, Wet cloud forest, litter, 99-124A (1W) [ MZSP]; same except 99-124C, #19910 (1Q) [ MZSP]; Estacion Biol. Las Alturas, 10.vii.1999, 1520m, R. Anderson, 8°56′56″N, 82°50′01″W, Upper montane/cloud forest transitional, litter, 99.126B, #19905 (1W) [ MZSP]; same except 99.126D, #19907 (1W) (MZHY211) [ MZSP]; 2k NE Alturas, 1520m, 20.vi.1998, R. Anderson, 8°56′56″N, 82°50′01″W, Upper montane/cloud forest transitional, litter extraction, 18663Q (1W) [ MZSP]. HONDURAS: Cortés: PN Cusuco, 15.48713, -88.23472 + 20m, 1330m, 30.v.2010, LLAMA, #Wa-C-06-1-11, mesophyll forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. GUATEMALA: Alta Verapaz: 22.5km SO Panzós, Finca Pablo Juc, Cancoy, 10-12.iii.2013, 15.23036, -89.71507, 811m, bosque, winkler, F. Pacay col., 303-5 (1W) [ MCZC]; same except 122- 9 (2W) [ MZSP]; Finca Miguel Putul Tut, Cancoy, 4-6.iv.2013, 15.23252, -89.71961, 905m, bosque, winkler, F. Pacay col., 133-4 (1W), 289-1 (1Q) [ MZSP]; 24km SO Panzós, Finca Edgar Caal   GoogleMaps , San Vicente   GoogleMaps I, 24-26.viii.2012, 15.2424942, -89.774883, 1116m, café, winkler, F. Pacay col., 209-4 (1W) [ UTEP]; same except 20-22.iii.2013, 15.24317, -89.77438, 1135m, cardamomo, winkler, E. Sierra col., 331-8 (1W) [ USNM]; Petén: 13km NW Machaquilá, 16.44522, -89.55024 + 50m, 400m, 27.v.2009, LLAMA, #Wa-B-06-1-11, tropical forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. MEXICO: Chiapas: 12 mi NW Ocozocoautla, 3200ft, 4-5.ix.73, A. Newton (1Q 2W, one worker covered with gold) ( MZSP67453 View Materials ) [ MZSP]; same except forest litter (2W) [ MZSP]; berl. log & leaf litter (2W) [ MIZA]; (1W 1Q) [ MCZC]; hojarasca, madera podrida, A. Newton (3W) [ MIZA]; Ocozingo, 2.june.1969, J.M. Campbell col. (2W) [ MCZC]; Vera Cr. [Cruz]: Pueblo Nuevo, nr. Tetzonapa, Aug. 14-53, E.O. Wilson, #221, rain forest (1W 1Q 1M) [ MCZC]. NICARAGUA: Masilena Creek: near Bluefields, stomach of Bufo coniferus, W.M. Wheeler (1W) [ MZSP]; RAAN: PN Cerro Saslaya, 13.76810, -84.98546 + 10m, 360m, 7.v.2011, LLAMA, #Wa-D-02-1-50, mature wet forest, ex sifted leaf litter (1W 1Q) [ MZSP]. PANAMA: Chiriqui: La Fortuna   GoogleMaps , area Finca la Suisse   GoogleMaps , 11.vi.95, R. Anderson, #17838, Oak   GoogleMaps ridge, forest litter (5W 2I) [ MZSP]; same data (1W 1I) [ DZUP]; (2W) [ IHVL]; (2W) [ UFSC]; (2W) [ CASC]; same except 10.vi.95, #17787, sample C (1W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17787 (1W 1I) [ USNM]; #17787 (1W 1I) [ MCZC]; #17788, Oak   GoogleMaps ridge, bamboo forest litter, sample E (4W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17789, sample D (6W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17789 (2W) [ UTLP]; #17790, Raparina   GoogleMaps oak, forest litter, sample F (5W 1I) [ MZSP]; #17839, Oak forest   GoogleMaps litter, 1200m (6W 2I) [ MZSP]; #17839 (3W) [ UFGD]; 20.4km North San Felix, 950m, 08.vi.95, R. Anderson, #17768, Wet mountain   GoogleMaps forest litter, sample B (1W 3I) [ MZSP].

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

UTEP

University of Texas at El Paso Biodiversity Collections

MIZA

Museo del Instituto de Zoologia Agricola Francisco Fernandez Yepez

DZUP

Universidade Federal do Parana, Colecao de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Hylomyrma

Loc

Hylomyrma versuta Kempf, 1973

Ulysséa, Mônica Antunes 2021
2021
Loc

Hylomyrma versuta

Kempf, W. W. 1973: 253
1973