Xylopia flexuosa Diels,

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A., 2020, A revision of Xylopia L. (Annonaceae): the species of Madagascar and the Mascarene islands, Adansonia sér. 3 42 (1), pp. 1-88: 22-24

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5252/adansonia2020v42a1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/417D87A4-FFEA-FFF5-FC35-52C136C5FB33

treatment provided by

Tatiana

scientific name

Xylopia flexuosa Diels
status

 

3. Xylopia flexuosa Diels 

( Figs 2EView FIG; 8Q-XView FIG)

Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 9: 350 (1925). — Type: Madagascar. Prov. Toamasina [“Madagascaria orientalis”], Beforona , 700 m, X.1921 (fl., fr.), Perrier de la Bâthie 14057 (holo-, P[P030388]!;  iso-, P[P030389]!)  .

Xylopia flexuosa var. latiflora Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’État à Bruxelles 27: 88 (1957).  — Type: Madagascar. Prov. Fianarantsoa [“ Est ”], Pointe de Farafangana , 5.X.1926 (fl., immature fr.), Decary 5570 (holo-, P [ P030390]!;  iso-, K[K001208445]!, P[P030391]!). 

MATERIAL EXAMINED. — Madagascar. Prov. Antsiranana. Forêt Betafonanana-Maromandia–Antalaha, 18.XI.1956 (fr.), Service Forestier 12450 (P[P00524380]). 

Prov. Fianarantsoa. Atsimo-Atsinanana Region, Vangaindrano, Vohipaho, forêt d’Ankarabolava, 23°21’51”S, 47°29’48”E, 72 m, 17.IX.2009 (buds), Andriamihajarivo et al. 1678 ( MO)  ; Péninsule de Farafangana , 1.IX.1926 (fr.), Decary 5088 (P[P00524379, P01986967, P01986968])  ; bassin de Mananjary, Mt. Vatovavy , VII.1911 (fl.), Perrier 4973 (B, P[P01986954, P01986970])  ; Commune Farafangana, District Vondrozo, Anivotany, 9 km from Madiorano to Vohibe ( RN 27), 22°47’28.9”S, 47°11’52.5”E, 583 m, 22.X.2006 (fl., fr.), Ranarivelo et al. RTI 340 (K)GoogleMaps  ; Antseromana, Fort-Carnot, 18.X.1954 (st.), Service Forestier 14512 (P[P01986956]). 

Prov. Toamasina. Fivondronana Vavatenina, Commune Ambodimangavalo, Fokontany Manakambahiny I, Rivière d’Ihofika, près du campement Andranofantsona, 17°39’07”S, 48°58’14”E, 550-600 m, 25.X.2002 (fl.), Andrianjafy et al. 325 (MO, P[P01986955]);  Analanjirofo Region , Soanierana Ivongo , Manopana , Fokontany Tanambao Ambodimanga, Andranomintina, 16°47’03”S, 49°41’26”E, 23 m, 31.V.2010 (fl.), Lehavana & Fotsy 735 ( MO)GoogleMaps  ; Tamatave District, R. N. I., 20.X.1951 (fl.), Rakotoniama 3231 RN (P[P00169374, P01986953])  ; Parc national de Zahamena, 17°39’07”S, 48°58’14”E, 650 m, 14.VIII.2000 (flower buds), Randrianjanaka et al. 566 (P[P01986969])GoogleMaps  ; District Tamatave, R. N. I., 18.IV.1952 (fr.), Réserves Naturelles 3681 (P[P01986957]). 

Prov. Toliara. Anosy Region, District Taolagnaro, Commune Rurale de Mahatalaky, Fokontany Sainte Luce, forêt littorale d’Analavinaky, située à l’Ouest du village d’Ambandrika, 24°46’30”S, 47°09’00”E, 21 m, 24.XI.2009 (fr.), Rakotovao 4687 (MO);  Taolanaro, près du village d’Amboahangy, Tsitongambarika, Androkabe, Antamponandakato, Commune Rurale Iaboakoho, 24°55’42”S, 47°15’61”E, 17.X.2013 (fl., fr.), Rapanarivo et al. RS 918 (P[P01031663]). 

DISTRIBUTION, ECOLOGY AND CONSERVATION STATUS. — Xylopia flexuosa  occurs in east-central Madagascar, in humid forests at elevations from 21 to 700 meters ( Fig. 28View FIG); the elevational range of 500-999 m given by Lantoarisoa (2015) may be based on misidentified specimens. Specimens with flowers have been collected in May, July, September, and October, and those with fruits from April, September, October, and November. This species was given a preliminary conservation assessment of Endangered by Lantoarisoa (2015) on the basis of EOO estimated at 11 904 km 2 and an AOO of 27 km 2. We suggest that this estimate be reconsidered, given our EOO estimate of 41 558 km 2 and AOO estimate of 48 km 2.

LOCAL NAMES. — Fotsivavo (Decary 5088), havoka (Rakotomania 3231RN), hazoambo (Andrianjafy et al. 325), hazoamboay (Andrianjanaka 566), malaohazo (Andrianjafy et al. 325), morangavavy (Service Forestier 12450).

DESCRIPTION

Tree or shrub up to 10 m tall; d.b.h. up to 20 cm.

Twigs glabrous to sparsely pubescent, the hairs 0.1-0.2 mm long; nodes with one axillary branch.

Leaves with larger blades 7.9-12.7 cm long, 2.8-4.8 cm wide, subcoriaceous to coriaceous, concolorous or slightly discolorous, grayish to blackish green adaxially, slightly brownish green abaxially, elliptic, elliptic-oblanceolate, oblong, or oblong-oblanceolate, apex acuminate, the acumen 8-20 mm long, base cuneate to broadly cuneate and short-decurrent on the petiole, margin flat, not revolute, glabrous adaxially, glabrous or sparsely appressed-pubescent but soon glabrate abaxially; midrib orange to red adaxially, secondary veins weakly brochidodromous, 12-17 per side, diverging at 60-80° from midrib, these and higher-order veins slightly raised and forming a conspicuous reticulum on both surfaces; petiole 2-7 mm long, semi-terete, transversely and longitudinally wrinkled, glabrous.

Inflorescences arising from the axils of fallen leaves, 1-14-flowered, occasionally persistent and forming tubercles on older branches, pedunculate, sparsely pubescent; peduncle 3-8 mm long; pedicels up to 3 per peduncle, 9-18 mm long, 1.0- 1.3 mm thick; bracts 2, one attached just distal to the pedicel base and the other just proximal to the pedicel midpoint, persistent, 1-1.8 mm long, ovate to nearly circular; buds oblong, apex obtuse, sometimes slightly falciform.

Sepals somewhat spreading at anthesis, 1/2-connate, 2-3.5 mm long, 2.7-4.4 mm wide, coriaceous, broadly ovate to semicircular, apex broadly acute, sparsely pubescent abaxially.

Petals white, yellow, or greenish yellow, red on the inner base in vivo; outer petals with position at anthesis unknown, but separating first at the base and moving apically, (13.5-) 18- 28 mm long, 2.5-5.5 mm wide at base, 3.2-5.4 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, narrowly oblong or slightly panduriform, flat, apex obtuse, finely puberulent adaxially, densely appressedpubescent abaxially; inner petals with position at anthesis not determinable, 18-23 mm long, 2.5-4 mm wide at base, 1-2.8 mm wide at midpoint, fleshy, linear, laterally compressed and sharply keeled abaxially, apex acute, base concave with undifferentiated but somewhat bilobed margins, finely puberulent on both surfaces except for glabrous concavity.

Stamens c. 200; fertile stamens 1-1.7 mm long, narrowly oblong, anther connective apex 0.2-0.3 mm high, shieldshaped to capitate, overhanging anther thecae, puberulent or papillate, anthers c. 11-locellate, filament 0.2-0.4 mm long; outer staminodes 1.2-1.5 mm long, oblong to clavate, apex obtuse; inner staminodes 0.9-1.1 mm long, oblong, apex truncate; staminal cone 2.7-3.9 mm in diameter, 0.9-1.7 mm high, completely concealing the ovaries, rim slightly uneven.

Carpels 17-25; ovaries c. 1.6 mm long, oblong, pubescent along the edges but otherwise glabrous, stigmas white in vivo, connivent into a pyramidal mass but with the apices separated, 2.2-2.5 mm long, filiform, apices pilose.

Fruit of up to 28 monocarps borne on a pedicel 13-20 mm long, 2.2-5 mm thick, glabrate; torus 11-17 mm in diameter, 7-8 mm high, depressed-globose; monocarps red in vivo, 3.7-6.3 cm long, 0.6-0.8 cm wide, c. 0.7 cm thick, narrowly oblong, weakly torulose, apex with a blunt beak 1.5-2 mm long, base slightly contracted into a stipe 4.5-6 mm long, 3.5-4.1 mm thick, obliquely wrinkled, glabrate or sparsely pubescent; pericarp c. 0.8 mm thick.

Seeds up to 5 per monocarp, in a single row, lying oblique to parallel to long axis, 7.6-8.6 mm long, 4.4-4.5 mm wide, 3.9-4.2 mm thick, oblong-ellipsoid, circular to broadly elliptic in cross-section, brownish black, smooth, shiny, perichalazal ring slightly elevated and sometimes forming a small umbo at the chalazal end; sarcotesta absent; aril white in vivo, light orange-brown when dried, bilobed, lobes 2.8-3.6 mm long, 4-4.8 mm wide, fleshy with ruffled margins.

NOTES

Xylopia flexuosa  was named by Diels for the conspicuously flexuous younger branches of the type specimen. The plants are similar to X. beananensis  , but may be distinguished by long-acuminate leaves with semi-terete petioles, longer flower pedicels with persistent bracts, and laterally compressed inner petals. The variety X. flexuosa var. latiflora  is not recognized here. It is qualitatively similar to the nominate variety, differing only in the slightly wider outer petals and the better-developed tubercle-like inflorescence base, which may produce a larger number of flowers. In floral morphology X. flexuosa  is the Madagascar species most similar to the Mascarene species X. amplexicaulis  and X. lamarckii  .

MO

Missouri Botanical Garden

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Magnoliales

Family

Annonaceae

Genus

Xylopia

Loc

Xylopia flexuosa Diels

Johnson, David M. & Murray, Nancy A. 2020
2020
Loc

Xylopia flexuosa Diels

Xylopia flexuosa Diels ( Figs 2E ; 8Q-X ) Notizblatt des Botanischen Gartens und Museums zu Berlin-Dahlem 9: 350 (1925). — Type: Madagascar . Prov. Toamasina [“Madagascaria orientalis”], Beforona , 700 m, X.1921 (fl., fr.), Perrier de la Bâthie 14057 (holo-, P[P030388]!; iso-, P[P030389]!) . Xylopia flexuosa var. latiflora Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’État à Bruxelles 27: 88 (1957). — Type: Madagascar . Prov. Fianarantsoa [“ Est ”], Pointe de Farafangana , 5.X.1926 (fl., immature fr.), Decary 5570 (holo-, P [ P030390 ]!; iso-, K[K001208445]!, P[P030391]!).
Xylopia flexuosa var. latiflora Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’État à Bruxelles 27: 88 (1957).
Loc

Xylopia flexuosa var. latiflora Ghesq. ex

Xylopia flexuosa var. latiflora Ghesq. ex Cavaco & Keraudren, Bulletin du Jardin botanique de l’État à Bruxelles 27: 88 (1957).