Myrcia De Candolle (1827: 406)

De, Laura C., De, Ayrton I., Goldenberg, Renato & Lima, Duane F., 2021, Myrcia (Myrtaceae) in the state of Paraná, Brazil, Phytotaxa 486 (1), pp. 1-105: 5-93

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.11646/phytotaxa.486.1.1

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/41758010-FFD6-FF87-FF30-FF5CFDF6FA43

treatment provided by

Marcus

scientific name

Myrcia De Candolle (1827: 406)
status

 

Myrcia De Candolle (1827: 406)   . Figure 1.

Trees, treelets, shrubs, or sub-shrubs with monopodial or sympodial growth, glabrous or covered with simple or dibrachiate trichomes; young branches not keeled or rarely so (always in Myrcia bicarinata   , M. costeira   , and M. lonchophylla   , and sometimes present in M. legrandii   and M. neolucida   ). Leaves opposite, rarely verticillate ( M. hexasticha   ), petiolate, rarely sessile. Inflorescences paniculiform, rarely racemiform or a dichasium. Flowers with hypanthium flat or prolonged in a tube beyond the ovary; calyx completely open in bud, with 5 free lobes or rarely 4 ( M. diaphana   and M. rupicola   ), or closed, opening as a calyptra ( Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes   ) or irregularly in 5–4 lobes; corolla usually 5-merous, petals white, usually obovate and with gland dots; anthers with symmetric or asymmetric thecae; ovary 2–4-locular. Fruits globose or ellipsoid, generally crowned by the hypanthium and calyx lobes or their remnants. Seeds generally rounded, 1–4, with a myrcioid embryo, i.e., foliaceous cotyledons encircled by a narrow hypocotyl.

Identification key of Myrcia   in the state of Paraná, Brazil

Species of Myrcia   from Paraná are, in general, distinguished by combinations of characters (Figure 1). Vegetative traits such as branching (monopodial or sympodial), indumentum on young branches and leaves (mainly colour and abundance), gland dots (homogeneous vs. heterogeneous) and venation (midvein raised, flat or sulcate; number of secondary veins; and density of tertiary veins) are useful. However, reproductive structures are very often needed to confirm species identification, such as calyx morphology in buds (free or fused, mode of opening when fused, and number of lobes), hypanthium shape (flat or prolonged beyond the ovary), anthers symmetry, number of locules in the ovary, and outer and inner indument. It is worth to mention that some of these floral characters can also be observed in fruits.

1. Floral buds with fused calyx lobes, these opening as a calyptra at anthesis ......................................................................................2

– Floral buds with individual calyx lobes, these free or fused, but then opening in 4–5 irregular lobes..............................................9

2. Inflorescence a dichasium, densely covered with trichomes........................................................................................ Myrcia tricona  

– Inflorescence paniculiform, densely to moderately covered with trichomes or glabrescent .............................................................3

3. Young twigs clearly keeled and floral buds turbinate ........................................................................................ Myrcia lonchophylla  

– Young twigs not keeled or only slightly so, in this case the floral buds never turbinate ...................................................................4

4. Young branches with dense, golden trichomes........................................................................................................... Myrcia strigosa  

– Young branches glabrous, or with sparse to dense, brown, yellowish or white trichomes ................................................................5

5. Young branches densely to moderately covered with trichomes; flowers with trichomes on the style base.......... Myrcia glomerata  

– Young branches sparsely covered with trichomes or glabrous; flowers glabrous on the style base ..................................................6

6. Floral buds constricted below the ovary; leaves with inconspicuous tertiary veins.................................................. Myrcia legrandii  

– Floral buds not constricted below the ovary; leaves with conspicuous tertiary veins, rarely inconspicuous ....................................7

7. Leaf midvein sulcate on the adaxial surface; floral bud turbinate................................................................................ Myrcia pileata  

– Leaf midvein sulcate on the base and becoming raised to the apex on the adaxial surface; floral bud clavate.................................8

8. Branches, leaves and inflorescences with white trichomes; leaves concolorous when dry .................................... Myrcia neolucida  

– Branches, leaves and inflorescences with yellowish trichomes; leaves discolorous when dry ......................... Myrcia loranthifolia  

9. Young twigs keeled...........................................................................................................................................................................10

– Young twigs not keeled ....................................................................................................................................................................11

10. Leaves 0.7–0.8 cm wide, with inconspicuous gland dots and secondary veins 1.5–2 mm distant from each other; fruits 6.4–7.5 × 9–9.4 mm ................................................................................................................................................................. Myrcia bicarinata  

– Leaves 1–1.6 cm wide, with gland dots 5–6 per mm² and secondary veins 2–3.5 mm distant from each other; fruits 4–4.5 × 4.2–4.6 mm .............................................................................................................................................................................. Myrcia costeira  

11. Vegetative branching sympodial.......................................................................................................................................................12

– Vegetative branching monopodial ....................................................................................................................................................14

12. Floral bud with the calyx closed............................................................................................................................ Myrcia ferruginosa  

– Floral bud with an open calyx ..........................................................................................................................................................13

13. Petioles 1.7–8 mm long; leaf blades with tertiary veins sparsely reticulated (Figure 1L) .................................... Myrcia subcordata  

– Petioles 10–22 mm long; leaf blades with tertiary veins densely reticulated (Figure 1K)..................................... Myrcia plusiantha  

14. Staminal ring with trichomes............................................................................................................................................................15

– Staminal ring glabrous......................................................................................................................................................................39

15. Floral disc completely covered with trichomes................................................................................................................................16

– Floral disc glabrous or with trichomes only on the style base .........................................................................................................30

16. Anthers thecae asymmetrical (Figure 1A)........................................................................................................................................17

– Anthers thecae symmetrical (Figure 1B)..........................................................................................................................................26

17. Inflorescence a dichasium ................................................................................................................................................................18

– Inflorescence paniculiform or racemiform.......................................................................................................................................19

18. Main axis of inflorescences 17–30 × 0.7–1.3 mm; calyx lobes 0.8–1 mm long; leaves with 9–17 secondary veins .......................... .................................................................................................................................................................................. Myrcia squamata  

– Main axis of inflorescences 40–55 × 0.4–0.5 mm; calyx lobes 1.2–1.7 mm long; leaves with 17–24 secondary veins ..................... ................................................................................................................................................................................. Myrcia flagellaris  

19. Calyx lobes 1.6–2 mm long; trichomes 0.8–1.3 mm long on the twigs ............................................................ Myrcia anacardiifolia  

– Calyx lobes 0.4–1.5 mm long; trichomes 0.2–0.7 mm long on the twigs ........................................................................................20

20. Vegetative branches with appressed trichomes ................................................................................................................................21

– Vegetative branches with erect trichomes ........................................................................................................................................25

21. Leaves with up to 14 secondary veins..............................................................................................................................................22

– Leaves with 16 or more secondary veins .........................................................................................................................................24

22. Main axis of inflorescence 55–115 mm long ...................................................................................................... Myrcia freyreissiana  

– Main axis of inflorescence 15–50 mm long .....................................................................................................................................23

23. Leaves with revolute margins.............................................................................................................................. Myrcia hartwegiana  

– Leaves with plane margins ........................................................................................................................................ Myrcia palustris  

24. Petioles 0.7–1.5 mm wide; leaves elliptic to oblong; inflorescence main axis 0.6–0.8 mm thick........................... Myrcia tijucensis  

– Petioles 2–3 mm wide; leaves narrow-elliptic; inflorescence main axis 1.3–3 mm thick ..................................... Myrcia spectabilis  

25. Leaves with 15–22 secondary veins; bracts and bracteoles caducous ................................................................... Myrcia hebepetala  

– Leaves with 10–14 secondary veins; bracts and bracteoles persistent .................................................................... Myrcia trichantha  

26. Twigs and abaxial surface of the leaves with dibrachiate trichomes (Figure 1D); leaves apex abruptly acuminate ........................... ................................................................................................................................................................................... Myrcia undulata  

– Twigs and abaxial surface of the leaves with simple trichomes (Figure 1C); leaves apex acute to rounded or acuminate, in this case never abruptly...................................................................................................................................................................................27

27. Leaves 5–11 cm wide, secondary veins 7.6–22.8 mm distant from each other; calyx lobes 1.8–3.6 mm long................................... ..................................................................................................................................................................................... Myrcia isaiana  

– Leaves 0.4–4 cm wide, secondary veins 0.5–7.5 mm distant from each other; calyx lobes 0.4–1.5 mm long................................28

28. Inflorescence a dichasium or rarely paniculiform and very reduced, main axis 0.2–0.4 mm thick........................... Myrcia rupicola  

– Inflorescence paniculiform or rarely racemiform, main axis 0.5–1.8 mm thick..............................................................................29

29. Leaves with the adaxial midvein sulcate, and 9–11 secondary veins........................................................................... Myrcia retorta  

– Leaves with the adaxial midvein flat to raised, and secondary veins either inconspicuous or 19–35 veins when conspicuous ......... ................................................................................................................................................................................. Myrcia splendens  

30. Ovary 2-locular (Figure 1E) .............................................................................................................................................................31

– Ovary 3-locular (Figure 1F) .............................................................................................................................................................36

31. Floral bud with the calyx closed, or almost so and with 4 small teeth in the apex ..........................................................................32

– Floral bud with an open calyx ..........................................................................................................................................................35

32. Vegetative branches with pale yellow trichomes................................................................................................... Myrcia cf. obversa  

– Vegetative branches with brown to ferrugineous trichomes.............................................................................................................33

33. Floral bud globose, externally glabrous .......................................................................................................... Myrcia eugeniopsoides  

– Floral bud clavate or obovoid, externally densely to moderately covered with trichomes..............................................................34

34. Twigs, petioles, abaxial surface of the leaves and fruits densely to moderately covered with trichomes when mature...................... ............................................................................................................................................................................... Myrcia ferruginosa  

– Twigs, petioles, abaxial surface of the leaves and fruits glabrous to sparsely covered with trichomes when mature ......................... ........................................................................................................................................................................................ Myrcia reitzii  

35. Leaves oblong with tertiary veins sparsely reticulated (Figure 1L); inflorescence glabrous or sparsely covered with trichomes...... ................................................................................................................................................................................. Myrcia oblongata  

– Leaves elliptic or slightly ovate with tertiary veins densely reticulated (Figure 1K); inflorescence densely to moderately covered with trichomes ...................................................................................................................................................... Myrcia tenuivenosa  

36. Hypanthium 1.8–2.5 mm prolonged beyond the ovary; leaves with a subcordate base ............................................. Myrcia heringii  

– Hypanthium 0.5–1.4 mm prolonged beyond the ovary; leaves with an attenuate, acute or rounded base ......................................37

37. Twigs with dibrachiate trichomes (Figure 1D); inflorescence 75–150 mm long; hypanthium 1.2–1.4 mm prolonged beyond the ovary....................................................................................................................................................................... Myrcia pubipetala  

– Twigs with simple trichomes (Figure 1C); inflorescence 17–55 mm long; hypanthium 0.5–1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary...... ..........................................................................................................................................................................................................38

38. Mature twigs terete; petioles sulcate; leaves with attenuate base................................................................................ Myrcia aethusa  

– Mature twigs flat; petioles semiterete; leaves with acute to rounded base................................................................ Myrcia venulosa  

39. Calyx lobes strongly reflexed at anthesis; ovary constricted ...........................................................................................................40

– Calyx lobes not reflexed at anthesis; ovary not constricted .............................................................................................................42

40. Petioles 6–14 mm long; inflorescence densely covered with trichomes................................................................. Myrcia tomentosa  

– Petioles lacking or up to 4.2 mm long; inflorescence moderately covered with trichomes to glabrous..........................................41

41. Inflorescence moderately covered with trichomes; calyx lobes 1.8–3.6 mm long ................................................... Myrcia anomala  

– Inflorescence glabrous or sparsely covered with trichomes; calyx lobes 0.3–1.4 mm long ........................................... Myrcia selloi  

42. Ovary 3-locular (Figure 1F) .............................................................................................................................................................43

– Ovary 2-locular (Figure 1E) .............................................................................................................................................................44

43. Inflorescence axis 0.6–1.6 mm thick; bracteoles elliptic, glabrous............................................................................... Myrcia glabra  

– Inflorescence axis 0.2–0.5 mm thick; bracteoles linear, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes........................................... ................................................................................................................................................................................ Myrcia guianensis  

44. Vegetative branches with brown to ferrugineous trichomes................................................................................ Myrcia hatschbachii  

– Vegetative branches with yellowish, hyaline, or whitish trichomes.................................................................................................45

45. Calyx closed in the floral bud, opening irregularly at the anthesis ..................................................................................................46

– Calyx open, with distinct lobes in the floral bud..............................................................................................................................49

46. Inflorescence racemiform, main axis ca. 0.3 mm thick; bracts glabrous; ovary externally glabrous .............. Myrcia neosuaveolens  

– Inflorescence paniculiform, main axis 0.8–2.4 mm thick; bracts densely to sparsely covered with trichomes; ovary externally densely to sparsely covered with trichomes .....................................................................................................................................47

47. Petioles 2.2–4 mm wide; leaf blades 6.2–17.5 cm wide ........................................................................................... Myrcia strigipes  

– Petioles 1–2 mm wide; leaf blades 3.2–5.7 cm wide .......................................................................................................................48

48. Young twigs densely covered with yellowish or golden trichomes 0.6–1.2 mm .............................................. Myrcia neoriedeliana  

– Young twigs sparsely covered with hyaline trichomes up to 0.5 mm ...................................................................... Myrcia excoriata  

49. Leaves verticillate, with petioles 8.5–13.8 mm long and blades 13–21 cm long................................................... Myrcia hexasticha  

– Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.6–7.6 mm long and blades 2–9.6 cm long ...................................................................................50

50. Calyx and ovary externally densely covered with trichomes................................................................................... Myrcia racemosa  

– Calyx and ovary externally glabrous to rarely sparsely covered with trichomes.............................................................................51

51. Leaves strongly discolorous ................................................................................................................................ Myrcia dichrophylla  

– Leaves concolorous or slightly discolorous .....................................................................................................................................52

52. Flowers with 4 calyx lobes (sometimes flowers with 5 lobes are also present, but always amid flowers with 4 lobes)..................... .................................................................................................................................................................................. Myrcia diaphana  

– Flowers with 5 calyx lobes...............................................................................................................................................................53

53. Twigs with erect, white or hyaline trichomes; leaves with 14–25 heterogeneous gland dots per mm² (Figure 1J)............................. ................................................................................................................................................................................. Myrcia multiflora  

– Twigs with appressed, yellowish trichomes; leaves with inconspicuous or up to 14 homogeneous gland dots per mm² (Figure 1I). ................................................................................................................................................................................ Myrcia amazonica  

Enumeration of species

. Myrcia aethusa   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 112) N. Silveira (1985a: 67). Figure 2.

Trees or treelets to 14 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed to rarely erect, hyaline to rarely brown, 0.2–0.7 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2–10.3 × 0.7–1.5 mm, sulcate, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 1.4–8.7 × 0.6–3.5 cm, concolorous or discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acute or acuminate, base attenuate, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 12–25 at each side, 0.8–5.2 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.3–1.7 and the second when present 0.3–0.6 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 2–5(–10) per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat or slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 18–43 × 0.3–1 mm, densely to moderately, rarely sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 1.5 mm, narrow-elliptic, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.8–1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally moderately covered with trichomes to glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.4–1 × 1.7–2 mm, externally sparsely covered with trichomes to rarely glabrous, internally densely to moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc glabrous with trichomes only on the style base, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 3-locular. Fruits 7.7–9.7 mm, globose, reddish, glabrous to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs predominantly in atlantic and araucaria forests, but can also be found in transitional areas between araucaria forest and grasslands.A single specimen (Hatschbach 31096) was found in the border between grasslands and cerrado. Collected with flowers from November to January and fruits from July to November. Myrcia aethusa   belongs to Myrcia sect. Reticulosae ( Fernandes et al. 2020)   and can be recognized by the branches covered with appressed trichomes, leaves with densely reticulated veins, acuminate apex, and small flower buds (ca. 2 mm) with a relatively long hypanthium (up to 1 mm).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 8640 (MBM!, UPCB!). Cerro Azul, Hatschbach 11842 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 18655 (FUEL!, MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Santos 1074 ( UPCB!). Jaguariaíva, Hatschbach 31096 ( MBM!). Morretes, Kummrow 2534 ( MBM!). Piraquara, Brotto 1691 (EFC!, MBM!, RB!). Ponta Grossa, Hatschbach 12100 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Roderjan 1085 (MBM!, UPCB!). São José dos Pinhais, Landrum 2281 ( MBM!). Tijucas do Sul, Kummrow 1600 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia amazonica De Candolle (1828: 250)   . Figure 3.

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 27 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline or yellowish, 0.2–0.7 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.7–8.3(–11.4) × 0.7–2.5 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 3–11.5(–16) × 1.6–3.5 (6) cm, slightly discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acute to acuminate, base attenuate to rarely acute, margins flat to rarely revolute to the base, secondary veins 12–20 at each side, 1.7–6.3 (–13) mm apart, one or two marginal veins, the first one 1–3 and the second 0.2–1 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely to sparsely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 5–14 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent to glabrous when mature, trichomes denser near the midvein, midvein flat to rarely raised; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, moderate to glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 40–80 (–110) × 0.5–1 (–2) mm, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts 1.3– 6.6 mm, linear or lanceolate, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 0.7–0.8 mm, linear, glabrous, caducous. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted to rarely slightly constricted; hypanthium 0.3–0.5 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous, rarely with scattered trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.3–0.8 × 0.5–1 mm, externally glabrous, internally moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous, rarely with scattered trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 3.3–6 (–12) × 3.5–7 (–13) mm, globose, reddish or black, glabrous or sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed from Central America and the Caribbean to Bolivia and Brazil, from Amazonas to Pernambuco and Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in araucaria forest and less frequently in atlantic rainforest and grasslands. Collected with flowers from July to March and fruits from November to April. Myrcia amazonica   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   . It always has reddish branchlets and trunk, brown leaves when dry, inflorescences with alternate secondary branches, and frequently simple and dibrachiate trichomes occurring together in the same structure. The material Brotto 2561 has larger leaves and inflorescences compared to others Myrcia amazonica   specimens from Paraná, but still acceptable within the specific variation.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Brotto 2561 ( MBM!). Balsa Nova, Landrum 2454 ( MBM!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 17806 ( MBM!). Colombo, Pegoraro 134 ( MBM!). Contenda, Hatschbach 30646 ( MBM!). Curitiba, Imaguire   5412 ( MBM!). Garuva, Cervi 8726 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Lucas 191 ( MBM!). Irati, Antonio 57 (FUEL!, HUEM!). Morretes, Kuniyoshi 515 (EFC!, MBM!). Piên, Hatschbach 9546 ( MBM!). Pinhais, Vicentini 50 ( EFC!). Piraquara, Lacerda 265 (MBM!, UPCB!). Quatro Barras, Silva   560 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Cordeiro 176 ( MBM!). Sapopema, Soares-Silva 575 ( FUEL!). Tijucas do Sul, Kummrow 1604 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia anacardiifolia Gardner (1843: 354)   . Figure 4 View FIGURE 4 .

Gomidesia anacardiifolia (Gardner) O. Berg (1855   –1856: 7).

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 10 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline to yellowish, 0.3–1.3 mm. Young twigs flat to terete to rarely quadrangular, not keeled, densely to sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete to rarely flat; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2.6–5.7 × 1.5–2.2 mm, sulcate to terete, with dense to moderate, rarely scattered, trichomes when young and mature; blades 4–20 × 2.8–9.8 cm, concolorous to discolorous when dry, elliptic to slightly obovate, apex acute to rounded, base acute to rounded, margins flat or slightly revolute, secondary veins 8–16 at each side, 3.2–18 (–23) mm apart, two marginal veins, the first one 1.5–3.5 and the second 0.5–0.8 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 5–8 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and mature, trichomes denser on the veins, midvein slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the veins. Inflorescences paniculiform or racemiform, main axis 15–67 × 1–1.6 mm, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts 5–5.3 mm, elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1.3–2.8 mm, elliptic, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 1.6–2 × 2.4–4.0 mm, externally densely to moderately covered with trichomes, internally moderately; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 3-locular. Fruits 7.2–12.5 × 7.3–13.5 mm, globose, reddish, purple or black, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in the atlantic and araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from November to April and fruits from March to December. Myrcia anacardiifolia   belongs to Myrcia sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   . This species resembles Myrcia hebepetala   but is distinguished by the tertiary venation just sparsely reticulated (vs. densely reticulated in M. hebepetala   ), and 8–16 secondary veins, weakly marked (vs. 15–22, strongly marked).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Barbosa   3965 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 18170 ( MBM!). Matinhos, Roderjan 610 ( EFC!). Morretes, Lindeman 4640 ( MBM!). Ortigueira, Michelon 1546 (MBM!, RB!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 19252 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Hatschbach 15960 ( MBM!). Telêmaco Borba, Lozano 914 ( MBM!). Tijucas do Sul, Roher s.n. (MBM 397405!). Ventania, Estevan 717 ( FUEL!).

4. Myrcia anomala Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 328). Figure 5.

Subshrubs or shrubs to 0.8 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline, yellowish or white, 0.2–1.8 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, moderately covered with trichomes to rarely glabrous; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, lacking petioles or these up to 2 (–4.2)× 1–1.4 mm, semiterete, with dense to moderate trichomes, rarely glabrous when young, glabrescent to rarely glabrous when mature; blades 1.5–4.2 (–6.2)× 0.7–2.8 cm, concolorous or discolorous when dry, elliptic to ovate, apex acute to short acuminate, base subcordate, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 11–16 at each side, 1.4–7.7 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.5–1.4 and the second 0.3 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 5–12 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes to rarely glabrous when young, moderate to glabrous when mature, midvein flat to slightly raised; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes to rarely glabrous when young and mature, trichomes denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform very reduced, flowers sessile or main axis up to 20 (–50) × 0.6–1 mm, moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 3.4–7.8 mm, lanceolate, moderately covered with trichomes, persistent to rarely caducous; bracteoles 2–4.3 mm, lanceolate, moderately covered with trichomes to rarely glabrous, persistent to rarely caducous. Floral buds clavate, base constricted; hypanthium 0.8–1.6 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely to sparsely covered with trichomes; calyx open, reflexed, 5 lobes, 1.8–3.6 × 0.8–2 mm, externally moderately covered with trichomes to glabrous, internally glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 2.8–3.5 × 3.4–3.8 mm, globose, brown, moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed in Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina and Brazil, from Goiás to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs mainly in grasslands, but some specimens were found in araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from October to March and fruits in January and April. Myrcia anomala   belongs to Myrcia sect. Tomentosae ( Lima 2017)   . This species is easily identified in Paraná due to the sessile or almost sessile leaves, panicles quite reduced with numerous bracts and bracteoles, sometimes resembling a glomerule, and long calyx lobes that reach half the length of the floral bud. Other species of Myrcia   in Paraná generally have longer petioles and inflorescences than those found in this species, and the calyx lobes are always shorter than half the length of the floral bud. A single specimen ( Silva   769) with petioles, leaves and inflorescences longer than usual was found; yet, this collection has the usual calyx lobes of Myrcia anomala   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Balsa Nova, Kozera 2742 (EFC!, MBM!). Campo Mourão, Hatschbach 7693 ( MBM!). Curitiba, Dombrowski   5761 ( MBM!). Lapa, Hatschbach 14054 ( MBM!). Ponta Grossa, Dombrowski 6757 ( MBM!). Tibagi, Vieira 381 ( FUEL!). Tuneiras do Oeste, Caxambu 3623 ( HCF!).

Additional specimen: — BRAZIL. Mato Grosso do Sul: Corumbá, Silva   112 (UEC).

. Myrcia bicarinata   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 118) D. Legrand (1961: 298). Figure 6 View FIGURE 6 .

Shrubs to 4 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, ferrugineous, 0.2 mm. Young twigs flat, keeled, moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2.2–4.8 × 0.7–0.8 mm, sulcate, glabrous when young and mature; blades 3.2–4.8 × 1–1.6 cm, slightly discolorous when dry, narrowelliptic, apex rounded to acute, base attenuate, margins flat, secondary veins 16 at each side, 1.7–2.2 mm apart, one marginal vein 0.6 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate to inconspicuous, gland dots inconspicuous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, midvein slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser at the base. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis (20.2–) 42.6–50 × 0.5–1 mm, sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous; bracts and bracteoles not seen. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.4–1 × 0.5–1 mm, externally glabrous or very sparsely covered with trichomes, internally moderately; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 6.4–7.5 × 9–9.4 mm, globose, black, glabrous, calyx caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Goiás to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, this species is known from only one collection, occurring in a transitional area between grasslands and cerrado. Collected with flowers in October and fruits in March. Myrcia bicarinata   belongs to M. sect. Sympodiomyrcia ( Santos et al. 2018). This species is similar to Myrcia costeira   , sharing the keeled young branches. However, the first species is distinguished by the leaves with inconspicuous glands (vs. conspicuous glands, 5–6 per mm 2 in Myrcia costeira   ), 0.7–0.8 mm wide (vs. 1–1.6 mm), secondary veins 1.5–2 mm distant from each other (vs. 2–3.5 mm), tertiary veins sparsely reticulated (vs. inconspicuous) and fruits 6.4–7.5 × 9–9.4 mm (vs. 4–4.5 × 4.2–4.6 mm). Additionally, Myrcia bicarinata   occurs in the interior, while M. costeira   occurs in coastal regions of Paraná. This state is the southern limit of Myrcia bicarinata   .

Selected specimen: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Jaguariaíva, Hatschbach 18974 ( MBM!)   .

Additional specimens: — BRAZIL. Distrito Federal: Azevedo 301 ( RB!), Heringer 623 ( RB!).

6. Myrcia costeira M.F. Santos (2015: 165)   . Figure 7.

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 10 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, ferrugineous, smaller than 0.1 mm. Young twigs flat, keeled, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial to sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.8–3.5 × 1–1.6 mm, sulcate, glabrous when young and mature; blades 3– 5.5 × 1.5–2.4 cm, discolorous to rarely concolorous when dry, elliptic, apex rounded to acute, base acute to attenuate, margins revolute to the base, secondary veins 13–14 at each side, 2–3.5 mm apart, one marginal vein 0.6–1 mm from the margin, tertiary veins inconspicuous, gland dots conspicuous, 5–6 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, midvein sulcate to the base; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes to glabrous when young and mature, these occasionally denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 25–45 × 0.6–1.2 mm, glabrous; bracts 0.8–1 mm, triangular, glabrous, caducous; bracteoles 0.5–0.7 mm, linear to triangular, glabrous, caducous. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.7–1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.4–0.6 × 0.7 mm, externally glabrous, internally moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2- locular. Fruits 4–4.6 × 4.2–4.6 mm, globose, glabrous, calyx caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs mainly in the atlantic rainforest, except for a single specimen from araucaria forest (Ribas 5868). Collected with flowers from October to April and fruits from January to November. Myrcia costeira   belongs to M. sect. Sympodiomyrcia ( Santos et al. 2018). This species was described based on several specimens previously identified as Myrcia bicarinata ( Santos et al. 2015)   ; for the distinction between the two species, see the comments under M. bicarinata   . The holotype (Hatschbach 31837) was the only known material of this species so far, but our study found seven new records in Paraná, all misidentified as M. bicarinata   or M. subcordata   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 31837 (FLOR!, MBM!). Morretes, Roderjan 1344 ( EFC!). Paranaguá, Kuniyoshi 6236 ( EFC!). Piraquara, Ribas 5868 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia diaphana   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 82) N. Silveira (1985a: 66). Figure 8 View FIGURE 8 .

Treelets or trees to 9 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline, 0.2–0.6 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3.4–6.5 × 0.5–1 mm, sulcate, with scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent to glabrous when mature; blades 3.2–8 × 1.3–2.6 cm, elliptic, slightly discolorous when dry, apex acuminate, base acute, margins flat, secondary veins 17–22 at each side, 1.7–4.4 mm apart, one or two marginal veins, the first one 0.7–1.5 and the second 0.2–0.3 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 4–9 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with very scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and mature, midvein slightly raised; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 40–95 × 0.5–1 mm, glabrous; bracts 0.8–2.3 mm, elliptic, densely to sparsely covered with trichomes, persistent or caducous; bracteoles 0.5 mm, lanceolate, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds obovoid or turbinate, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.4–0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 4-lobes, rarely 5-lobes (these always amid flowers with 4 lobes), 0.4–1 × 0.5–1.3 mm, externally glabrous, internally densely to moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 5–7 × 6–7 mm, globose, pinkish to black, glabrous, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic and araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from September to December and fruits in October. Myrcia diaphana   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   . This species has always 4-merous flowers, but sometimes a few 5- merous flowers can be found mixed to the 4-merous ones in the same individual. Lucas et al. (2016) indicated that Myrcia diaphana   may be possibly considered as a synonym of M. multiflora   , but we found consistent morphological differences between these two species in the state of Paraná: M. diaphana   has appressed trichomes (vs. erect in M. multiflora   ), simple and dibrachiate hairs (vs. only simple), leaves with 4–9 homogeneous gland dots per mm² (vs. 14–25, heterogeneous), flowers frequently 4-merous (vs. always 5-merous), calyx lobes 0.4–1 mm long (vs. 0.2–0.4 mm) and hypanthium 0.4–0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary (vs. 0.2–0.4 mm). Most specimens of Myrcia diaphana   from Paraná were misidentified as M. multiflora   , M. leptoclada De Candolle (1828: 244   ; synonym of M. amazonica   ), or M. cymosopaniculata Kiaerskou (1893: 90   ; synonym of M. guianensis   ).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaratuba, Hatschbach 13386 (MBM!, UPCB!). São Jerônimo da Serra , Francisco s.n. (FUEL 22660!, MBM 346079!). Telêmaco Borba, Mattos s.n. (UPCB 2472!)   .

Additional specimen: — BRAZIL. Rio de Janeiro: Itatiaia , Carrara   24 ( RB)   .

8. Myrcia dichrophylla D. Legrand (1961: 294)   . Figure 9.

Trees to 10 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline, yellowish or white, 0.2–0.4 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous; mature twigs flat or terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3.2–6.4 × 0.7–1.7 mm, sulcate, with scattered to rarely moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 3.3–9.3 × 1.5–4 cm, strongly discolorous when dry, elliptic to elliptic-obovate, apex acuminate to rarely acute, base attenuate, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 13–21 at each side, 2.2–6.2 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.6–2.2 and the second 0.3–0.6 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 23–33 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young, these denser on the midvein, glabrous when mature, midvein flat to slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 40– 55 × 0.6–1.2 mm, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 0.5 mm, elliptic, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds globose to obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.7–0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.3–0.5 × 0.8–1.3 mm, externally and internally glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 7.2–12 × 8.4–14.8 mm, globose, yellowish to rarely black, glabrous, calyx caducous or persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs predominantly in the atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from December to January and fruits in May. Myrcia dichrophylla   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   and can be promptly recognized by the strongly discolorous leaves with acuminate apex and attenuate base.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Scheer 503 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Silva   1015 ( MBM!). Matinhos, Svolenski 526 ( EFC!). Paranaguá, Silva   s.n. (UPCB 32151!).

. Myrcia eugeniopsoides   (D.Legrand & Kausel in Legrand 1962a: 194) Mazine (2014: 98). Figure 10.

Marlierea eugeniopsoides (D.Legrand & Kausel) D. Legrand 1975: 7   .

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 5 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, erect to rarely appressed, brown to ferrugineous, 0.1–1 mm. Young twigs flat to rarely quadrangular, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3.2–10.6 × 1.1–2.7 mm, sulcate to rarely semiterete, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 7–17 × 2.8–7 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acuminate or abruptly acuminate to rarely acute, or rounded, base acute to attenuate, margins flat to rarely revolute to the base, secondary veins 15–30 at each side, 2.5–8.7 mm apart, two marginal veins, the first one 0.8–2.3 and the second 0.3–0.6 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 2–7 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and mature, midvein slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the margin and midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 20–76 × 0.6–1.3 mm, sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous; bracts not seen; bracteoles 1.3 mm, narrow-elliptic, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 1.2–2.4 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx closed, opening irregularly, not reflexed, externally glabrous, internally moderately covered with trichomes to rarely glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 12.6– 17.5 × 13–18 mm, globose, purple, glabrous or sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx remnants persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic and araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from November to March and fruits in May and September. Myrcia eugeniopsoides   belongs to Myrcia sect. Eugeniopsis ( Santos et al. 2019b)   . This species is quite similar to Myrcia reitzii   , from which it is separated mainly by the globose, glabrous, and completely closed floral buds in M. eugeniopsoides   (vs. clavate, pilose and not totally closed in M. reitzii   ). They can also be distinguished by the shorter and wider petioles in the former (3.2–10.6 × 1.1–2.7 mm vs. 8–25 × 1–2 mm), although there are some individuals with intermediate states.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Silva   9505 ( MBM!). Antonina, Hatschbach 13186 (MBM!, UPCB!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Silva   4026 (MBM!, RB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 7817 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Roderjan 365 (EFC!, MBM!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 9890 (MBM!, UPCB!). Matinhos, Ziller 75 (EFC!, MBM!). Morretes, Hatschbach 13407 (MBM!, UPCB!). Paranaguá, Kozera 677 ( UPCB!).

0. Myrcia excoriata ( Martius 1837: 88) E.Lucas & C.E.Wilson   (in Lucas et al. 2016: 664). Figure 11.

Marlierea excoriata Martius.  

Trees to 15 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline to yellowish, 0.2– 0.7 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 4.3–8.8 × 1–1.7 mm, sulcate to rarely semiterete, with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 5.3–13.5 × 2–5.2 cm, discolorous when dry, narrow-elliptic to elliptic, apex acuminate, base acute to attenuate, margins flat or slightly revolute, secondary veins 15–26 at each side, 4.7–9.8 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.7–4.2 and the second 0.6–1.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely to sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 8–11 per mm², homogeneous or heterogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 30–140 × 1–1.6 mm, moderately to very sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts 0.7–4.2 mm, elliptic, ellipticlanceolate or triangular, sparsely covered with trichomes, persistent; bracteoles 0.4–0.7 mm, elliptic or triangular, sparsely covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds obovoid or globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.7– 1.7 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally sparsely to rarely moderately covered with trichomes; calyx closed, opening irregularly, not reflexed, internally and externally glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2–4-locular. Fruits 10.3–13.7 × 10.4–14 mm, globose, purple, sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx remnants persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Tocantins and Pernambuco to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs predominantly in the araucaria forest, but can also be found in transitional areas between this vegetation and atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from October to December and fruits in January. It belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   and can be recognized by the leaves becoming greyish when dry and the terminal inflorescence with persistent bracts and bracteoles (see Lucas et al. 2016).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Brotto 1866 ( MBM!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Hatschbach 50794 (MBM!, RB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Oliveira 857 (MBM!, RB!). Guaratuba, Caxambu 3556 ( MBM!). Morretes, Hatschbach 20193 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Oliveira 681 ( MBM!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   2197 (FUEL!, MBM!).

. Myrcia ferruginosa Mazine (2014: 98)   . Figure 12.

Marlierea sylvatica   (O. Berg 1855 –1856: 81) Kiaerskou (1893: 51).

Treelets or trees to 10 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, erect, ferrugineous, 0.1–1 mm. Young twigs flat to quadrangular, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete to slightly flat; branching monopodial or sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 10–14.3 × 2–2.6 mm, sulcate, with dense trichomes when young and mature; blades 9.5–19.5 × 4.5–8 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic to narrow-elliptic, apex acuminate, base acute or attenuate, margins slightly revolute or revolute only at the the base, secondary veins 22–26 at each side, 3.4–13.3 mm apart, two marginal veins, the first one 1.3–3 and the second 0.2–0.6 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to rarely conspicuous, 8–10 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein slightly sulcate or flat; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein, secondary and marginal veins. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 50–80 × 1.6–3 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 1.4 mm, elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 1.2–1.4 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx closed, opening irregularly, not reflexed, externally and internally densely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 11.8–23.5 × 13.4–23 mm, globose, black, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, calyx remnants persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, and less frequently in araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from December to January and fruits from April to July. Myrcia ferruginosa   belongs to Myrcia sect. Eugeniopsis ( Santos et al. 2019b)   and can be recognized by the vegetative and reproductive branches covered with ferrugineous trichomes.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Hatschbach 53116 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 16494 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 51207 (MBM!, UPCB!). Morretes, Hatschbach 25995 (MBM!, UPCB!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 9838 (MBM!, UPCB!). São José dos Pinhais, Ribas 1906 (FUEL!, MBM!).

. Myrcia flagellaris (D. Legrand 1961: 279) Sobral (2008: 109)   . Figure 13.

Gomidesia flagellaris D. Legrand.  

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 5 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed, hyaline, yellowish or white, 0.3–1 mm. Young twigs flat to quadrangular, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2.4–4.6 × 1–1.8 mm, semiterete, with dense trichomes when young, moderate to rarely dense when mature; blades 5.7–14.8 × 2–4.5 cm, elliptic to rarely narrow-elliptic, discolorous when dry, apex acuminate, base acute, margins flat, secondary veins 17–24 at each side, 3.4–10 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 1–2.7 and the second 0.4 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 2–4 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered, rarely dense, trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences a dichasium, main axis 40–55 × 0.4–0.5 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 1–4 mm, elliptic, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.8–1.2 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 1.2–1.7 × 2–3 mm, externally and internally moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 4-locular. Fruits 9.3–12.3 × 9.8–14.8 mm, globose, black, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from São Paulo to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs only in atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from November to February and July and fruits from July to August and November. Myrcia flagellaris   belongs to M. sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   and is, together with M. squamata   , the only species of this section with dichasial inflorescences in Paraná. The former has more delicate inflorescences (40–55 × 0.4–0.5 mm vs. 17–30 × 0.7–1.3 mm in M. squamata   ), longer calyx lobes (1.2–1.7 mm vs. 0.8–1 mm) and leaves with 17–24 secondary veins (vs. 9–17).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Hatschbach 34779 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 18116 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 18643 (MBM!, UPCB!). Morretes, Kozera s.n. (MBM 284531!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 9825 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia freyreissiana   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 19) Kiaerskou (1893: 102). Figure 14.

= Gomidesia schaueriana O. Berg (1857: 18)   ; = Myrcia brasiliensis Kiaerskou (1893: 102)   .

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 15 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed, hyaline, yellowish or white to rarely brown, 0.2–0.5 mm. Young twigs flat to quadrangular, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3–8 × 1.2–1.6 mm, sulcate, with moderate trichomes when young, moderate to scattered when mature; blades 3.5–10 × 1.7–5 cm, concolorous or discolorous when dry, elliptic, obovate-elliptic to rarely large-elliptic, apex acute, rounded or acuminate, base acute or attenuate to rarely rounded, margins flat to slightly revolute, secondary veins (7–) 10–14 at each side, 2.8–11 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.5–3.2 and the second 0.2–0.8 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 6 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, scattered to glabrous when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to rarely sulcate; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate to scattered when mature, these denser on the secondary and midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 55–115 × 0.7–1.5 mm, densely or moderately to rarely sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts 4–8.3 mm, elliptic, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1.2–3 mm, elliptic, moderately covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.7–1.2 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.7–1.2 × 1.3–2.5 mm, externally and internally densely to moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 2 or 4-locular. Fruits 4–12.2 × 5.5–12.3 mm, globose, black, purple or brown, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic and araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from October to April and fruits from January to November. Myrcia freyreissiana   belongs to Myrcia sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   . Although still not formally synonymized, we follow the interpretation of Amorim (2017) and consider Myrcia freyreissiana   and M. brasiliensis Kiaerskou (1893: 102)   as synonyms. However, Amorim (2017) treated M. freyreissiana   under M. brasiliensis   , which is not in agreement with the Code (Art. 11.4 and Ex. 17; Turland et al. 2018), as Myrcia freyreissiana   has priority in this case. Some collections from Paraná (e.g. Hatschbach 18630, Reginato 657, Silva   613) are morphologically slightly different from the typical Myrcia freyreissiana   : the leaves apices are more acuminate, and the inflorescences are a bit smaller, with fewer and smaller floral buds. These collections need further investigation and may be interpreted as a new species in the future. Myrcia freyreissiana   is morphologically similar to M. trichantha   , but can be distinguished by the appressed trichomes (vs. erect in M. trichantha   ), thinner petioles (1.2–1.6 vs. 1.6–3 mm), sulcate (vs. semiterete), bracts and bracteoles caducous (vs. persistent), and fruits generally larger (4–12.2 × 5.5–12.3 vs. 2.6–6.2 × 4–6.6 mm).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Brotto 2377 ( MBM!). Antonina, Hatschbach 56169 (MBM!, UPCB!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Hatschbach 53730 ( MBM!). Campina Grande do Sul, Silva   328 ( MBM!). Cerro Azul, Hatschbach 23438 (MBM!, RB!, UPCB!). Dr Ulysses, Hatschbach 66535 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Ziller 792 (FUEL!, MBM!). Guaratuba, Borgo 588 (EFC!, UPCB!). Inácio Martins, Martins 2 ( FUEL!). Matinhos, Roderjan 376 (EFC!, MBM!). Morretes, Roderjan 488 (EFC!, MBM!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 52559 (FUEL!, MBM!, UPCB!). Piraquara, Reginato 507 ( UPCB!). Pontal do Paraná, Carneiro 1304 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Silva   613 (FUEL!, MBM!, RB!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   3232 (HCF!, MBM!, RB!).

4. Myrcia glabra   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 119) D. Legrand (1961: 298). Figure 15.

Trees or rarely shrubs to 15 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, erect, hyaline to reddish, 0.2 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, glabrous to rarely very sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2.4–8.8 × 1–4.5 mm, semiterete to sulcate, with scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and mature; blades 3–10 × 1.5–5 cm, concolorous to slightly discolorous when dry, ellipticobovate, apex rounded to acute, base acute to attenuate, margins revolute, secondary veins 9–13 at each side, 2–8.3 mm apart, one marginal vein to rarely two, the first one 0.4–3 and the second 0.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 7–12 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous or rarely with very scattered trichomes when young, glabrous when mature, midvein flat; abaxial surface glabrous or rarely with very scattered trichomes when young, glabrous when mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 20–66 × 0.6–1.6 mm, glabrous; bracts not seen; bracteoles 0.3–0.6 mm, elliptic, glabrous, caducous to rarely persistent. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.7–1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.5–0.5 × 0.8–1.5 mm, externally glabrous, internally moderately covered with trichomes to glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 3-locular. Fruits 4.6–7.4 × 5–9.7 mm, globose, black, glabrous to rarely sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs only in the atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers in August and from November to May and fruits from April to July. Myrcia glabra   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aguava ( Lima et al. 2018)   . This species is frequently glabrous, except for the inner surface of the calyx lobes, but individuals with sparse trichomes on young branches, leaves and inflorescences can be found. Leaf margins are frequently revolute when dry.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Silva 4313 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Jaster s.n. (UPCB 22924!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 8922 ( MBM!). Morretes, Dombrowski 7377 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Souza 701 ( UPCB!).

. Myrcia glomerata   ( Cambessèdes 1832 –1833: 371) G.Burton & E.Lucas (in Lourenço et al. 2020: 26). Figure 16.

= Calyptranthes concinna De Candolle (1828: 258)   .

Trees, treelets or shrubs to 15 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, brown, 0.1–1.5 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.7–8.7 × 0.6–2.3 mm, sulcate, with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrous when mature; blades 2.4–9.1 × 0.9–3.7 cm, concolorous when dry, elliptic or narrow-elliptic, apex acute, base acute, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 7–15 at each side, 1.2–7.5 mm apart, one or two marginal veins, the first one 0.4–2.4 and the second 0.1–1.0 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate or rarely inconspicuous, glands dots conspicuous, 2–55 per mm 2, homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, midvein sulcate and becoming flat to the apex; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 13–74 × 0.5–1.9 mm, moderately to rarely densely covered with trichomes or glabrous; bracts 3.6–7.8 mm long, elliptic, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1.3–3.5 mm long, elliptic or lanceolate, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.6–1.5 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx closed, opening in a calyptra; floral disc glabrous with trichomes only on the style base, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 2.8–9.3 × 3.9–8.7 mm, subglobose, vinaceous, glabrescent, calyx remnants caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from São Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, araucaria forest, semideciduous forest, grasslands, and cerrado, frequently in riparian vegetation. Collected with flowers from August to April and fruits from February to December. Myrcia glomerata   belongs to Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes ( Lourenço et al. 2020)   . It is one of the most morphologically variable species of this section. Four specimens collected in Paraná were previously identified as Calyptranthes rubella   (= Myrcia neorubella A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas   in Lima et al. 2020: 251), a species that can be recognized mainly by inflorescences with the first branching appearing near the apex of the rachis and short secondary branches ( Legrand & Klein 1971b). Nevertheless, these specimens present inflorescences with the first branching near the base of the rachis and secondary branches relatively long, better matching Myrcia glomerata   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Araucária, Holsbach 2 ( EFC!). Balsa Nova, Lucas 144 ( HUEM!). Campo Largo, Völtz 800 ( EFC!). Campo Mourão, Roderjan 1405 ( EFC!). Capitão Leônidas Marques, Ribas 6209 (MBM!, UPCB!). Cascavel, Borges 47 ( RB!). Cianorte, Hatschbach 16958 ( MBM!). Curitiba, Cordeiro   688 (MBM!, UPCB!). Foz do Iguaçu, Caxambu 7019 ( HCF!). Guaraqueçaba, Jaster s.n. (UPCB 41128!). Jaguariaíva, Cervil 3607 (MBM, UPCB!). Matinhos, Ziller 65 ( EFC!). Palmas, Hatschbach 15023 ( MBM!). Palmeira, Dunaiski Jr. 4170 ( EFC!). Piraquara, Landrum 3905 ( MBM!). Porto Amazonas, Chagas e Silva   2170 ( UPCB!). Rio Bonito do Iguaçú, Poliquesi 279 (MBM, UPCB!).

6. Myrcia guianensis ( Aublet 1775: 506) De Candolle (1828: 245)   . Figure 17.

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 14 m high. Trichomes simple to rarely dibrachiate, erect to rarely appressed, hyaline, yellowish, golden, ferrugineous or brown, 0.1–0.6 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, densely to sparsely covered with trichomes or glabrous; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1–6 × 0.5–1.2 mm, semiterete to sulcate, with dense to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent to glabrous when mature; blades 1.3–6.5 × 0.5–2.3 cm, discolorous to concolorous when dry, elliptic, narrow-elliptic, elliptic obovate, obovate or oblong, apex acuminate to rounded, base acute to rounded or attenuate, margins slightly revolute or revolute only at the base, secondary veins 10–20 at each side, 1.2–5.2 mm apart, one marginal vein 0.3–1.4 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 5–17 per mm², homogeneous to heterogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes or glabrous when young, scattered to glabrous when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to rarely slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the margin and midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform to rarely racemiform, main axis 10–70 × 0.2–0.5 mm, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes or glabrous; bracts 3–6.3 mm, elliptic, moderately covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 0.6–1.6 mm, linear, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous to rarely persistent. Floral buds globose or turbinate, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.4–1.1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.5–0.8 × 0.6–1.3 mm, externally sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous, internally densely; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 3-locular. Fruits 4–12.4 × 4.5–8.8 mm, globose, pinkish to reddish, purple or black, glabrous to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed from Trinidad and Tobago, and Ecuador to Paraguay and, in Brazil, occurring throughout the country. In Paraná, it occurs in all vegetation types. Collected with flowers from May to March and fruits from July to May. Myrcia guianensis   belongs to M. sect. Aguava ( Lima et al. 2018). This is one of the most morphologically variable species of Myrcia   , with several morphotypes along its wide distribution throughout tropical South America ( Lima 2017). In Paraná, specimens of Myrcia guianensis   have been widely determined in herbaria as its synonym Myrcia obtecta   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 117) Kiaerskou (1893: 89). These plants frequently have elliptic-obovate leaves with attenuate bases and acute to acuminate apices. The species can by recognized by the delicate inflorescences, flowers with calyx lobes internally covered with trichomes, floral disc and staminal ring glabrous, and 3-locular ovary.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Silva   4527 ( MBM!). Amaporã, Goetzke 193 ( MBM!). Antonina, Blum 2132 ( EFC!). Arapoti, Hatschbach 8568 ( UPCB!). Balsa Nova, Hatschbach 18710 ( MBM!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Ribas 5802 (MBM!, RB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 7661 ( UPCB!). Campo Largo, Hatschbach 8327 ( MBM!). Campo Magro, Silva   3689 ( MBM!). Campo Mourão, Hatschbach 12984 ( UPCB!). Carambeí, Engels 1775 ( MBM!). Castro, Soares-Silva 628 ( FUEL!). Clevelândia, Hatschbach 22698 ( MBM!). Colombo, Possete 586 ( UPCB!). Contenda, Landrum 2435 ( MBM!). Cornélio Procópio, Francisco s.n. (FUEL 28267!, UPCB 51293!). Cruzeiro do Oeste, Lange 13 ( MBM!). Curitiba, Hatschbach   44447 (MBM!, UPCB!). Curiúva, Soares-Silva 614 ( FUEL!). Diamante do Norte, Romagnolo 3181 ( HUEM!). Guarapuava, Hatschbach 7421 ( UPCB!). Guaraqueçaba, Scheer 641 ( UPCB!). Guaratuba, Santos 765 (MBM!, UPCB!). Honório Serpa, Brotto 528 ( UPCB!). Imbituva, Hatschbach 22503 ( UPCB!). Ipiranga, Hatschbach 22358 ( MBM!). Irati, Carvalho 107 ( MBM!). Jaguariaíva, Hatschbach 18936 ( UPCB!). Lapa, Guimarães s.n. (UPCB 19039!). Mandirituba, Landrum 3896 (MBM!, RB!). Mangueirinha, Hatschbach 72395 (MBM!, UPCB!). Morretes, Motta 617 ( MBM!). Palmas, Hatschbach 68716 (MBM!, UPCB!). Palmeira, Landrum 3969 ( MBM!). Paranavaí, Lemos s.n. (HUEM 28433!). Pien, Hatschbach 53605 ( UPCB!). Pinhais, Kuniyoshi 5439 ( EFC!). Pinhão, Ribas 331 ( MBM!). Piraí do Sul, Soares-Silva 655 ( FUEL!). Piraquara, Ribas 17671 ( UPCB!). Ponta Grossa, Cervi 2073 ( UPCB!). Quatro Barras, Hatschbach 14742 ( UPCB!). Querência do Norte, Almeida   177 ( MBM!). Reserva, Paiva   s.n. (FUEL 22147!, MBM 322526!). Ribeirão do Pinhal, Carneiro 253 ( MBM!). Rio Branco do Sul, Cruz   210 ( MBM!). Rio Negro, Hatschbach 3414 ( MBM!). Sabáudia, Borges Júnior s.n. (MBM 391522!). Santa Cecília, Ribeiro 210 ( EFC!). São Jerônimo da Serra, Soares-Silva 551 ( FUEL!). São João do Triunfo, Hatschbach 17791 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Hatschbach 18159 ( UPCB!). São Manoel do Paraná, Januzzi s.n. (MBM 392959!). São Mateus do Sul, Hatschbach 68667 ( UPCB!). Sengés, Dias   369 ( FUEL!). Teixeira Soares, Dias   17 ( FUEL!). Telêmaco Borba, Filipaki s.n. (UPCB 33134!). Terra Rica, Thatiane s.n. (HUEM 29353!). Tibagi, Vieira 29 ( UPCB!). Tijucas do Sul, Blum 10-085 ( UPCB!). Turneiras do Oeste, Siqueira 500 ( MBM!). Turvo, Alves 66 ( MBM!). Ventania, Chagas e Silva   2128 ( FUEL!). Vila Alta, Ziller 1123 (EFC!, MBM!).

. Myrcia hartwegiana   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 22) Kiaerskou (1893: 109). Figure 18.

Gomidesia hartwegiana O.Berg.  

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 9 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed, hyaline, yellowish, golden or white, 0.2–0.8 mm. Young twigs flat to rarely terete, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat or terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2–5(–7.5) × 0.7–3.8 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 1.5–7 × 0.8–3.2 cm, concolorous or discolorous when dry, elliptic to rarely elliptic-obovate, apex rounded to rarely slightly acute, base acute or attenuate, margins revolute, secondary veins 5–12 at each side, 1.7–5 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.5–1.3 and the second 0.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 6–9 per mm², homogeneous or heterogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein slightly sulcate to rarely flat; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 15–50 × 0.6–1 mm, densely to moderately to rarely sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts 2.8–8.3 mm, elliptic, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 0.8–2.5 mm, linear, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.7–1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.5–1 × 0.8–1.4 mm, externally and internally densely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 4–17 × 4.6–8 mm, globose, yellowish, reddish, purple or black, moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent to rarely caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, araucaria forest, semideciduous forest and grasslands. Collected with flowers from June to April and fruits along the whole year. Myrcia hartwegiana   belongs to M. sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   . Individuals growing in grasslands generally have larger leaves, shorter and thicker petioles, and curled trichomes. Myrcia hartwegiana   is similar to M. palustris   , but it can be distinguished by the leaves with revolute margins and petioles shorter and thicker in the first species (vs. flat margins and longer and thinner petioles in the last species). In general, M. hartwegiana   has larger leaves than M. palustris   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Isernhagen 292 ( UPCB!). Antonina, Bizarro 57 ( EFC!). Araucária, Holsbach 10 (EFC!, MBM!). Bituruna, Liebsch s.n. (MBM 299382!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Ribas 5778 (FUEL!, MBM!, RB!, UPCB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Silva   7049 ( MBM!). Campo do Tenente, Hatschbach 18482 ( MBM!). Campo Largo, Tiepolo 709 (EFC!, MBM!). Campo Mourão, Caxambu 34 (HCF!, MBM!). Cascavel, Borges 96 (MBM!, RB!). Colombo, Hatschbach 9660 ( MBM!). Curitiba, Pereira   8319 ( RB!). Foz do Iguaçu, Lindeman 3360 (MBM!, RB!). General Carneiro, Hatschbach 13703 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guarapuava, Hatschbach 18338 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Scheer 326 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 6696 ( UPCB!). Imbituva, Hatschbach 22506 ( MBM!). Inácio Martins, Hatschbach 67507 ( MBM!). Irati, Soares-Silva 535 ( FUEL!). Jaguariaíva, Souza s.n. (UPCB 43200!). Laranjeiras do Sul, Lindeman 4706 ( MBM!). Mangueirinha, Motta 4470 (MBM!, RB!). Morretes, Rocha 69 ( EFC!). Nova Aurora, Sekine 224 ( MBM!). Palmeira, Oliveira 296 ( MBM!). Pinhão, Hatschbach 64503 (EFC!, MBM!). Piraquara, Hatschbach 2225 (MBM!, UPCB!). Pitanga, Bianek 318 (HCF!, MBM!). Ponta Grossa, Silva   8385 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Roderjan 955 (EFC!, MBM!, UPCB!). Roncador, Iszczuk s.n. (MBM 350119!). Santa Cecília, Ribeiro 214 ( EFC!). São José dos Pinhais, Landrum 2302 ( MBM!). São Mateus do Sul, Britez 1293 ( MBM!). Teixeira Soares, Soares-Silva   699 ( FUEL!). Telêmaco Borba, Filipaki s.n. (UPCB 33095!). Tibagi, Chagas e Silva   1678 (FUEL!, MBM!). Tijucas do Sul, Barbosa   539 (MBM!, RB!). Turvo, Caxambu 2467 (HCF!, MBM!). União da Vitória, Koczicki 7 (UPCB!, MBM!).

8. Myrcia hatschbachii D. Legrand (1961: 293)   . Figure 19.

Trees to 25 m high.Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, between appressed and erect, hyaline to brown, 0.1–0.8 mm.Young twigs terete to slightly flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3–6 × 1–1.8 mm, semiterete to sulcate, with moderate to rarely dense trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 4.3–14 × 1.4–4.5 cm, discolorous to rarely concolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acute or slightly rounded, base acute or slightly attenuate, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 18–23 at each side, 2–7.6 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.6–2 and the second 0.2–0.3 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, more than 20 per mm² when homogeneous and 6–7 per mm² when heterogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat or slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes, rarely glabrous, when young and mature, these denser on the midvein.Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 35–140 × 0.7–1 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 0.7–1.2 mm, elliptic, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds clavate, base not constricted; hypanthium 1–1.5 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally moderately covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.6–1 × 0.7–1.3 mm, externally and internally moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 3.4–8.4 × 3.3–8 mm, globose, purple or black, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed from the Brazilian state of Paraná to Uruguay. In Paraná, it occurs mainly in araucaria forest and less frequently in grasslands. Collected with flowers from May to March and fruits from January to April. Myrcia hatschbachii   belongs to Myrcia sect. Eugeniopsis ( Santos et al. 2019b)   and can be characterized by the hypanthium tube deeper than the other species (considering the total length of the flower) and the panicles always with two pairs of secondary branches at the base. The state is the northern limit of Myrcia hatschbachii   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Almirante Tamandaré, Blum 10-143 ( UPCB!). Araucária, Carrião 2358 ( UPCB!). Bateias, Possete s.n. (MBM 301654!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Hatschbach 7611 ( MBM!). Colombo, Maschio 38 (FUEL!, HUEM!). Curitiba, Nascimento   79 (MBM!, RB!). Guaratuba, Kummrow 1648 ( MBM!). Imbituva, Hatschbach 20475 (MBM!, RB!, UPCB!). Ipiranga, Silva   s.n. (FUEL 9169!, MBM 230726!). Lapa, Hatschbach 30964 (MBM!, RB!). Mandirituba, Kuniyoshi 4611 ( MBM!). Mauá da Serra, Chagas e Silva   2122 ( FUEL!). Palmeira, Hatschbach 13490 (MBM!, UPCB!). Paulo Frontin, Koczicki 12 (MBM!, UPCB!). Piraquara, Imaguire 2582 ( MBM!). Ponta Grossa, Ramos 23 ( UPCB!). Prudentópolis, Caxambu 4447 (FUEL!, MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Hatschbach 12078 A ( UPCB!). São Mateus do Sul, Silva   820 ( MBM!). Tijucas do Sul, Kummrow 1602 (MBM!, RB!). Turvo, Caxambu 2540 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia hebepetala De Candolle (1828: 246)   . Figure 20.

Gomidesia hebepetala (DC.) O. Berg (1857   –1859: 18).

Treelets, trees or rarely shrubs to 10 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline, yellowish or golden, 0.2–1 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete to slightly flat; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 4–11.2 × 1–3.4 mm, semiterete to slightly sulcate, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate to glabrescent when mature; blades 5.5–11 × 2–4.7 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic or narrow-elliptic, apex acute to rarely rounded or slightly acuminate, base acute to slightly rounded or attenuate, margins revolute, secondary veins 15–22 at each side, 3–11 mm apart, one marginal vein, 0.8–2.8 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein and secondary veins. Inflorescences paniculiform to rarely racemiform, main axis 25–80 × 0.8–1.3 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts to 10.3 mm, elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1.7–3.7 mm, elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 1–1.3 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.8–1.4 × 2.2–3.6 mm, externally and internally densely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 2–3- locular. Fruits 9.6–15.5 × 9–16 mm, globose, reddish or purple, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais to Paraná. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, araucaria forest, semideciduous forest, and grasslands. Collected with flowers from October to May and fruits from April to December. Myrcia hebepatala   belongs to Myrcia sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   . It is recognized by the leaves abaxially pilose, with trichomes always denser on the veins, and well-marked secondary venation. The leaves are sometimes shiny adaxially. Following Amorim (2017), we considered Myrcia catharinensis   (D.Legrand in Legrand & Klein 1967: 13) Nic Lughadha (2012: 240) under M. hebepetala   . This species can be similar to M. freyreissiana   (see comments under the latter species).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Apucarana, Queiroz 8 ( FUEL!). Balsa Nova, Dombrowski 11181 ( MBM!). Barracão, Hatschbach 39917 ( MBM!). Bituruna, Liebsch s.n. (UPCB 50558!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Hatschbach 52134 (MBM!, UPCB!). Campo Largo, Cervi 3116 ( UPCB!). Cerro Azul, Hatschbach 1465 ( MBM!). Clevelândia, Lindeman 1187 (MBM!, RB!). Colombo, Maschio 501 (MBM!, UPCB!). Lapa, Ribeiro 173 ( EFC!). Mangueirinha, Enderli s.n. (HCF 3843!, MBM 350514!). Mauá da Serra, Dall Agnol 73 (FUEL!, MBM!). Palmeira, Hatschbach 5583 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Silva   811 (MBM!, UPCB!). Pinhão, Silva   959 ( MBM!). Piraquara, Dombrowski 7124 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Oliveira 560 (MBM!, RB!). Rio Bonito do Iguaçu, Poliquesi 336 ( MBM!). Rolândia, Francisco s.n. (FUEL 28247!). São Jerônimo da Serra, Hatschbach 24808 (MBM!, UPCB!). São José dos Pinhais, Hatschbach 29641 ( MBM!). São Mateus do Sul, Hatschbach 21669 ( MBM!). Tamarana, Pavão s.n. (FUEL 28178!). Teixeira Soares, Silva   822 (MBM!, UPCB!). Tijucas do Sul, Silva   842 ( MBM!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   1959 (MBM!, RB!).

0. Myrcia heringii D. Legrand (1961: 298)   . Figure 21.

Shrubs or treelets to 4 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed, hyaline, yellowish or white, 0.2–0.8 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles lacking or these up to 1.6–2 × 1.8 mm, semiterete, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 9.5–16.5 × 5–8.5 cm, concolorous or slightly discolorous when dry, elliptic or narrow-elliptic to rarely ovate, apex acute to acuminate, base subcordate, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 19–27 at each side, 4.8–13 mm apart, two to rarely three marginal veins, the first one 2.4–5.3, the second 0.5–1.4 and the third 0.4 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely to rarely densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 1–2 per mm², homogeneous or heterogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous, rarely with scattered trichomes when young, these denser on the midvein, glabrous when mature, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform to rarely racemiform, main axis 55–135 × 1–1.7 mm, very sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous; bracts and bracteoles not seen. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 1.8–2.5 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.8–1.6 × 1.2–3.3 mm, externally glabrous, internally densely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 3-locular. Fruits 10–12 × 12 mm, globose, purple, glabrous, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from São Paulo to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic and less frequently in araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from October to November and fruits in November. Myrcia heringii   belongs to Myrcia sect. Reticulosae ( Fernandes et al. 2020)   and is easily recognized by the almost sessile leaves with subcordate bases and large gland dots visible by naked eye.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Hatschbach 47148 ( MBM!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 13064 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 9818 (MBM!, UPCB!). Morretes, Hatschbach 20194 (MBM!, RB!, UPCB!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 9445 (MBM!, UPCB!).

Additional specimens: — BRAZIL. São Paulo: Campinas, Toniato 33670 (UEC). Cananéia, Urbanetz 388 (UEC).

. Myrcia hexasticha Kiaerskou (1893: 72)   . Figure 22.

Trees to 12 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, yellowish to brown, 0.1–0.4 mm. Young twigs terete, not keeled, glabrous to rarely moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching monopodial. Leaves verticillate, with petioles 8.5–13.8 × 1.6–2.7 mm, semiterete to slightly sulcate, with scattered trichomes when young and mature; blades 13–21 × 3–5 cm, concolorous to rarely slightly discolorous when dry, narrow-elliptic, apex rounded to acute, base acute, margins revolute or slightly so, secondary veins 27–28 at each side, 4.8–12 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 1.4–2.7 and the second 0.8 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to rarely conspicuous, 3 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with very scattered trichomes or glabrous when young and mature, midvein flat; abaxial surface with very scattered, rarely moderate, trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 90–300 × 0.8–2.3 mm, moderately or sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts 0.6–13.4 mm, narrow-elliptic, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, persistent; bracteoles 0.3–0.6 mm, elliptic, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds globose, obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.5–0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.4–1 × 0.4–1 mm, externally glabrous, internally moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc glabrous to rarely very sparsely covered with trichomes only on the style base, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 5.3–8.5 × 6.6–9.8 mm, globose, black, glabrous, calyx persistent or caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Rio de Janeiro to Paraná.In Paraná, it occurs only in atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from October to December and fruits in January and April. Myrcia hexasticha   belongs to M. sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016). This is the only species of Myrcia   in Paraná with verticillate leaves, these always long and narrowly elliptic. The inflorescences are always terminal and whorled, and bracts are much larger than in the other species. Some specimens were misidentified as Myrcia insularis Gardner (1842: 536)   in herbaria, but this species has opposite leaves and has no records for the state. The state is the southern limit of Myrcia hexasticha   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 25824 (MBM!, RB!). Matinhos, Dunaiski Jr. 861 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 50835 (MBM!, RB!, UPCB!).

Additional specimen: — BRAZIL. São Paulo: Iguape, Kozera 832 (UEC).

. Myrcia isaiana G.M. Barroso & Peixoto (1990: 8)   . Figure 23.

Treelets, trees or rarely shrubs to 9 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline to yellowish, 0.2–1.6 mm. Young twigs flat to quadrangular, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 8.2–13.5 × 1.4–3.6 mm, semiterete to rarely sulcate, with dense trichomes when young, dense to glabrescent when mature; blades 6.8–17 (–26.6) × 5–11 cm, slightly discolorous when dry, elliptic to ovate, apex slightly acuminate, base acute to attenuate or rounded, margins flat to slightly revolute, secondary veins 12–17 at each side, 7.6–22.8 mm apart, one or two to rarely three marginal veins, the first one 2–6.6, the second 0.3–2 and the third 0.5 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to rarely conspicuous, 2–4 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, scattered to glabrous when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate when mature, these denser on the secondary and midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 23–140 × 0.8–2.5 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts 3.2–8.7 mm, elliptic, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, persistent; bracteoles 2–5.8 mm, elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds globose to rarely obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium flat, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 1.8–3.6 × 2.3–4 mm, externally and internally densely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 12–16.8 × 9.3–12.8 mm, globose to slightly obovoid, reddish to black, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Pernambuco to Paraná. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from July to November and fruits from April to May and November to December. Myrcia isaiana   belongs to Myrcia sect. Myrcia ( Lucas et al. 2011)   . Specimens of Myrcia isaiana   were frequently misidentified as M. grandiflora   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 113) Niedenzu (1893:76), a synonym of M. pubipetala   . They are promptly distinguished by the floral disc completely pilose in M. isaiana   (vs. floral disc pilose only on the style base, and also on the staminal ring), the 2-locular ovaries (vs. 3-locular) and leaves green when dry (vs. brown when dry). The state is the southern limit of Myrcia isaiana   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Ziller 1379 (HUEM!, MBM!). Guaratuba, Cervi 8742 (MBM!, RB!). Matinhos, Kuniyoshi 5373 (EFC!, MBM!). Morretes, Lindeman 2628 (MBM!, RB!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 59753 ( MBM!). Pontal do Paraná, Weiss 59 (UPCB!, RB!). Pontal do Sul, Muelbert 20 (UPCB!, RB!).

. Myrcia legrandii A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas   (in Lourenço et al. 2018:76). Figure 24.

Calyptranthes obovata Kiaerskou (1893: 38–39)   .

Trees to 4 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, brown, 0.2–0.4 mm. Young twigs flat, terete or quadrangular, slightly keeled or not, glabrous; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.9–9.8 × 0.8–1.7 mm, sulcate, with scattered trichomes when young, glabrous when mature; blades 1.9–5.4 × 0.6–2.5 cm, discolorous when dry, obovate to elliptic, apex acuminate to rarely acute or rounded, base attenuate, margins slightly revolute to revolute, secondary veins frequently inconspicuous, when conspicuous 8–12 at each side, 1.5–5.0 mm apart, one or two marginal veins, the first one 0.3–1.4 and the second 0.2–0.5 mm from the margin, tertiary veins inconspicuous, glands dots conspicuous, 3–35 per mm 2, homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, midvein sulcate and becoming flat to the apex; abaxial surface densely covered with trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the base. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 28–89 × 0.5–1.7 mm, terete or quadrangular, glabrous; bracts and bracteoles not seen. Floral buds clavate, base constricted; hypanthium 0.8–1.6 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrescent; calyx closed, opening in a calyptra; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 2.6–8.9 × 3.6–9.8 mm, subglobose, red, with very scattered trichomes, calyx remnants caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, and distributed from Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, araucaria forest and grasslands. Collected with flowers from November to January and fruits from December to July. It belongs to Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes ( Lourenço et al. 2018)   and can be recognized by the obovate to elliptic leaves with acuminate apex and attenuate base, and the glabrous branches.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Bocaiúva do Sul, Lucas 147 (HUEM!, MBM!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 3416 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 26732 ( MBM!). Morretes, Hatschbach 13127 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 14411 (MBM!, UPCB!). Quatro Barras, Roderjan 1127 (EFC!, MBM!, UPCB!). Tibagi, Lucas 171 (HUEM!, MBM!). Tijucas do Sul, Augusto-Silva s.n. (MBM 407077!).

4. Myrcia lonchophylla A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas   (in Lourenço et al. 2018: 77). Figure 25.

Calyptranthes lanceolata O. Berg (1857   –1859: 51).

Trees, treelets or shrubs to 6 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, brown, 0.1–1.4 mm. Young twigs slightly flat, keeled, covered with very scattered trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 9.3–17.6 × 1.9–4.3 mm, terete, glabrous when young and mature; blades 17.6–36.1 × 4.6–8.9 cm, discolorous when dry, lanceolate, apex acute, base rounded, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 17–37 at each side, 4.7–18.4 mm apart, three marginal veins, the first one 3.7–8.6, the second 0.7–2.2 and the third 0.2–0.7 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, glands dots conspicuous, 1–6 per mm 2, homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young and mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 71–378 × 0.5–2.7 mm, with scattered trichomes; bracts 11.1–23.8 mm long, elliptic, glabrous, caducous; bracteoles 1.2–4.2 mm long, lanceolate, moderately covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds turbinate, base not constricted; hypanthium 1.4–2.6 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx closed, opening in a calyptra; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 8.0–10.8 × 10.3–13.1 mm, subglobose, vinaceous, glabrous, calyx remnants caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Rio de Janeiro to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs only in the atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from December to July and fruits in October. It belongs to Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes ( Lourenço et al. 2018)   and can be recognized by the young branches and inflorescences keeled, and also by the long and lanceolate leaves, with quite evident veins in the abaxial surface, and lanceolate cataphylls.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Hatschbach 33647 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Jaster 26 (EFC!, MBM!). Paranaguá, Britez 413 (MBM!, UPCB!).

. Myrcia loranthifolia ( De Candolle 1828: 258) G.Burton & E.Lucas   (in Lourenço et al. 2020: 36). Figure 26.

= Calyptranthes brasiliensis Sprengel (1825: 499)   .

Trees or treelets to 30 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, yellowish, 0.1–0.9 mm. Young twigs flat, terete or quadrangular, not keeled, glabrous; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 6.9–12.7 × 1.4–2.9 mm, sulcate, with scattered trichomes when young and mature; blades 6.9–16.9 × 2.0– 8.9 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acute or acuminate, base acute or attenuate, margins revolute or slightly so, secondary veins 11–21 at each side, 3.3–16.9 mm apart, two or three marginal veins, the first one 1.7–8.3, the second 0.4–2.3 and the third 0.2–0.8 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, glands dots conspicuous or rarely inconspicuous, 3–11 per mm 2, homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, midvein sulcate and becoming slightly raised to the apex; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young, these denser on the base, glabrous when mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 24–109 × 1.3–3.5 mm, glabrescent; bracts 1.8–3.2 mm long, ellipticlanceolate, glabrous, caducous; bracteoles 0.8–2.3 mm long, linear or lanceolate, glabrous, caducous. Floral buds clavate, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.9–1.6 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrescent; calyx closed, opening in a calyptra; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 3.6–8.9 × 4.7–10.5 mm, globose, green when young, glabrescent, calyx remnants caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, and distributed from Alagoas to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, araucaria forest, semideciduous forest and grasslands. Collected with flowers from November to May and fruits from July to October. Myrcia loranthifolia   belongs to Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes ( Lourenço et al. 2020)   . Individuals with smaller leaves resemble Myrcia glomerata   . These species can be distinguished through the clavate floral buds covered with scattered trichomes in M. loranthifolia   (vs. obovoid and entirely pilose in M. glomerata   ).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Bocaiúva do Sul, Hatschbach 29765 ( MBM!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 18582 ( MBM!). Colombo, Kuniyoshi 5036 ( EFC!). Guaraqueçaba, Athayde 212 ( UPCB!). Lapa, Oliveira 612 ( MBM!). Londrina, Soares-Silva 173 (MBM!, UPCB!). Ortigueira, Ferreira s.n. (MBM 346080!). Paranaguá, Bonaldi 700 (EFC!, MBM!). Piraquara, Labiak 1934 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Hatschbach 14566 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Lucas 122 (HUEM!, MBM!). Telêmaco Borba, Bochorny 43 ( MBM!).Tijucas do Sul, Roher s.n. (MBM 397402!).

6. Myrcia multiflora ( Lamarck 1789: 202) De Candolle (1828: 244)   . Figure 27.

Shrubs, treelets, or trees to 8 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline to white, 0.1–0.6 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, glabrous or moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.6–5.6 × 0.4–1 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with moderate to rarely scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 2–7.7 × 1–2.8 cm, concolorous or slightly discolorous when dry, elliptic to obovate, apex acute to acuminate or rounded, base acute to attenuate, margins revolute to the base, secondary veins 11– 20 at each side, 0.8–7 mm apart, one or two marginal veins, the first one 0.3–1 and the second 0.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely to sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 14–25 per mm², heterogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes, rarely glabrous, when young, glabrescent to glabrous when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to rarely slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, scattered to glabrescent when mature, these denser on the margin and midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 18–70 × 0.3–1.2 mm, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes or rarely glabrous; bracts 1–5.5 mm, linear or narrow-elliptic, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, persistent or caducous; bracteoles 0.4–1 mm, linear to narrow-elliptic, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous to persistent. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted to slightly constricted; hypanthium 0.2–0.4 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.2–0.4 × 0.6–1 mm, externally glabrous, internally densely covered with trichomes to rarely glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 4.2–7 × 3.8–6.8 mm, globose, purple or black, glabrous, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed from Trinidad and Tobago to Uruguay and in Brazil from Amazonas to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in all vegetation types. Collected with flowers from September to February and fruits from September to June. Myrcia multiflora   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   . This species usually has small elliptic leaves that remain green when dry, with acuminate apices, attenuate bases, and revolute margins at the base. The panicles are always multi-flowered. Myrcia multiflora   can be similar to M. selloi   , however the flowers of M. multiflora   have no constriction below the ovary, nor reflexed calyx lobes, as found in M. selloi   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Hatschbach 44494 ( MBM!). Arapoti, Hatschbach 8521 (MBM!, UPCB!).Assaí, Ziller 1652 (EFC!, MBM!). Balsa Nova, Caxambu 3515 ( MBM!). Bituruna, Liebsch s.n. (MBM 299380!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Silva   2880 ( MBM!). Cambé, Soares-Silva 635 ( FUEL!). Campo Mourão, Hatschbach 8815 ( MBM!). Castro, Kummrow 1732 ( MBM!). Cerro Azul, Hatschbach 9439 (MBM!, UPCB!). Curiúva, Soares- Silva   572 ( FUEL!). Guaíra, Hatschbach 10505 ( UPCB!). Guaraqueçaba, Bonaldi 709 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Silva   1070 (MBM!, UPCB!). Ibiporã, Rosisco 3 ( FUEL!). Imbituva, Kuniyoshi 5118 ( EFC!). Ipiranga, Vieira 371 ( FUEL!). Irati, Saueressig 1483 ( EFC!). Itaperuçu, Cordeiro 1251 ( MBM!). Jaguariaíva, Linsingen 16 ( MBM!). Jundiaí do Sul, Carneiro 1010 ( MBM!). Lapa, Braga 1019 ( UPCB!). Londrina, Camacho   s.n. (FUEL 20595!). Matinhos, Hatschbach 51737 ( MBM!). Mauá da Serra, Cotarelli 391 (FUEL!, MBM!). Morretes, Hatschbach 35742 ( MBM!). Ortigueira, Lima 74 ( MBM!). Palmeira, No collector s.n. (FUEL 13333!). Paranaguá, Borgo 529 (EFC!, UPCB!). Piraquara, Vieira 102 ( EFC!). Pitanga, Hatschbach 76777 ( MBM!). Ponta Grossa, Jaster 112 ( MBM!). Pontal do Paraná, Brotto 1547 ( MBM!). Pontal do Sul, Kuniyoshi 5393 (EFC!, MBM!). Reserva, Francisco s.n. (FUEL 24587!). São José dos Pinhais, Silva   3902 ( MBM!). Sapopema, Kinupp 530 (FUEL!, UPCB!). Sengés, Hatschbach 5331 ( MBM!). Telêmaco Borba, Filipaki s.n. (UPCB 33089!). Tibagi, Batista   s.n. (FUEL 12278!). Tijucas do Sul, Ribas 21 ( MBM!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   4537 ( MBM!). Turvo, Caxambu 2888 ( MBM!). Ventania, Damineli s.n. (FUEL 20433!).

. Myrcia neolucida A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas   (in Lourenço et al. 2018: 79). Figure 28.

Calyptranthes lucida Martius ex De Candolle (1828: 258)   .

Trees to 12 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, white, 0.2–0.8 mm. Young twigs terete, not keeled or rarely slightly keeled, covered with scattered trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3.7–9.9 × 0.8– 0.7 mm, sulcate, with very scattered trichomes when young and mature; blades 5.9–13.3 × 2.7– 5.1 cm, concolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acuminate, base acute, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 12–22 at each side, 2.0– 8.8 mm apart, two, rarely three marginal veins, the first one 0.9–3.1, the second 0.2–0.8 and the third 0.1–0.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate to rarely inconspicuous, glands dots conspicuous, 14–79 per mm 2, homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, midvein sulcate and becoming slightly raised to the apex; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young, these denser on the midvein, glabrescent when mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 23–84 × 0.5–2.2 mm, terete or quadrangular, glabrescent; bracts 6.4–14.2 mm long, lanceolate, covered with scattered trichomes, caducous; bracteoles not seen. Floral buds clavate, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.9–1.1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrescent; calyx closed, opening in a calyptra; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 5.2–7.0 × 6.2–7.0 mm, globose, orange when young, glabrous, calyx remnants caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed in Amapá, Bahia, and from Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, araucaria forest and grasslands. Collected with flowers in December and January and fruits in May and June. It belongs to Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes ( Lourenço et al. 2018)   , and can be recognized by the elliptic leaves with acuminate apex, light green when dry, and the delicate and multi-branched inflorescences, with scattered white trichomes that occur also on the flowers, ovary and hypanthium.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Colombo, Maschio 461 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 18621 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Engels 1513 ( MBM!). Matinhos, Ziller 71 ( EFC!). Paranaguá, Souza s.n. ( RB 255698 View Materials !, UPCB 15073!). Tijucas do Sul, Augusto-Silva s.n. (MBM 397530!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   4339 ( MBM!).

8. Myrcia neoriedeliana E.Lucas & C.E.Wilson   (in Lucas et al. 2016: 680). Figure 29.

Marlierea riedeliana   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 561) D. Legrand (1962b: 31).

Treelets or trees to 8 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed to erect, yellowish, golden or white, 0.3–1.2 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 5.2–9.2 × 1.2–2 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 9.5–17.5 × 3.2–5.7 cm, discolorous when dry, narrow-elliptic, apex acuminate to abruptly acuminate, base acute, margins flat, secondary veins 12–21 at each side, 4.2–12.2 mm apart, one or two marginal veins to rarely inconspicuous, the first one 1.3–2.6 and the second 0.5–0.8 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate to rarely inconspicuous, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 3–8 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, scattered when mature, midvein flat, rarely slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate to scattered when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 30–120 × 0.8–1.6 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts 15–50 mm or 1.4–5.8 mm, lanceolate to narrow-elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, persistent or caducous; bracteoles 0.4–0.8 mm, narrow-elliptic, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.5–0.7 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely to rarely sparsely covered with trichomes; calyx closed, opening irregularly, not reflexed, externally sparsely covered with trichomes, internally glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 8–10.2 × 8.7–11.5 when immature mm, globose, black, sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx remnants persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in the atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from November to February and fruits from March to July. Myrcia neoriedeliana   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   . It is recognized by the long, pale yellow trichomes on the vegetative and reproductive branches. Bracts and floral buds are glabrous or nearly so. For a long time, specimens of Myrcia neoriedeliana   from southern Brazil have been misidentified as Marlierea obscura O. Berg (1857   –1859: 36), but this species is restricted to the states of Bahia and Minas Gerais ( Lucas et al. 2016).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Barbosa   768 (FUEL!, MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Borgo 270 (EFC!, UPCB!). Matinhos, Svolenski 528 ( EFC!). Morretes, Bonaldi 521 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 14455 ( UPCB!).

. Myrcia neosuaveolens E.Lucas & C.E.Wilson   (in Lucas et al. 2016: 682). Figure 30.

Marlierea suaveolens Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 374).

Trees to 8 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline to yellowish, smaller than 0.1 to 0.8 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2–5.6 × 0.5–1 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and when mature; blades 4.5–7.5 × 1–2.7 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acuminate to long acuminate, base attenuate, margins flat to slightly revolute, secondary veins 15–18 at each side, 1.8–6.8 mm apart, one or two marginal veins, the first one 0.5–2.5 and the second 0.2–0.3 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 2–6 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with very scattered trichomes to glabrous when young, glabrous when mature, midvein flat; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and mature, trichomes denser on the midvein. Inflorescences racemiform or a dichasium, main axis 20–30 × 0.3 mm, very sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts 0.3 mm, triangular, glabrous, persistent; bracteoles not seen. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.5–0.7 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous; calyx closed, opening irregularly, not reflexed; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 11.3–11.7 × 11.5–13 when immature mm, globose, purple to black, glabrous, calyx remnants persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Espírito Santo to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from December to January and fruits from May to August. Myrcia neosuaveolens   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   and can be recognized by the reduced inflorescences and small elliptic leaves with acuminate apices. Myrcia neosuaveolens   is a rare species in Paraná, and known from only one collection.

Selected specimen: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Paranaguá, Hatschbach 9539 ( UPCB!)   .

Additional specimens: — BRAZIL. São Paulo: Pariquera-Açu, Ivanauskas 222 (ESA, MBM!). Sete Barras, Almeida-Scabbia 1401 ( MBM!); Sampaio 156 ( MBM!). Rio de Janeiro: Nova Friburgo, Peron 858 ( MBM!).

0. Myrcia oblongata De Candolle (1828: 251)   . Figure 31.

Shrubs or trees to 10 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, brown to hyaline, smaller than 0.1 to 0.3 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, sparsely to rarely densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2.3–5 × 1–1.6 mm, sulcate, with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 4.4–10 × 1.5–3 cm, discolorous when dry, oblong, apex acute to rounded, base slightly attenuate, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 17–26 at each side, 2–5 mm apart, one marginal vein 0.7–1.6 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 8–25 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young and mature, these exclusively on the midvein, midvein slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 50–130 × 0.6–1 mm, glabrous to rarely sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 0.7 mm, elliptic or triangular, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous to rarely persistent. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.8–1.2 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally very sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.5–1 × 1–2 mm, externally glabrous to rarely moderately covered with trichomes, internally densely to moderately; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 4–9 × 3.4–7 mm, globose to obovoid, black, glabrous or very sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent to rarely caducous.

Notes:—Distributed in Argentina and Brazil, from Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs predominantly in araucaria forest, but can also be found in grasslands or semideciduous forest. Collected with flowers from September to April and fruits from December to April. Myrcia oblongata   belongs to Myrcia sect. Eugeniopsis ( Santos et al. 2019b)   and can be recognized by the consistently oblong leaves, tertiary veins sparsely reticulated, and inflorescences glabrous or with sparse trichomes. Specimens of Myrcia oblongata   from Paraná have been identified in herbaria as its synonym Myrcia bombycina   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 66) Niedenzu (1893: 75).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Balsa Nova, Kummrow 2607 ( MBM!). Califórnia, Bonaldi 502 (MBM!, UPCB!). Canta Galo, Silva   8149 ( MBM!). Cascavel, Borges 137 ( HUEM!). Curiúva, Soares-Silva 615 ( FUEL!). Doutor Ulysses, Hatschbach 61476 (MBM!, UPCB!). Laranjeiras do Sul, Hatschbach 20600 ( MBM!). Mauá da Serra, Silva   8058 ( MBM!). Ortigueira, Bonaldi 8 ( MBM!). Ponta Grossa, Uejima s.n. (FUEL 10151!). Santa Helena, Hatschbach 40522 ( MBM!). Sapopema, Soares-Silva 579 ( FUEL!). Telêmaco Borba, Ariati 627 ( MBM!). Tibagi, Soares-Silva 455 ( FUEL!). Tuneiras do Oeste, Caxambu 4487 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia cf. obversa (D.Legrand) E.Lucas & C.E.Wilson   (in Lucas et al. 2016: 684). Figure 32.

Marlierea obversa D. Legrand (1962b: 28)   .

Trees to 12 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed to erect, pale yellow, 0.2–1 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 14–17.7 × 2.5–2.7 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with scattered trichomes when mature; blades 20.5–24.5 × 6.5–8.7 cm, discolorous when dry, narrow-elliptic, apex short acuminate, base acute, margins revolute to the base, secondary veins 17–20 at each side, 8.5–21.5 mm apart, one to three marginal veins, the first one 1.7–7.5, the second 0.7–2 and the third 0.5–0.8 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous or conspicuous, 3–4 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when mature, midvein flat to slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with scattered trichomes when mature, these denser near the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 70–120 × 1.5–2.3 mm, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts and bracteoles not seen. Floral buds not seen; hypanthium apparently prolonged beyond the ovary; calyx apparently closed, opening irregularly, not reflexed; floral disc apparently glabrous, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers not seen; ovary apparently 2-locular. Fruits 16–20 × 18–20 mm, globose, purple to black, glabrous, calyx remnants persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia to Rio de Janeiro. If confirmed, this species is here recorded from Paraná for the first time, corresponding to its southern limit (see comments below). In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest. Collected with fruits in July and October. Myrcia obversa   belongs to M. sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016). Only two poor materials with old fruits are known from Paraná and, in general, they seem to match M. obversa   (E. Lucas, pers. comm.). Younger and flowering materials are required to confirm the identification. These specimens have large and thickened decussate leaves, pale yellow trichomes on branches and inflorescences, large fruits, and irregular calyx lobes (apparently originated from a closed calyx tearing irregularly at anthesis), all characteristic to M. obversa   . Myrcia cf. obversa   is similar to Myrcia strigipes   , but differs from it by the calyx lobes internally pilose in the former species and glabrous in the latter.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 16698 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 22469 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia palustris De Candolle (1828: 246)   . Figure 33.

Gomidesia palustris (DC.) Kausel (1967: 348)   .

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 9 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed, hyaline to white, 0.2–1.2 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.7–2.5 × 0.7–1.2 mm, semiterete to sulcate, with dense trichomes when young, dense to moderate when mature; blades 2–5.7 × 0.6–2.5 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic to obovate, apex acute or rounded, base acute, margins flat, secondary veins 8–12 to rarely inconspicuous at each side, 2.4–6.4 mm apart, one marginal vein 0.7–1.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely to rarely densely reticulate or inconspicuous, gland dots inconspicuous to rarely conspicuous, 3 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 20–50 × 0.5–0.7 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 8 mm, narrow-elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1.7–3 mm, narrow-elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, persistent or caducous. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.6–1 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.4–1.4 × 1–1.7 mm, externally and internally densely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 2–3-locular. Fruits 3.2–4.7 × 3.4–5 mm, globose, reddish, moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed in Argentina and Brazil, from the states of Mato Grosso and Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, araucaria forest, grasslands, and semideciduous forest. Collected with flowers from October to July and fruits in September and from January to June. Myrcia palustris   belongs to Myrcia sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   . This species may resemble M. hartwegiana   (see comments under that species). When conspicuous, the gland dots may form a line along the margin of the leaf blade.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Agudos do Sul, Marinero 115 ( MBM!). Almirante Tamandaré, Hatschbach 3582 ( MBM!). Antonina, Silva 4328 ( MBM!). Arapongas, Ferreira Jr. 16 ( FUEL!). Campina Grande do Sul, Dunaiski Jr. 525 ( MBM!). Campo Largo, Hatschbach 40718 ( MBM!). Colombo, Carvalho 288 ( MBM!). Curitiba, Schimmelpfeng   s.n. (EFC 594!). Curiúva, Francisco s.n. (FUEL 24268!). Guaraqueçaba, Zakrzewski s.n. (UPCB 22920!). Guaratuba, Silva   303 ( MBM!). Imbituva, Kuniyoshi 5132 ( MBM!). Ipiranga, Hatschbach 31788 ( MBM!). Jaguariaíva, Linsingen 208 ( MBM!). Jardianópolis, Lindeman 3415 ( MBM!). Lapa, Hatschbach 18214 ( MBM!). Laranjeiras do Sul, Hatschbach 20607 ( MBM!). Luziana, Caxambu 3364 ( MBM!). Mamborê, Lindeman 5320 ( MBM!). Matinhos, Svolenski 527 ( EFC!). Morretes, Ribas 951 ( MBM!). Ortigueira, Michelon 1334 (EFC!, MBM!, RB!). Palmeira, Souza 51 (FUEL!, MBM!). Paranaguá, Silva   1524 (FUEL!, MBM!). Piên, Hatschbach 13469 (MBM!, UPCB!). Piraí do Sul, Hatschbach 12328 ( MBM!). Piraquara, Tramujas 463 (EFC!, MBM!). Ponta Grossa, Soares-Silva 689 ( FUEL!). Pontal do Paraná, Ferreira 130 ( MBM!). Porto Amazonas, Hatschbach 10801 (MBM!, UPCB!). Quatro Barras, Silva   895 ( MBM!). Reserva, Chagas e Silva   2195 ( FUEL!). São Jerônimo da Serra, Furtado 187 (MBM!, RB!). São José dos Pinhais, Hatschbach 12079 (MBM!, UPCB!). São Mateus do Sul, Gurgel 592 ( RB!). Sapopema, Chagas e Silva   2131 (EFC!, FUEL!). Teixeira Soares, Soares-Silva   694 ( FUEL!). Tijucas do Sul, Ribas 2279 (FUEL!, MBM!). União da Vitória, Koczicki 44 ( MBM!). Wenceslau Braz, Soares-Silva s.n. (FUEL 5902!).

. Myrcia pileata (D. Legrand 1962a: 199) A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas   (in Lucas et al. 2018: 80). Figure 34.

Calyptranthes pileata D.Legrand.  

Trees, treelets or shrubs to 12 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, yellowish, 0.1–0.4 mm. Young twigs quadrangular, not keeled, covered with very scattered trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 4.0–9.4 × 1.1–2.2 mm, sulcate, sparsely covered with trichomes when young, glabrous when mature; blades 3.6–7.4 × 1.6–3.1 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acuminate, base attenuate or acute, margins not revolute, secondary veins 10–18 at each side, 1.6–5.2 mm apart, one or two marginal veins, the first one 0.7– 2.6 and the second 0.3–0.6 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate and frequently inconspicuous, glands dots conspicuous, 1–13 per mm 2, homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface moderately covered with trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 19–69 × 0.7–1.3 mm, glabrous; bracts and bracteoles not seen. Floral buds turbinate, base not constricted; hypanthium 1.4–1.9 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally with scattered trichomes; calyx closed, opening in a calyptra; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 5.2–12.5 × 3.0– 6.9 mm, ellipsoid to globose, purple, glabrous, calyx remnants caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, araucaria forest and grasslands. Collected with flowers from December to February and fruits from July to October. It belongs to Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes ( Lourenço et al. 2018)   and can be recognized by the young twigs frequently quadrangular and longitudinally sulcate, and the turbinate floral buds with reddish apex. The state of Paraná is the northern limit of Myrcia pileata   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Morretes, Hatschbach 19758 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Cordeiro 1343 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Ariati 865 ( MBM!).

Additional specimens: — BRAZIL. Santa Catarina: Blumenau, Sobral 9526 ( MBM!). Mafra, Godoy 80 ( MBM!). Rancho Queimado, Reitz 9726 ( MBM!).

4. Myrcia plusiantha Kiaerskou (1893: 66)   . Figure 35.

Treelets or trees to 30 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed to erect, hyaline, yellowish or white, 0.2–0.5 mm. Young twigs flat to terete, not keeled, glabrous; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 12–20 × 2.4–3.4 mm, semiterete, with scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and mature; blades 13–20 × 5–9.5 cm, slightly discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex acute to acuminate, base acute, margins flat, secondary veins 20–24 at each side, 6–14.8 mm apart, two to rarely three marginal veins, the first one 2.8–4.5, the second 1–1.4 and the third 0.5 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 5–7 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes or glabrous when young and mature, trichomes denser near the midvein, midvein slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, scattered when mature, these denser near the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 70–110 × 1.5–3 mm, very sparsely covered with trichomes; bracts 1 mm, elliptic, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles not seen, caducous. Floral buds clavate, base not constricted to slightly constricted; hypanthium 1.3 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous or sparsely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.6–1 × 1–1.4 mm, externally very sparsely covered with trichomes, internally moderately; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 7.8–8.6 × 7.6–10 mm, globose, yellowish, glabrous to very sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx caducous to persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia to Paraná. In Paraná, it occurs predominantly in atlantic rainforest, but can also be found in araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from December to March and fruits from March to June. Myrcia plusiantha   belongs to Myrcia sect. Sympodiomyrcia ( Santos et al. 2018)   . Myrcia plusiantha   has sympodial branches, and large and glabrous leaves and petioles. Paraná is the southern limit of Mrycia plusiantha   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Bocaiúva do Sul, Hatschbach 52136 (MBM!, RB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 20947 ( MBM!). Colombo, Antonio 21 (FUEL!, HUEM!). Guaraqueçaba, Kuniyoshi 4844 (EFC!, MBM!, RB!). Quatro Barras, Hatschbach 26605 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia pubipetala Miquel (1846: 441)   . Figure 36.

Trees to rarely treelets to 15 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline, yellowish or white, 0.2–0.7 mm. Young twigs flat to terete to rarely quadrangular, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 7.5–13 × 1–1.8 mm, sulcate, with dense trichomes when young, moderate to scattered when mature; blades 4.5–22.5 × 2.2–10.7 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic to rarely rounded or ovate, apex slightly acuminate, base attenuate, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 15–18 at each side, 5–20 mm apart, one or two marginal veins, the first one 1–3.8 and the second 0.3–6 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to rarely slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate to scattered when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 75–150 × 1.2–2.5 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 3–5.2 mm, narrow-elliptic, moderately covered with trichomes, persistent or caducous; bracteoles 2–3.5 mm, narrow-elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds turbinate or globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 1.2–1.4 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 1–1.3 × 1.3–1.6 mm, internally and externally densely to moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc glabrous with trichomes only on the style base, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 3-locular. Fruits 7.8–17.5 × 5–15 mm, globose, reddish, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic and araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from December to April and fruits from March to November. Myrcia pubipetala   belongs to Myrcia sect. Reticulosae ( Fernandes et al. 2020)   . It is a quite distinctive species, with generally large elliptic leaves, always with reticulate venation and inconspicuous gland dots. Young branches, inflorescences and flowers are covered with hyaline, yellowish or whitish trichomes. Although easily differentiated from the other species, Myrcia pubipetala   presents several morphotypes along its whole distribution. Some of them are remarkable and may be considered divergent taxa (e.g., Hatschbach 43623, Völtz 1632), but still have some morphological overlapping with M. pubipetala   . In Paraná, the fruits are usually costate.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Silva   9662 ( MBM!). Antonina, Hatschbach 13542 ( MBM!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Lucas 152 ( HUEM!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 20955 (MBM!, UPCB!). Cerro Azul, Hatschbach 42742 ( MBM!). Doutor Ulysses, Hatschbach 66527 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Athayde 220 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 18644 (MBM!, UPCB!). Matinhos, Ziller 842 (EFC!, MBM!). Morretes, Hatschbach 56366 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Souza 1930 ( FUEL!). Pontal do Paraná, Ferreira 133 ( MBM!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   4338 ( MBM!).

6. Myrcia racemosa   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 88) Kiaerskou (1893: 72). Figure 37.

Treelets to trees to 7.5 m high. Trichomes simple, erect to rarely appressed, hyaline or white, 0.2–1.8 mm. Young twigs flat to rarely terete, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3–6.8 × 0.7–1 mm, semiterete, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate to scattered trichomes, rarely dense, when mature; blades 5.5–9.5 × 1.8–3.7 cm, slightly discolorous when dry, oblong, apex long acuminate, base acute, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 11–15 at each side, 3.3–10 mm apart, one or rarely two marginal veins, the first one 1.3–2.6 and the second 0.3–0.8 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous to rarely inconspicuous, 3–4 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, scattered when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to slightly raised; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 40–85 × 0.6–1 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 1.7–2.8 mm, linear or lanceolate, moderately covered with trichomes, caducous to rarely persistent; bracteoles 1–1.4 mm, linear or lanceolate, moderately covered with trichomes, caducous to rarely persistent. Floral buds turbinate, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.4–0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.6–1 × 0.6–1 mm, externally densely covered with trichomes, internally moderately; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 4.4–8 × 4.8–9 mm, globose, black, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Pernambuco to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers in September and from January to April and fruits from February to November. Myrcia racemosa   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   . This species is characterized by the elliptic leaves that remain green when dry, with long acuminate apices. Whitish to hyaline trichomes cover young branches, leaves, inflorescences, and fruits.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 29146 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Brotto 1565 (MBM!, RB!). Matinhos, Ribas 807 ( MBM!). Morretes, Silva   1639 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Ziller 687 (FUEL!, MBM!). Pontal do Paraná, Bonaldi 629 (EFC!, MBM!).

. Myrcia reitzii (D. Legrand 1961: 284) Mazine (2014: 98)   . Figure 38.

Marlierea reitzii D.Legrand.  

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 20 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, ferrugineous to brown, smaller than 0.1 to 0.4 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial, rarely sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 8–25 × 1–2 mm, sulcate, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 5.5–15.5 × 2.5–6.5 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic-oblong, elliptic-lanceolate or slightly ovate, apex acuminate to abruptly acuminate, base acute to attenuate, margins slightly revolute or flat, secondary veins 13–38 at each side, 1.6–6.8 mm apart, one or rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.3–2 and the second 0.4–1.5 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous or not, 3–8 per mm², homogeneous or heterogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes to glabrous when young and mature, trichomes denser on the midvein, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface with dense to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these occasionally denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 35–105 (–190) × 0.7–3 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 2.3–6.8 mm, lanceolate, moderately covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 0.2–2.2 mm, lanceolate to triangular or elliptic, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, caducous to rarely persistent. Floral buds clavate, base not constricted to slightly constricted; hypanthium 0.8–2 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely to moderately covered with trichomes; calyx slightly open with 4 small teeth in the apex, opening irregularly, not reflexed, externally and internally moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 9.6–17 × 10.5–18 mm, globose, reddish to dark, glabrous or sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx remnants persistent or not.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from São Paulo to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic and araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from October to March and fruits from January to July. Myrcia reitzii   belongs to Myrcia sect. Eugeniopsis ( Santos et al. 2019b)   . This species is similar to Myrcia eugeniopsoides   (see comments under that species). Some specimens from eastern Paraná (e.g. Barbosa   4592, Brotto 2434) have flowers with narrow hypanthia filled with a mass of tissue that looks like a beak at the fruit apex; this feature can also be seen in old flowers. Specimens from Paraná (e.g. Galvão 21, Tiepolo 751 and Barddal 42) previously identified as Marlierea racemosa ( Vellozo 1829: 213) Kiaerskou (1893: 51)   cannot be properly distinguished from Myrcia reitzii   and are treated here as part of this species.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Barbosa   4592 ( MBM!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Hatschbach 31025 (MBM!, UPCB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Brotto 1715 (EFC!, MBM!, RB!). Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 35507 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Silva   1287 ( MBM!). Matinhos, Völtz 831 ( EFC!). Morretes, Nicolack 117 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 10169 ( MBM!). Piraquara, Silva   2249 (FUEL!, MBM!). Pontal do Paraná, Bonaldi 611 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Hatschbach 52152 ( MBM!). Rio Branco do Sul, Hatschbach 41855 ( MBM!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   3358 (FUEL!, MBM!).

8. Myrcia retorta Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 322). Figure 39.

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 8 m high. Trichomes simple, erect to rarely appressed, golden or gray, 0.3–1 mm. Young twigs flat to rarely quadrangular, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete to rarely quadrangular; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2–4 × 1–1.5 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with dense trichomes when young, moderate when mature; blades 2.5–8 × 1.2–3.5 cm, slightly discolorous when dry, elliptic to rarely narrow-elliptic or elliptic-obovate, apex acute to slightly rounded, base acute to rounded, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 9–11 at each side, 3–6.5 mm apart, one marginal vein 1–2.3 mm from the margin, tertiary veins inconspicuous to rarely densely or sparsely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 5–10 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface with dense trichomes when young and mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 35–73 × 0.6–1.2 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 0.8–1.6 mm, elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds globose to obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium flat, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.8–1.5 × 1–2.2 mm, externally densely to sparsely covered with trichomes, internally densely to moderately; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 5.5–8.2 × 4.2–7.8 mm, ellipsoid to obovoid, black, purple or reddish, sparsely to moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in araucaria forest, grasslands and cerrado. Collected with flowers from September to December and fruits in September and from December to January. Myrcia retorta   belongs to Myrcia sect. Myrcia ( Santos et al. 2019a)   . This species may resemble Myrcia venulosa   , but it is distinguished by the floral disc completely pilose and 2-locular ovaries (vs. floral disc pilose only on the style base and 3-locular ovaries in M. venulosa   ). Specimens of Myrcia retorta   from Paraná have been identified in herbaria as its synonym Myrcia arborescens Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 322).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Balsa Nova, Lucas 142 ( MBM!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Ribas 5780 (FUEL!, MBM!). Campina Grande do Sul, Cordeiro 1392 (FUEL!, MBM!). Campo Largo, Ribeiro 10 ( EFC!). Carambeí, Engels 1877 ( MBM!). Castro, Dias   s.n. (FUEL 20573!). Colombo, Antonio 46 ( FUEL!). Inácio Martins, Martins 4 ( FUEL!). Jaguariaíva, Lima 87 ( UPCB!). Ortigueira, Caxambu 5606 ( HCF!). Piraí do Sul, Hatschbach 53575 (MBM!, UPCB!). Piraquara, Marinero 347 ( MBM!). Pitanga, Hatschbach 33489 (MBM!, UPCB!). Ponta Grossa, Hatschbach 17378 (MBM!, UPCB!). Quatro Barras, Lucas 187 ( HUEM!). Reserva, Francisco s.n. (FUEL 24625!, RB 437129 View Materials !). São José dos Pinhais, Hatschbach 20799 (MBM!, UPCB!). Tibagi, Lucas 179 ( HUEM!). Ventania, Francisco s.n. (MBM 257128!).

. Myrcia rupicola D. Legrand (1961: 289)   . Figure 40 View FIGURE 40 .

Shrubs, or rarely subshrubs, treelets or trees to 5 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed, hyaline, yellowish or white, 0.3–0.8 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2–4.8 × 0.6–1 mm, sulcate, with moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 2.5–6.5 × 0.8–2 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex slightly acuminate, base attenuate, margins revolute to the base, secondary veins 13–15 at each side, 1–4.8 mm apart, one marginal vein 0.5–0.7 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely to sparsely reticulate or inconspicuous, gland dots conspicuous, 2–7 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, midvein slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, scattered when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences a dichasium to rarely paniculiform, main axis 10–28 × 0.2–0.4 mm, moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 1–2 mm, elliptic, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1–1.4 mm, lanceolate, sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium flat, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 to rarely 4-lobes, 0.8–1.5 × 1–1.6 mm, externally and internally sparsely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 7.2–8.8 × 4.2–6.8 mm, ellipsoid, black, sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs predominantly in araucaria forest, but it can also be found in transitional areas between it and atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from October to January and fruits from December to February. Myrcia rupicola   probably belongs to Myrcia sect. Myrcia   . It is characterized by the inflorescences in a delicate dichasium. Most flowers have five calyx lobes, but some may eventually have four.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaratuba, Santos 355 (MBM!, UPCB!). Morretes, Dala Rosa   45 ( UPCB!). Piraquara, Ribas 5728 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Cordeiro 578 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Cordeiro 385 ( MBM!). Tijucas do Sul, Ribas 2220 ( MBM!).

40. Myrcia selloi ( Sprengel 1825: 482) N.Silveira   (in Mattos et al. 1986: 5). Figure 41.

Subshrubs, shrubs, treelets or trees to 7 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline to white, 0.1–1.3 mm.Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, subsessile or with petioles up to 0.7–4 × 0.4–1.4 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with moderate to scattered, rarely dense, trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 1.5–10.8 × 1–4.8 cm, concolorous to discolorous when dry, elliptic, narrow-elliptic or ovate to rarely lanceolate or obovate, apex acute to acuminate, base acute, rounded, subcordate or rounded-obtuse, margins flat to slightly revolute, secondary veins 8–20 at each side, 2.5–10 mm apart, one marginal vein 0.7–2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely to sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 4–13 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous, rarely with scattered trichomes when young, glabrous when mature, midvein flat to rarely sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered, rarely dense, trichomes when young, scattered to glabrous when mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 5–75 × 0.4–0.6 mm, sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous; bracts 0.5–3 mm, linear, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes to rarely glabrous, persistent or caducous; bracteoles 0.4–1.6 mm, linear, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes to rarely glabrous, caducous to persistent. Floral buds obovoid, base constricted; hypanthium 0.3–0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally glabrous to rarely moderately covered with trichomes; calyx open, reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.3–1.4 × 0.6–1.4 mm, externally and internally glabrous; floral disc glabrous or with very scattered trichomes, staminal ring glabrous to rarely sparsely covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 2.5–7 × 2.8–6.4 when immature mm, globose, reddish to black, glabrous to sparsely or rarely moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed in Bolivia, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay and Brazil, from the states of Maranhão, Piauí and Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in all vegetation types. Collected with flowers from April to February and fruits along the whole year. Myrcia selloi   belongs to Myrcia sect. Tomentosae ( Lannoy et al. 2019)   . It can be recognized by the flowers with a constriction below the ovary and the calyx lobes internally and externally glabrous, strongly reflexed at anthesis and with acute apices. The calyx is either persistent and star-shaped in the fruits or caducous, leaving a circular scar. According to Lannoy et al. (2019), Myrcia selloi   includes M. lajeana D. Legrand (1961: 291)   and M. laruotteana Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 311). Collections from western Paraná, growing in semideciduous forests, tend to have shorter petioles and leaves with rounded to subcordate bases. Young branches and leaves are frequently pinkish in dried materials.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Apucarana, Milaneze-Gutierre 1041 ( HUEM!). Arapongas, Soares- Silva   603 ( FUEL!). Arapoti, Hatschbach 18846 ( UPCB!). Araucária, Pacheco 22 ( EFC!). Barra do Chopim, Borgo 112 (MBM!, UPCB!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Hatschbach 43331 ( MBM!). Cambé, Lima 296 (MBM!, RB!, UPCB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 8351 ( UPCB!). Campo Mourão, Hatschbach 72330 ( MBM!). Capanema, Forzza 7387 ( RB!). Capitão Leônidas Marques, Silva   3037 ( MBM!). Carambeí, Engels 1892 ( MBM!). Cascavel, Cruz   172 ( FUEL!). Castro, Britez 2047 ( MBM!). Cerro Azul, Landrum 4085 ( MBM!). Céu Azul, Sobral 8578 (MBM!, UPCB!). Colombo, Ziller 1264 (EFC!, MBM!). Congonhinhas, Chagas e Silva   2001 ( FUEL!). Cornélio Procópio, Pavão s.n. (FUEL 28255!, UPCB 43449!). Cruzeiro do Iguaçu, Silva   3021 ( MBM!). Curitiba, Silva   405 ( MBM!). Curiúva, Pavão s.n. (FUEL 27467!). Dois Vizinhos, Siqueira s.n. (MBM 350124!). Farol, Martius s.n. (MBM 314283!). Figueira, Kozera 3450 ( MBM!). Foz do Iguaçu, Hatschbach 49574 ( MBM!). Guaíra, Pereira   7891 (MBM!, RB!). Guarapuava, Pedersen 10987 ( MBM!). Guaratuba, Silva   3277 (FUEL!, MBM!). Ibiporã, Soares-Silva 371 ( FUEL!). Itaperuçu, Cordeiro 1261 ( MBM!). Jaboti, Hatschbach 59416 ( MBM!). Jacarezinho, Carneiro 1536 ( MBM!). Jaguariaíva, Lindeman 3068 (MBM!, RB!). Jataizinho, Soares-Silva 650 ( FUEL!). Jundiaí do Sul, Carneiro 714 ( MBM!). Laranjeiras do Sul, Hatschbach 19827 ( MBM!). Leópolis, Chagas e Silva   1940 ( FUEL!). Londrina, Soares-Silva 372 ( FUEL!). Mandirituba, Landrum 4303 ( RB!). Matelândia, Caxambu 7084 ( HCF!). Mato Rico, Caxambu 7914 ( HCF!). Nova Aurora, 212 ( HCF!). Ortigueira, Siqueira 1213 ( HCF!). Palmas, Hatschbach 30753 ( MBM!). Piên, Cordeiro 2385 ( MBM!). Pinhão, Jurandir s.n. (MBM 364494!). Piraí do Sul, Lozano 1947 ( MBM!). Piraquara, Vicentini 99 (EFC!, MBM!). Ponta Grossa, Cervi 5961 (FUEL!, UPCB!). Pontal do Paraná, Caxambu 4322 (HCF!, MBM!). Porto Amazonas, Hatschbach 10250 (MBM!, UPCB!). Porto Rico, Romagnolo 635 ( UPCB!). Rancho Alegre, Soares-Silva 641 ( FUEL!). Santa Cecília, Ribeiro 219 ( EFC!). Santa Fé, Silva   641 ( MBM!). Santa Mônica, Bidá   546 ( UPCB!). Santa Tereza do Oeste, Caxambu 6948 ( HCF!). São Jerônimo da Serra, Soares-Silva 451 ( FUEL!). São João do Triunfo, Hatschbach 17727 ( MBM!). São José da Boa Vista, Hatschbach 67122 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Lucas 154 ( MBM!). São Mateus do Sul, Britez 1236 ( MBM!). São Miguel do Iguaçu, Buttura 675 ( MBM!). Sapopema, Medri 355 ( FUEL!). Tamarana, Dias   322 ( FUEL!). Telêmaco Borba, Marinero 386 ( MBM!). Terra Rica, Cristine s.n. (HUEM 29211!). Tibagi, Colli s.n. (FUEL 7806!). Tijucas do Sul, Hatschbach 3402 ( MBM!). Tomazina, Lindeman 3135 ( MBM!). Três Barras do Paraná, Borgo 117 ( UPCB!). Tuneiras do Oeste, Siqueira 932 (FUEL!, MBM!). Ventania, Estevan 825 (FUEL!, MBM!).

4. Myrcia spectabilis De Candolle (1828: 248)   . Figure 42.

Gomidesia spectabilis (DC.) O. Berg (1855   –1856: 7).

Treelets, trees or rarely shrubs to 8 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline to yellowish, farinaceous or 0.2–1.3 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 4–9 × 2–3 mm, sulcate, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 11–28.5 × 3.6–9 cm, discolorous when dry, narrow-elliptic, apex acute to acuminate, base attenuate, margins revolute to the base, secondary veins 16–28 at each side, 4.2–16.68 mm apart, two marginal veins, the first one 2–4 and the second 0.3–1.3 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 4–5 per mm², homogeneous or heterogeneous; adaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the secondary and midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 30–90 × 1.3–3 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts 2–7 mm, lanceolate to rarely ovate, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, persistent or caducous; bracteoles 0.4–2.6 mm, elliptic to lanceolate, densely covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 1.2– 1.6 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.8–1.5 × 2–2.3 mm, externally densely covered with trichomes, internally moderately; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 2–3-locular. Fruits 8–15 × 7.7–15 mm, globose, yellowish, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Alagoas and Goiás to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs only in atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from November to April and fruits from March to September. Myrcia spectabilis   belongs to Myrcia sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   and can be recognized by the long leaves covered with trichomes that have a farinaceous aspect. Young branches, petioles, inflorescences, and fruits are somewhat wrinkled when dry.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Hatschbach 13550 (MBM!, UPCB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 9852 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaraqueçaba, Gatti 199 ( UPCB!). Matinhos, Roderjan 609 ( EFC!). Morretes, Kuniyoshi 4959 ( EFC!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 9870 ( UPCB!).

Additional specimen: — BRAZIL. Santa Catarina: Itapoá, Völtz 140 ( EFC!)   .

4. Myrcia splendens ( Swartz 1788: 79) De Candolle (1828: 244)   . Figure 43.

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 20 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed to erect, hyaline, yellowish, white, golden or gray, 0.1–0.8 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat, terete or slightly quadrangular; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.2–13.0 × 0.4–3 mm, sulcate, with dense to moderate trichomes when young and mature; blades 1.5–16.6 × 0.4–4 cm, discolorous to rarely concolorous when dry, lanceolate or ovate, apex acuminate, short acuminate or long acuminate, base acute to slightly attenuate or rounded, margins flat or revolute, secondary veins inconspicuous or 19–35 at each side, inconspicuous or 0.5–7.5 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.3–1.5 and the second 0.3–0.4 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 17 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to raised; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, dense to scattered when mature, these occasionally denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform to rarely racemiform, main axis 13–120 × 0.5–1.8 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 2.2–8.5 mm, elliptic to lanceolate, densely to sparsely covered with trichomes, persistent; bracteoles 1–2.2 mm, elliptic to narrow-elliptic or lanceolate, densely to sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous or persistent. Floral buds obovoid to globose, base not constricted; hypanthium flat, externally densely to moderately covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.4–1.5 × 0.6–2.2 mm, externally densely to sparsely covered with trichomes, internally densely to glabrous; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 5.2–12 × 3.7–11 mm, ellipsoid, purple or black, densely to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed from Mexico and the Caribbean Islands to Argentina; in Brazil, it occurs throughout the whole country. In Paraná, it occurs in all vegetation types. Collected with flowers from May to March and fruits from October to June. Myrcia splendens   belongs to Myrcia sect. Myrcia ( Lucas et al. 2011)   . Myrcia splendens   has several different morphotypes along its distribution ( Flora do Brasil 2020). In Paraná, this species can be usually recognized by the small lanceolate or ovate leaves covered with whitish to hyaline trichomes. In Paraná, Myrcia splendens   have been widely identified in herbaria as its synonyms Myrcia fallax ( Richard 1792: 110) De Candolle (1828: 244)   , M. rostrata De Candolle (1828: 255)   and M. rufula Miquel (1846: 440)   . Specimens identified as M. rufula   (e.g., Hatschbach 50812 and Kuniyoshi 4769) occur mainly around the municipality of Bocaiúva do Sul and have thicker leaves and inflorescences, darker trichomes, and costate, densely pilose fruits. Myrcia splendens   may resemble M. undulata   , but differs from it by the simple trichomes (vs. dibrachiate in M. undulata   ), and leaves lanceolate to ovate, with apices never abruptly acuminate (vs. elliptic, with apices always abruptly acuminate).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Brotto 1778 ( MBM!). Altônia, Ziller 938 ( MBM!). Amaporã, Goetzke 192 (MBM!, UPCB!). Antonina, Silva 192 (MBM!, RB!). Arapoti, Motta 1743 ( MBM!). Araucária, Gatti 149 ( UPCB!). Balsa Nova, Hatschbach 9550 (MBM!, UPCB!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Cordeiro 1027 ( MBM!). Campina Grande do Sul, Paciornik 332 ( MBM!). Campo Largo, Hatschbach 7490 ( UPCB!). Campo Mourão, Januzzi 160 (HUEM!, MBM!). Castro, Hatschbach 3220 ( MBM!). Cerro Azul, Brotto 1487 (MBM!, RB!). Cianorte, Hatschbach 14276 (MBM!, UPCB!). Colombo, Kummrow 1004 ( MBM!). Colorado, Rigon 299 ( RB!). Cruzeiro do Oeste, Braga 7035 ( MBM!). Curitiba, Fendrich   5 ( MBM!). Curiúva, Francisco s.n. (FUEL 27468!). Diamante do Norte, Landgraf 41 ( HUEM!). Douradina, Braga 103 (MBM!, UPCB!). Doutor Ulysses, Bona 1109 ( RB!). Fazenda Rio Grande, Girardi s.n. (MBM 349811!). Guaíra, Buttura 289 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Isernhagen 211 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Santos 715 (UPCB!, RB!). Imbituva, Kuniyoshi 5121 (EFC!, MBM!). Ipiranga, Hatschbach 25879 ( MBM!). Irati, Carvalho s.n. ( MBM 25160 View Materials !). Itaperuçu, Cordeiro 1265 (MBM!, RB!). Jaguariaíva, Cervi 3520 (MBM!, UPCB!). Lapa, Cordeiro 493 (MBM!, UPCB!). Mandirituba, Landrum 3895 ( MBM!). Maringá, Martins s.n. (UPCB 13300!). Matinhos, Roderjan 742 ( EFC!). Morretes, Silva   6113 (FUEL!, MBM!). Ortigueira, Ferreira s.n. (FUEL 24281!). Palmeira, Hatschbach 44456 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Kuniyoshi 5704 ( EFC!). Paranavaí, Romagnolo 3046 ( HUEM!). Piraí do Sul, Hatschbach 8683 (MBM!, UPCB!). Piraquara, Hatschbach 64002 ( MBM!). Ponta Grossa, Pereira   8113 (MBM!, RB!). Porto Amazonas, Kummrow 3033 ( MBM!). Porto Rico, Vieira 403 ( FUEL!). Presidente Castelo Branco, Romagnolo 3278 ( HUEM!). Quatro Barras, Kuniyoshi 5441 (EFC!, MBM!). Querência do Norte, Amancio 191 ( MBM!). Quitandinha, Hatschbach 29358 ( MBM!). Reserva, Kinupp 86 (FUEL!, UPCB!). Rio Branco do Sul, Lima 340 ( RB!, UPCB!). Sabáudia, Borges Júnior s.n. (MBM 391521!). São Jerônimo da Serra, Medri 910 (FUEL!, UPCB!). São João do Triunfo, Hatschbach 17771 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Hatschbach 7653 ( MBM!). São Mateus do Sul, Britez 1162 ( MBM!). Sapopema, Medri 537 (FUEL!, MBM!). Sengés, Hatschbach 5334 ( MBM!). Teixeira Soares, Soares-Silva   s.n. (FUEL 20699!). Telêmaco Borba, Adenesky-Filho 78 ( MBM!). Tibagi, Mourão 312 ( HUEM!). Tijucas do Sul, Barbosa   808 ( MBM!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   3228 (MBM!, RB!). Tuneiras do Oeste, Caxambu 277 (HCF!, MBM!). União da Vitória, Jenhevski s.n. (MBM 388997!). Ventania, Estevan 674 (MBM!, FUEL!).

4. Myrcia squamata (Mattos & D. Legrand 1975: 14) Mattos (2008: 4)   . Figure 44 View FIGURE 44 .

Gomidesia squamata Mattos & D. Legrand.  

Shrubs or treelets to 3 m high. Trichomes simple, appressed to rarely erect, yellowish, 0.4–1.3 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.4–3.5 × 1–7 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with dense trichomes when young, dense to moderate when mature; blades 4–9.5 × 2–4 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic to rarely obovate, apex slightly acuminate to acute, base acute or attenuate, margins revolute to the base, secondary veins 9–17 at each side, 3.2–9 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 1–1.6 and the second 0.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 4–14 per mm², homogeneous or heterogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, scattered when mature, these denser on the marginal and midveins. Inflorescences a dichasium, main axis 17–30 × 0.7–1.3 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts 4.8 mm, elliptic, moderately covered with trichomes, persistent; bracteoles 3.2–6.6 mm, elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, persistent or caducous. Floral buds between globose and turbinated, base not constricted; hypanthium 1.3–1.7 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.8–1 × 1.3–2.2 mm, externally densely covered with trichomes, internally glabrous; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 7.4–13 × 8.5–14 when immature mm, globose, purple, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in araucaria forest and atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from February to March and fruits in April, December and from July to September. Myrcia squamata   belongs to Myrcia sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   . Myrcia squamata   and M. flagellaris   are the only species of M. sect. Gomidesia   in Paraná with dichasia (see comments under that species).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Campina Grande do Sul, Völtz 926 (EFC!, MBM!). Guaratuba, Ribas 1373 ( MBM!). Morretes, Lindeman 5698 ( MBM!). Piraquara, Reginato 203 (MBM!, UPCB!). Quatro Barras, Hatschbach 16222 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Silva   2276 ( MBM!).

44. Myrcia strigipes Martius (1841: 108)   . Figure 45.

= Marlierea tomentosa Cambessèdes (1833: 373)   .

Trees to 5 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline to yellowish, 0.3–1.4 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat or terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 7–23 × 2.2–4 mm, terete to semiterete, with dense trichomes when young, moderate to glabrescent when mature; blades 17–38 × 6.2–17.5 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic or narrow-elliptic, apex slightly acuminate, base acute to rarely rounded or obtuse, margins flat to slightly revolute, secondary veins 13–21 at each side, 6.7–24 mm apart, one or two to rarely three marginal veins, the first one 2.8–10.5, the second 0.8–3.8 and the third 0.4–1 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous or conspicuous, 2–5 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young, very scattered to glabrous when mature, midvein flat; abaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young and mature, these denser on the secondary and midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 90–215 × 1–2.4 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts and bracteoles not seen. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 1–1.5 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx closed, opening irregularly, not reflexed, externally densely covered with trichomes, internally glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 10–10.3 (–23.7) × 12.6–14 (–27) mm, globose, reddish or black, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx remnants persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest. Collected with flowers from March to September and fruits in March, July, October and November. Myrcia strigipes   belongs to Myrcia sect. Aulomyrcia ( Lucas et al. 2016)   . Specimens of Myrcia strigipes   have been widely identified as its synonym Marlierea tomentosa Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 373). Myrcia strigipes   has long leaves and inflorescences covered with pale yellow trichomes. Individuals with less pubescence on the branches can be similar to Myrcia cf. obversa   , but they differ from it by the calyx lobes internally glabrous (vs. pilose in Myrcia cf. obversa   ) and fruits generally smaller.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná:Antonina, Lima 73 ( UPCB!). Guaraqueçaba, Gatti 240 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 52770 (MBM!, UPCB!). Matinhos, Svolenski 522 ( EFC!). Morretes, Brotto 2462 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Kozera 1480 ( UPCB!). Pontal do Paraná, Siqueira 529 (HCF!, MBM!).

4. Myrcia strigosa A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas   (in Lourenço et al. 2018: 82). Figure 46 View FIGURE 46 .

Calyptranthes strigipes O.Berg (1859: 540)   .

Trees or treelets to 15 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, golden, 0.1–2.4 mm. Young twigs terete, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 4.8–11.8 × 1.5–2.4 mm, semiterete, densely covered with trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 6.4–15.8 × 2.1–5.1 cm, concolorous when dry, narrow-elliptic, apex acute, base acute, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 11–42 at each side, 1.0– 9.4 mm apart, two marginal veins, the first one 1.6–5.0 and the second 0.2–1.5 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, glands dots inconspicuous; adaxial surface glabrous or nearly so when young and mature, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface densely covered with trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 37–92 × 1.4–2.7 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts 4.7–6.1 mm long, lanceolate, densely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1.8–3.5 mm long, lanceolate, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.8–0.9 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx closed, opening in a calyptra; floral disc moderately covered with trichomes, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 4.1–8.1 × 5.1–8.7 mm, subglobose to globose, red, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx remnants caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it is found only in atlantic rainforest, especially in riparian forest and submontane vegetation. Collected with flowers in December and January and fruits from June to September. It belongs to Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes ( Lourenço et al. 2018)   . Myrcia strigosa   can be recognized by the dense, golden indument composed of two types of trichomes: long and straight (these more scattered) and short and somewhat curly (these denser).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Hatschbach 41780 (MBM); Cerro Azul, Maschio 250 (HUEM); Curitiba, Marino-Neto   94 (MBM); Guaraqueçaba, Hatschbach 16492 (MBM); Guaratuba, Hatschbach 16739 (MBM); Morretes, Hatschbach 20886 (MBM!, RB!, UPCB!).

46. Myrcia subcordata De Candolle (1828: 253)   . Figure 47.

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 7 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline, yellowish or orangish to rarely white, 0.1–1 mm. Young twigs flat to terete to rarely quadrangular, not keeled, densely to sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1.7–8 × 1–3.5 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with dense to scattered trichomes when young, moderate to glabrescent when mature; blades 2.6–9 × 1–4.5 cm, concolorous to slightly discolorous when dry, elliptic to elliptic-obovate or narrow-elliptic, apex acute to rounded to rarely acuminate, base acute, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 13–17 at each side, 2–7.8 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.5–4.3 and the second 0.7–1 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 5–22 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate trichomes, rarely glabrous, when young, scattered to glabrous when mature, midvein flat to slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate to glabrous when mature, these denser on the margin or midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 15–110 × 1–1.6 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 0.6–1.3 mm, large elliptic to linear, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds turbinate, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.8–1.5 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally moderately covered with trichomes to glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.6–1 × 0.7–1.3 mm, externally densely to sparsely covered with trichomes, internally densely to moderately; floral disc entirely glabrous to rarely with trichomes only on the style base, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 11.6–14.3 × 11.2–15.5 mm, globose, purple, reddish or yellowish, glabrous, calyx caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Goiás and Minas Gerais to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in araucaria forest, grasslands, cerrado, and less frequently in atlantic forest. Collected with flowers from October to February and fruits along the whole year. It belongs to Myrcia sect. Sympodiomyrcia ( Santos et al. 2018)   . Myrcia subcordata   was until recently being treated as Myrcia pulchra   in Paraná and other states ( Santos et al. 2016b). This species has quite variable leaves, but can be characterized by the sympodial and not keeled branches, and fruits with persistent hypanthium and caducous calyx lobes.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Antonina, Völtz 129 ( EFC!). Balsa Nova, Meyer 592 ( UPCB!). Boa Ventura de São Roque, Jenhevski s.n. (MBM 394493!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Ribas 6768 ( MBM!). Campo Largo, Hatschbach 17976 (FUEL!, MBM!, UPCB!). Castro, Hatschbach 12117 ( MBM!). Colombo, Maschio 248 (FUEL!, HUEM!). Curiúva, Cavalheiro s.n. (FUEL 23855!). Guaratuba, Kummrow 2005 ( RB!). Jaguariaíva, Ribas 8556 (FUEL!, MBM!, RB!). Lapa, May 542 ( MBM!). Morretes, Dala Rosa   147 ( UPCB!). Ortigueira, Silva   6479 ( MBM!). Palmeira, Dombrowski 14222 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Ribas 4340 ( MBM!). Piraí do Sul, Chagas e Silva   2015 ( FUEL!). Piraquara, Ribas 5889 (MBM!, RB!). Ponta Grossa, Ribas 2302 (FUEL!, MBM!). Porto Amazonas, Gurgel 15066 ( RB!). Quatro Barras, Cordeiro 999 ( MBM!). Reserva, Ferreira s.n. (FUEL 24619!). Rio Branco do Sul, Hatschbach 35688 (MBM!, UPCB!). São Jerônimo da Serra, Cavalheiro 33 ( FUEL!). São José dos Pinhais, Lucas 113 ( MBM!). Sapopema, Soares-Silva 432 ( FUEL!). Telêmaco Borba, Vieira 354 ( FUEL!). Tibagi, Lucas 173 ( HUEM!). Tijucas do Sul, Silva   2812 (MBM!, RB!). Ventania, Cavalheiro 47 ( FUEL!).

4. Myrcia tenuivenosa Kiaerskou (1893: 84)   . Figure 48 View FIGURE 48 .

Trees to 10 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, erect, ferrugineous to brown, smaller than 0.1 to 0.5 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 2.7–6 × 0.8–1.2 mm, sulcate, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate to rarely scattered when mature; blades 5.7–10.5 × 2–4 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic to rarely slightly ovate, apex acuminate, base acute, margins slightly revolute, secondary veins 20–35 at each side, 1.4–3.8 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.4–1.4 and the second 0.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 3–12 per mm², heterogeneous to rarely homogeneous; adaxial surface glabrous when young and mature, rarely with scattered trichomes when young, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate to rarely scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 25–113 × 0.5–1.2 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 0.6–0.8 mm, lanceolate, moderately covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 0.4 mm, lanceolate, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds clavate to rarely obovoid, base slightly constricted; hypanthium 0.4–0.7 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.2–0.5 × 0.3–0.7 mm, externally and internally glabrous; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring sparsely covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 3.7–5.4 × 3.2–6.4 mm, globose, reddish, glabrous to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Minas Gerais and Espírito Santo to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest and transition areas between this and araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from September to January and fruits in December and March. Myrcia tenuivenosa   belongs to Myrcia sect. Eugeniopsis ( Santos et al. 2019b)   . This species has elliptic leaves with acuminate apices and many secondary veins.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Ziller 658 (FUEL!, MBM!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 9469 (MBM!, UPCB!). Paranaguá, Brotto 1346 ( HCF!). Piraquara, Lacerda 245 ( UPCB!). Tunas do Paraná, Silva   2193 ( RB!).

48. Myrcia tijucensis Kiaerskou (1893: 102)   . Figure 49.

Gomidesia tijucensis (Kiaersk.) D. Legrand (1958: 23)   .

Treelets or trees to 18 m high. Trichomes simple to rarely dibrachiate, appressed, yellowish to rarely white or hyaline, 0.2–1 mm. Young twigs flat to rarely quadrangular, not keeled, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3.7–8.7 × 0.7–1.5 mm, sulcate, with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate to scattered when mature; blades 5.3–12.5 × 2–4.6 cm, concolorous slightly discolorous when dry, elliptic to rarely oblong, apex abruptly long acuminate, base acute to attenuate, margins flat to slightly revolute, secondary veins 17–24 at each side, 2.6–7.5 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.6–2.3 and the second 0.3 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely to rarely sparsely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 3–7 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to very scattered trichomes when young and when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein sulcate or slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, scattered when mature.Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 18–65 × 0.6–0.8 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 7.5 mm, elliptic, sparsely covered with trichomes, persistent; bracteoles not seen. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.3–0.6 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.5–1 × 0.8–1.7 mm, externally and internally moderately covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetric; ovary 2- locular. Fruits 12.5–16 × 10–14.3 mm, obovoid to globose, black, sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed in Bahia and from Rio de Janeiro to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic and seldom in araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from December to March and fruits in April and from August to September. Myrcia tijucensis   belongs to Myrcia sect. Gomidesia ( Amorim et al. 2019)   . This is the only species of Myrcia sect. Gomidesia   in Paraná with an abruptly and long acuminate leaf apex.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Adrianópolis, Isernhagen 371 ( UPCB!). Antonina, Hatschbach 18489 (FUEL!, MBM!). Balsa Nova, Hatschbach 42664 (MBM!, RB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 20960 ( MBM!). Guaraqueçaba, Soares   105 (HUEM!, MBM!). Morretes, Hatschbach 20879 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Hatschbach 16375 ( MBM!). Tijucas do Sul, Hatschbach 40186 ( MBM!).

4. Myrcia tomentosa ( Aublet 1775: 504) De Candolle (1828: 245)   . Figure 50.

Treelets or trees to 5 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline, yellowish, white or gray, 0.2–1.8 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 6–14 × 0.8–2 mm, sulcate to semiterete, with dense trichomes when young, dense to moderate when mature; blades 6–10 × 4–7 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic to wide-elliptic or obovate, apex acute to acuminate, base acute to rarely rounded, margins flat, secondary veins 7–10 at each side, 6.6–22 mm apart, two marginal veins, the first one 2.3–6.8 and the second 1–1.5 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to conspicuous, 7 per mm², homogeneous or heterogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, moderate to scattered when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat; abaxial surface with dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate when mature, these denser on the secondary and midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 25–90 × 0.6–1.5 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts 4.2–14.7 mm, elliptic lanceolate, densely to moderately covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1.6–2.3 mm, linear, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds turbinate, base constricted; hypanthium 0.4–0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, reflexed, 5 lobes, 1.3–1.6 × 1 mm, externally densely covered with trichomes, internally moderately to glabrous; floral disc glabrous with very few trichomes only on the style base, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 4.7–7 × 5.8–8 mm, globose, yellowish, moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Distributed from Panama, Colombia, Venezuela, Trinidad and Tobago and Guianas to Brazil, throughout the country. In Paraná, it occurs in araucaria forest, grasslands, cerrado and semideciduous forest. Collected with flowers from September to January and from May to June and fruits from October to January. Myrcia tomentosa   belongs to Myrcia sect. Tomentosae ( Lannoy et al. 2019)   . As well as Myrcia selloi   , M. tomentosa   has a constricted ovary and strongly reflexed calyx lobes, but the whole plant is more pilose, and the leaves are usually larger and wider than those of Myrcia selloi   . The state is the southern limit of Myrcia tomentosa   .

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná:Apucarana, Fontana s.n. (FUEL 53733!). Itaperuçu, Silva   3720 (MBM!, RB!). Jaguariaíva, Hatschbach 12202 ( MBM!). Rio Branco do Sul, Hatschbach 19191 (FUEL!, MBM!, UPCB!). São Jerônimo da Serra, Ferreira s.n. (FUEL 31774!). Sengés, Lozano 2109 ( MBM!). Tibagi, Lucas 180 ( HUEM!). Ventania, Estevan 875 (FUEL!, MBM!). Wenceslau Braz, Ruas s.n. (FUEL 5894!).

0. Myrcia trichantha ( Wawra 1879: 215) Sobral (2017: 199)   . Figure 51.

= Gomidesia fenzliana O. Berg (1857: 20)   ; = Myrcia ilheosensis Kiaerskou (1893: 109)  

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 6 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline or white to rarely brown, 0.2–0.6 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely to rarely moderately covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3.4–5.7 × 1.6–3 mm, semiterete, with dense trichomes when young, dense to moderate when mature; blades 4.2–11 × 3.3–6.5 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic or wide-elliptic, apex rounded, base rounded to attenuate, margins slightly revolute to flat, secondary veins 10–14 at each side, 4.2–13 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 1.4–3.6 and the second 0.6–1.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots inconspicuous to rarely conspicuous, 3–4 per mm², homogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat to rarely slightly sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 55–150 × 0.8–1.8 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts 2.7–5 mm, elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, persistent; bracteoles 1–2.2 mm, elliptic to rarely narrow-elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, persistent. Floral buds globose, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.5–0.7 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.7–1.3 × 1–2 mm, externally and internally densely covered with trichomes; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae asymmetrical; ovary 2–3-locular. Fruits 2.6–6.2 × 4–6.6 mm, globose, reddish, blue or black, moderately covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs in atlantic rainforest, but can also be found in transitional areas between this vegetation and araucaria forest. Collected with flowers from January to May and fruits in January and from April to August. Myrcia trichantha   belongs to Myrcia sect. Gomidesia   ( Amorim et al. 2019, Sobral 2017). Myrcia ilheosensis Kiaerskou (1893: 109)   was recently synonymized under M. trichantha ( Sobral 2017)   , but several specimens from Paraná and other states still remain determined as Myrcia ilheosensis   in herbaria. Its fruits are usually costate when young. This species is similar to M. freyreissiana   (see comments under that species).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Guaraqueçaba, Souza s.n. (UPCB 43448!). Guaratuba, Hatschbach 9786 (MBM!, UPCB!). Matinhos, Hatschbach 1865 ( MBM!). Paranaguá, Silva   s.n. (UPCB 32099!). Pontal do Paraná, Labiak 3153 ( UPCB!).

. Myrcia tricona (D. Legrand) A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas   (in Lourenço et al. 2018: 82). Figure 52.

Calyptranthes tricona D. Legrand (1962a: 204)   .

Trees or treelets to 10 m high. Trichomes dibrachiate, appressed, yellowish to brown or rarely gray, 0.4–1.5 mm. Young twigs terete, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs terete; branching sympodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 3.7–8.0 × 0.8–1.3 mm, sulcate, densely covered with trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature; blades 4.4–8.3 × 1.7–3.4 cm, discolorous when dry, narrow-elliptic, apex acuminate, base acute, rarely attenuate, margins not revolute or rarely so, secondary veins 12–20 at each side, 1.4–6.9 mm apart, two or three marginal veins, the first one 0.8–1.9, the second 0.1–0.5 and the third 0.1–0.2 mm from the margin, tertiary veins sparsely reticulate, glands dots frequently inconspicuous, when conspicuous, 14–39 per mm 2, homogeneous; adaxial surface sparsely covered with trichomes when young, these denser on the midvein, glabrous when mature, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface densely to moderately covered with trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature. Inflorescences dichasium, main axis 16–46 × 0.7–1.2 mm, densely covered with trichomes; bracts not seen; bracteoles 2.9–3.2 mm long, lanceolate, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds ovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx closed, opening in a calyptra; floral disc entirely glabrous, staminal ring glabrous; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 8.3–12.0 × 7.6–13.9 mm, globose, purplish to black, glabrescent, calyx remnants caducous.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed in Minas Gerais and from Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs only in semideciduous forest. Collected with flowers in November and fruits in April and June. Myrcia tricona   belongs to Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes ( Lourenço et al. 2018)   . It can be recognized by the yellowish trichomes longer than 1 mm covering the leaves, young branches and reproductive structures. This is the only species of Myrcia sect. Calyptranthes   registered in Paraná with dichasial inflorescences.

Selected specimen: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Cambé, Kinupp 401A ( FUEL!)   .

Additional specimens: — BRAZIL. Rio Grande do Sul: Derrubadas, Cordeiro 3414 ( MBM!). Santa Catarina: Itajaí, Klein 2049 ( MBM!); Rio do Campo, Sobral 8409 ( MBM!).

. Myrcia undulata O. Berg (1857   –1859: 185). Figure 53.

Treelets or trees to 16 m high. Trichomes simple or dibrachiate, appressed, hyaline to white, 0.2–0.6 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat to terete; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 4.6–9 × 0.7–1.4 mm, sulcate, with dense trichomes when young, moderate when mature; blades 6.3–13.5 × 1.5–3.7 cm, discolorous when dry, elliptic, apex long and abruptly acuminate, base acute, margins revolute, secondary veins 12–22 at each side, 3–7.3 mm apart, one or rarely two marginal veins, the first one 1.2–2.7 and the second 0.2–0.5 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 3–5 per mm², heterogeneous; adaxial surface with scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, midvein sulcate; abaxial surface with moderate trichomes when young, scattered when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 26–95 × 0.2–0.7 mm, moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 1–2 mm, linear, densely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 0.7 mm, linear or elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds obovoid, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.2 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.7–1.3 × 0.8–1.4 mm, externally moderately covered with trichomes, internally densely; floral disc entirely pilose, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 2-locular. Fruits 5.5–16 × 4.2–10 mm, ellipsoid, purple or reddish, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed in Minas Gerais and from Paraná to Rio Grande do Sul. In Paraná, it occurs predominantly in araucaria forest. Collected with flowers in May and from December to January and fruits from August to November. Myrcia undulata   belongs to Myrcia sect. Myrcia ( Santos et al. 2019a)   . Specimens from Paraná have been widely identified in herbaria as the synonym Myrcia sosias D.Legrand   (in Legrand & Klein 1969: 244). This species may resemble Myrcia splendens   (see comments under that species). Myrcia undulata   always has elliptic leaves with long, abruptly acuminate apices. In dried material, the leaf margins are somewhat repand.

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Balsa Nova, Hatschbach 25953 (MBM!, UPCB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 18187 (MBM!, UPCB!). Colombo, Hatschbach 9692 (MBM!, UPCB!). Guaratuba, Kuniyoshi 31 ( MBM!). Piraquara, Silva   1597 ( MBM!). Quatro Barras, Lucas 184 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Silva   3975 ( FUEL!). Tijucas do Sul, Ribas 409 (MBM!, UPCB!). União da Vitória, Jenhevski s.n. (MBM 388998!).

. Myrcia venulosa De Candolle (1828: 250)   . Figure 54.

Shrubs, treelets or trees to 6 m high. Trichomes simple, erect, hyaline, yellowish, ferrugineous or golden, 0.1–0.7 mm. Young twigs flat, not keeled, densely covered with trichomes; mature twigs flat; branching monopodial. Leaves opposite, with petioles 1–4.4 × 0.6–1.6 mm, semiterete, with dense trichomes when young, with dense to moderate trichomes when mature; blades 2–8.5 × 1–3.5 cm, discolorous when dry, narrow-elliptic to elliptic-obovate, apex acute to rounded, base acute to rounded, margins revolute, secondary veins 11–17 at each side, 1.5–7.4 mm apart, one to rarely two marginal veins, the first one 0.3–1.4 and the second 0.2–0.5 mm from the margin, tertiary veins densely reticulate, gland dots conspicuous, 2–7 per mm², heterogeneous; adaxial surface with moderate to scattered trichomes when young, glabrescent when mature, these denser on the midvein, midvein flat; abaxial surface dense to moderate trichomes when young, moderate when mature, these denser on the midvein. Inflorescences paniculiform, main axis 17–55 × 0.3–1 mm, densely to moderately covered with trichomes; bracts 1.3–8 mm, narrow-elliptic, densely covered with trichomes, caducous; bracteoles 1–2.7 mm, linear, densely covered with trichomes, caducous. Floral buds turbinate, base not constricted; hypanthium 0.5–0.8 mm prolonged beyond the ovary, externally densely covered with trichomes or glabrous; calyx open, not reflexed, 5 lobes, 0.5–1 × 1–1.7 mm, externally sparsely covered with trichomes to glabrous, internally densely; floral disc glabrous with trichomes only on the style base, staminal ring covered with trichomes; anthers thecae symmetrical; ovary 3-locular. Fruits 3.6–7.4 × 4–8.8 mm, globose, black or purple, moderately to sparsely covered with trichomes, calyx persistent.

Notes:—Endemic to Brazil, distributed from Bahia and Goiás to Santa Catarina. In Paraná, it occurs in araucaria forest, grasslands, cerrado, and less frequently in Semideciduous Forest. Collected with flowers from October to December and fruits from December to February. Myrcia venulosa   belongs to Myrcia sect. Reticulosae ( Fernandes et al. 2020)   . It is characterized by the densely pubescent branches, inflorescences and young leaves, with brown to ferrugineous trichomes. Myrcia venulosa   may resemble M. retorta   (see comments under that species).

Selected specimens: — BRAZIL. Paraná: Apucarana, Soares-Silva 671 ( FUEL!). Arapoti, Hatschbach 6553 ( MBM!). Araucária, Gatti 150 (MBM!, UPCB!). Balsa Nova, Hatschbach 9549 ( MBM!). Bocaiúva do Sul, Silva   6147 (MBM!, RB!, UPCB!). Campina Grande do Sul, Hatschbach 8621 (MBM!, UPCB!). Campo do Tenente, Hatschbach 18456 (MBM!, UPCB!). Castro, Hatschbach 589 ( MBM!). Cerro Azul, Landrum 4068 ( MBM!). Colombo, Hatschbach 8569 (MBM!, UPCB!). Curitiba, Kummrow 2832   (MBM!, UPCB!). Guarapuava, Hatschbach 18337 ( MBM!). Imbituva, Hatschbach 23076 (MBM!, UPCB!). Jaguariaíva, Cervi 3588 (MBM!, UPCB!). Lapa, Barbola s.n. (UPCB 18800!). Mandirituba, Landrum 3904 ( MBM!). Mauá da Serra, Francisco s.n. (FUEL 28268!). Ortigueira, Pavão s.n. (FUEL 24590!, MBM 346078!). Palmeira, Landrum 3963 ( MBM!). Pinhais, Roderjan 900 ( EFC!). Piraí do Sul, Chagas e Silva   2022 (FUEL!, MBM!). Piraquara, Hatschbach 64007 ( MBM!). Pitanga, Bianek 251 ( HCF!). Ponta Grossa, Hatschbach 13103 (MBM!, UPCB!). Porto Amazonas, Chagas e Silva   2163 ( FUEL!). Quatro Barras, Hatschbach 29122 ( MBM!). Reserva, Chagas e Silva   2189 (FUEL!, MBM!). Rio Branco do Sul, Hatschbach 41856 ( MBM!). São José dos Pinhais, Hatschbach 41301 ( MBM!). Sengés, Hatschbach 5130 (MBM!, UPCB!). Tibagi, Soares-Silva 302 ( FUEL!). Tunas do Paraná, Lucas 166 (MBM!, RB!).

Doubtful species:

. Myrcia multipunctata Mazine (2014: 99)   : a search in SpeciesLink database ( CRIA 2020) recovered a single record from Paraná (Souza 7177, FUEL) identified with the old name Marlierea laevigata ( De Candolle 1828: 283) Kiaerskou (1893: 51)   . This material was not found in FUEL, nor was any duplicate, preventing us to confirm the identification. Therefore it is listed here as doubtful.

Excluded names:

. Calyptranthes grammica ( Sprengel 1825: 480) D. Legrand (1962a: 196)   : the single collection identified as such (Landrum 4082a)

actually belongs to Myrcia glomerata   .. Calyptranthes grandifolia O. Berg (1857   –1859: 48): this name is a synonym of Myrcia loranthifolia   (= Calyptranthes brasiliensis   ;

Lourenço et al. 2020).. Calyptranthes hatschbachii D. Legrand (1958: 1)   : this name is a synonym of Myrcia legrandii   (= Calyptranthes obovata   ; Flora do

Brasil 2020).

4. Calyptranthes rubella   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 49) D. Legrand (1971b: 535): specimens that were identified as such were considered here within the circumscription of Myrcia glomerata   (see the comments under this species).

. Marlierea clausseniana (O.Berg 1957: 145) Kiaerskou (1893: 51)   : two collections identified as such (Hatschbach 35507 and Marinero 355) actually belong to Myrcia reitzii   and M. eugeniopsoides   , respectively.

6. Myrcia atropilosa   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 101) N. Silveira 1985a: 65): the holotype of this species (Sellow s.n.) was collected in Paraná and deposited in herbarium B, where it was likely destroyed during World War II. No further materials that may be part of the type collection, neither any other specimen named as such, have been found so far. According to the protologue, it is probably a synonym of Myrcia anomala   , but a more detailed study on this name is needed   .

. Myrcia bella Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 322): two collections identified as such (Cervi 4199 and Hatschbach 43397), actually belong to Myrcia subcordata   and Myrcia splendens   , respectively.

8. Myrcia catharinensis   (D.Legrand in Legrand & Klein 1967: 13) Nic Lughadha (2012: 240): specimens identified as such were considered here within the circumscription of Myrcia hebepetala   , according to Amorim (2017).

. Myrcia eriopus De Candolle (1828: 255)   : the collection Freire de Carvalho 130 (RB!) was determined as Myrcia eriopus   , but its correct identification is Myrcia bracteata ( Richard 1792: 110) De Candolle (1828: 245)   (M. Sobral pers. comm.). Myrcia bracteata   is an Amazonian species that does not occur in southern Brazil. This specimen likely has some error in its label, as it shows Curitiba   , Paraná, as the collection locality.

0. Myrcia fenzliana O. Berg (1857   –1859: 196): two collections identified as such (Beloni s.n. [HCF 3755] and Hatschbach 15273) actually belong to Myrcia hebepetala   and Myrcia aethusa   , respectively.

. Myrcia grandifolia Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 298): this species occurs from Minas Gerais to São Paulo ( Amorim 2017); the two records from Paraná are indeed Myrcia isaiana   (Britez s.n. [HUCP 3303] and Britez s.n. [HUCP 3608]).

. Myrcia itajuruensis Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 307): a single collection from Paraná identified as such (Hatschbach 35484) actually belongs to Myrcia isaiana   .

. Myrcia lajeana D. Legrand (1961: 291)   : as proposed in Lannoy et al. (2019), this species is a synonym of M. selloi   .

4. Myrcia laruotteana Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 311): as proposed by Lannoy et al. (2019), this species is a synonym of M. selloi   .

. Myrcia mutabilis   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 70) N. Silveira (1985b: 1): this species occurs from Pernambuco to Minas Gerais. Two collections from Paraná identified as Myrcia calyptranthoides   (O. Berg 1857 –1859: 67) Mattos (1966: 60), a synonym of M. mutabilis   , are actually M. subcordata   .

6. Myrcia neoobscura E.Lucas & C.E.Wilson   (in Lucas et al. 2016: 680): for a long time this name has been misapplied to specimens of Myrcia neoriedeliana   . Myrcia neoobscura   occurs only in Bahia and Minas Gerais ( Lucas et al. 2016).

. Myrcia oligantha O. Berg (1857   –1859: 184): specimens from Paraná identified as such cannot be fully distinguished from Myrcia aethusa   , although they usually have slightly smaller leaves, and therefore were treated here under the latter species.

8. Myrcia pubescens De Candolle (1828: 247)   : two collections identified as such were found in Paraná. One of them is actually Myrcia hartwegiana   (Hatschbach 7558), and the other is M. palustris   (Lindeman 5320).

. Myrcia pubiflora De Candolle (1828: 249)   : the single collection from Paraná identified as such (Hatschbach 587) actually belongs to Myrcia subcordata   . Legrand & Klein (1969) treated M. pubiflora   as its synonym Myrcia calumbaensis Kiaerskou (1893: 77)   , citing a single collection from Paraná (Hatschbach 9522). Nevertheless, this specimen belongs to Lauraceae   . A second material, Hatschbach 9582, was found with the same information as mentioned for Hatschbach 9522 in Legrand & Klein (1969), so it was probably a typographical problem. This specimen actually belongs to Myrcia subcordata   .

0. Myrcia reticulata Cambessèdes (1832   –1833: 101): the two specimens identified as such (Barbola s.n. [UPCB 18800] and Hatschbach 52659) belong to M. venulosa   .

. Myrcia reticulosa Miquel (1850: 794)   : all the specimens identified as Myrcia reticulosa   in Paraná were considered as M. venulosa   .

. Myrcia vellozoi Mazine (2014: 98)   : this species has an intermediate morphology between Myrcia eugeniopsoides   and M. reitzii   . The collections found from Paraná were here considered within Myrcia reitzii   , except for a single one (Hatschbach 13407), considered as Myrcia eugeniopsoides   .

UPCB

Universidade Federal do Paraná

MBM

San Jose State University, Museum of Birds and Mammals

RB

Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro

HUEM

Universidade Estadual de Maringá

EFC

Escola de Florestas

FUEL

Universidade Estadual de Londrina

HCF

Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná

Kingdom

Plantae

Phylum

Tracheophyta

Class

Magnoliopsida

Order

Myrtales

Family

Myrtaceae

Loc

Myrcia De Candolle (1827: 406)

De, Laura C., De, Ayrton I., Goldenberg, Renato & Lima, Duane F. 2021
2021
Loc

Myrcia glomerata

Lourenco, A. R. L. & Burton, G. P. & Alves, M. & Lucas, E. 2020: 26
2020
Loc

Myrcia legrandii A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas

Lourenco, A. R. L. & Parra-O., C. & Sanchez-Chavez, E. & Lucas, E. 2018: 76
2018
Loc

Myrcia neolucida A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas

Lourenco, A. R. L. & Parra-O., C. & Sanchez-Chavez, E. & Lucas, E. 2018: 79
2018
Loc

Myrcia tricona (D. Legrand) A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas

Lourenco, A. R. L. & Parra-O., C. & Sanchez-Chavez, E. & Lucas, E. 2018: 82
2018
Loc

Myrcia neosuaveolens E.Lucas & C.E.Wilson

Lucas, E. & Wilson, C. E. & Lima, D. F. & Sobral, M. & Matsumoto, K. A. 2016: 682
2016
Loc

Myrcia cf. obversa (D.Legrand) E.Lucas & C.E.Wilson

Lucas, E. & Wilson, C. E. & Lima, D. F. & Sobral, M. & Matsumoto, K. A. 2016: 684
2016
Loc

Myrcia ferruginosa

Mazine, F. & Santos, M. F. & Lucas, E. 2014: )
2014
Loc

Myrcia reitzii (D. Legrand 1961: 284 )

Mazine, F. & Santos, M. F. & Lucas, E. 2014: 284
2014
Loc

Myrcia multipunctata

Mazine, F. & Santos, M. F. & Lucas, E. 2014: )
De Candolle, A. P. 1893: 283
2014
Loc

Myrcia vellozoi

Mazine, F. & Santos, M. F. & Lucas, E. 2014: )
2014
Loc

Myrcia flagellaris (D. Legrand 1961: 279 )

Legrand, C. D. 2008: 279
2008
Loc

Myrcia isaiana G.M. Barroso & Peixoto (1990: 8)

Barroso, G. M. & Peixoto, A. L. 1990: )
1990
Loc

Myrcia aethusa

Silveira, N. J. E. 1985: 67
1985
Loc

Myrcia diaphana

Silveira, N. J. E. 1985: 66
1985
Loc

Marlierea eugeniopsoides (D.Legrand & Kausel) D. Legrand 1975: 7

Legrand, C. D. 1975: 7
1975
Loc

Gomidesia palustris (DC.)

Kausel, E. 1967: )
1967
Loc

Myrcia eugeniopsoides

Mazine, F. & Santos, M. F. & Lucas, E. 2014: 98
Legrand, D. 1962: 194
1962
Loc

Marlierea riedeliana

Legrand, D. 1962: 31
1962
Loc

Marlierea obversa D. Legrand (1962b: 28)

Legrand, D. 1962: )
1962
Loc

Myrcia pileata (D. Legrand 1962a: 199 ) A.R.Lourenço & E.Lucas

Lucas, E. J. & Amorim, B. S. & Lima, D. F. & Lima-Lourenco, A. R. & Nic Lughadha, E. M. & Proenca, C. E. B. & Rosa, P. O. & Rosario, A. S. & Santos, L. L. & Santos, M. F. & Souza, M. C. & Staggemeier, V. G. & Vasconcelos, T. N. C. & Sobral, M. 2018: 80
Legrand, D. 1962: 199
1962
Loc

Calyptranthes tricona D. Legrand (1962a: 204)

Legrand, D. 1962: )
1962
Loc

Myrcia bicarinata

Legrand, C. D. 1961: 298
1961
Loc

Myrcia rupicola D. Legrand (1961: 289)

Legrand, C. D. 1961: )
1961
Loc

Myrcia lajeana D. Legrand (1961: 291)

Legrand, C. D. 1961: )
1961
Loc

Gomidesia tijucensis (Kiaersk.) D. Legrand (1958: 23)

Legrand, D. 1958: )
1958
Loc

Marlierea sylvatica

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: 51
1893
Loc

Myrcia freyreissiana

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: 102
1893
Loc

Myrcia hartwegiana

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: 109
1893
Loc

Myrcia hexasticha

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: )
1893
Loc

Calyptranthes obovata

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: )
1893
Loc

Marlierea clausseniana (O.Berg 1957: 145)

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: )
1893
Loc

Gomidesia schaueriana O. Berg (1857: 18)

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: )
Berg, O. 1857: )
1857
Loc

Gomidesia fenzliana O. Berg (1857: 20)

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: )
Berg, O. 1857: )
1857
Loc

Myrcia reticulosa

Miquel, F. A. G. 1850: )
1850
Loc

Myrcia pubipetala

Miquel, F. A. W. 1846: )
1846
Loc

Myrcia anacardiifolia

Gardner, G. 1843: )
1843
Loc

Myrcia amazonica

De Candolle, A. P. 1828: )
1828
Loc

Calyptranthes concinna

De Candolle, A. P. 1828: )
1828
Loc

Myrcia hebepetala

De Candolle, A. P. 1828: )
1828
Loc

Myrcia loranthifolia ( De Candolle 1828: 258 ) G.Burton & E.Lucas

Lourenco, A. R. L. & Burton, G. P. & Alves, M. & Lucas, E. 2020: 36
De Candolle, A. P. 1828: 258
1828
Loc

Calyptranthes lucida Martius ex

De Candolle, A. P. 1828: )
1828
Loc

Myrcia palustris

De Candolle, A. P. 1828: )
1828
Loc

Myrcia venulosa

De Candolle, A. P. 1828: )
1828
Loc

Myrcia eriopus

De Candolle, A. P. 1828: )
De Candolle, A. P. 1828: 110
1828
Loc

Myrcia pubiflora

Kiaerskou, H. 1893: )
De Candolle, A. P. 1828: )
1828
Loc

Myrcia

De Candolle, A. P. 1827: )
1827
Loc

Calyptranthes brasiliensis

Sprengel, K. P. J. 1825: )
1825
Loc

Calyptranthes grammica ( Sprengel 1825: 480 ) D. Legrand (1962a: 196)

Sprengel, K. P. J. 1825: 480
1825