Octocollis setosus, Moeseneder, Christian H. & Hutchinson, Paul M., 2012

Moeseneder, Christian H. & Hutchinson, Paul M., 2012, Octocollis, a new genus and Octocollis setosus, a new species of Cetoniinae (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae) from Queensland, Australia, Zootaxa 3557, pp. 40-48: 42-47

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.5281/zenodo.212326

publication LSID


persistent identifier


taxon LSID


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scientific name

Octocollis setosus

new species

Octocollis setosus   new species

( Figs 1–6 View FIGURES 1 – 2 View FIGURES 3 – 6 )

Material examined (69 specimens). Holotype, male: AUSTRALIA. Paluma, Qld, 23.i. 1964, A. Walford-Huggins, T 159368 [QM]. Paratypes: AUSTRALIA. 1 male, Paluma, Qld, 8.i. 2000, D. Kitchin, CET 0606 [PMH]; 1 male, Paluma, Qld, i. 2000, M. Powell & T. Hanlon [ MIC]; 1 male, xi. 2001, Paluma, S. Lamond, CET 0607 [PMH]; 1 male, 12–16 km W of Paluma, 18.i. 2011, J. & P. Hasenpusch [AIF]; 3 males, Ewan Road, Mt. Spec, 12.i. 1969, J.G. & A.G. Brooks, 0-046034 (3 specimens on single cardboard) [ DEEDI]; 1 male, Mt. Spec, 6.i. 1988 [AIF]; 1 male, Mt. Spec, 29.xii. 2003, D. Kitchin & T.Jack [ DKG]; 2 males, Mt. Spec, Ewan Road, 10–12 miles W of Paluma, 3–6.i. 1966, J.G. & J.A.G. Brooks [ ANIC]; 4 males, Ewan Road, 10–12 miles W of Paluma, 3–6.i. 1966, J.G. & J.A.G. Brooks [ ANIC]; 5 males, Ewan Road, 16–19 km W of Paluma, 8.i. 1969, J.G. Brooks [ ANIC]; 3 males, 17 km W of Paluma, 6.i. 2010, M. Powell & D. Knowles, MIC 10002 View Materials -001 [ MIC], MIC 10002 View Materials -002 [ MIC], no unique id [AIF]; 1 male, 24 km W of Paluma, 6.i. 2004, D. Kitchin & T. Jack [ DKG]. Additional material: AUSTRALIA. 1 male, Paluma, Qld, 23.i. 1964, A. Walford-Huggins, T 159369 [QM]; 1 male, xi. 2001, Paluma, S. Lamond, CET 0608 [PMH]; 1 male, Paluma, Qld, 9.i. 1995 [ DKG]; 1 male, Paluma, Qld, 12.xii. 1975, F.T. Fricke [AIF]; 1 male, 12–16 km W of Paluma, 9–13.i. 1989, Howden & Adams [AIF]; 2 males, Mt. Spec, 11.i. 2002, D. Kitchin & T. Jack, CET 0609 [PMH], without unique id [ DKG]; 1 male, Mt. Spec, 31.xii. 2008, D. Kitchin, CET 0611 [PMH]; 1 male, Mt. Spec, 10.i. 1987, R. Clarke [ DKG]; 2 males, Mt. Spec, 29.xii. 2003, D. Kitchin & T. Jack [ DKG]; 2 males, Mt. Spec, 17.i. 1965, J.A.G. Brooks [ ANIC]; 2 males, Mt. Spec, 13.i. 1964, J.G. Brooks [ ANIC]; 1 male, Mt. Spec, 6.i. 1965, J.A.G. Brooks [ ANIC]; 2 males, Mt. Spec, 13.i. 1964, G.B. Brooks [ ANIC]; 2 males, Mt. Spec, 6.i. 1988 [AIF]; 6 males, Mt. Spec, Ewan Road, 10–12 miles W of Paluma, 4–6.i. 1966, J.G. & J.A.G. Brooks (6 specimens on single cardboard) [ ANIC]; 1 male, 17 km W of Paluma, 6.i. 2010, M. Powell & D. Knowles, MIC 10002 View Materials -003 [AIF]; 2 males, 20 km W of Paluma, 30.xii. 2009, D. Kitchin & T. Jack, CET 0610 [PMH], without unique id [ DKG]; 13 males, Ewan Road c. 20 km W of Paluma, 6–10.i. 1969, J.G. Brooks [ ANIC]; 2 males, Ewan Rd c. 22 km W of Paluma, 8–10.i. 1969, J.G. Brooks [ ANIC].

Description of Holotype. Male ( Fig. 1 View FIGURES 1 – 2 ). Elongate ovoid. Length 18 mm, width 10 mm. Head ( Fig. 3 View FIGURES 3 – 6 ). Clypeus as wide as long, becoming weakly bilobate apically; lateral and apical margins rising gradually from disc, black; bearing deep, closely spaced punctures on frons and clypeus becoming smaller on lateral and apical margins of clypeus. Frons bearing long, moderately dense, erect, ginger pilosity, shorter on clypeal disc. Ocular canthus distally bearing long silvered setae. Antennal scape globular, brown; clothed with fringe of long, silver setae on posterior margin; row of sparse, long setae on distal margin. Club enlarged, 1.5 x length of antennomeres 1–7, longer than head; antennomeres broad and arcuate with setae covering most of inner surface of antennomere 8; pores on outer surface of antennomere 10 across half width; brown. Thorax. Pronotal basal lobe obsolete, weakly concave; basolateral angle obtuse; basolateral margin divergent, convex; lateral margin at midlength with broadly arcuate angle; anterolateral margin linear; anterolateral angle obtuse; basodiscal area flat; apicomedian region slightly raised, without distinct midline; lateral margins obsolete across base and apex; brown laterally from line emanating from inner edge of eye, paramedial 1 / 4 length of pronotum then divergent to basolateral angles, remainder black; surface evenly, coarsely punctate becoming rugose at extreme anterior lateral margins, evenly clothed in moderately short, silver setae. Scutellum slightly elongate; apex acute; black; bearing coarse punctures over disc, less dense along midline; punctures bearing moderately long, silver setae. Elytra indistinctly bicostate; sutural costa broad, elevated post midlength with short obtuse apicosutural angle; humeral umbone distinct with dark brown macula; apical umbone distinct with large, black, teardrop-shaped mark; linear black maculation from base of scutellum parallel towards apex, converging in last third; brown; coarse punctures arranged in distinct rows along suture, either side of discomedian costa and 3 rows in area of discolateral costa; rugose between line of umbones and near lateral margins; sutural margin linear punctate to base; evenly covered with long, silver setae becoming longer along sutural costa; epipleural setae continuous to suture. Pygidium basally flat in lateral view, apically rounded, brown, concentrically rugose, evenly clothed in moderately long, silver setae. Preprosternum with medial longitudinal ridge, moderately pilose. Mesometasternal process ( Fig. 5 View FIGURES 3 – 6 ) undeveloped, without lateral or apical expansion. Mesometasternal suture at midlength of mesocoxa, with mesosternal declivity immediately anterior to suture. Mesometasternal process black, impunctate, declivity moderately pilose. Metasternum short, highly transverse, black, with scattered punctures, pilosity dense, scarser medially. Legs ( Fig. 4 View FIGURES 3 – 6 ). Profemur proximal surface glabrous, moderately clothed in shorter, thicker, ginger setae; distal surface evenly, moderately rugose, clothed in silver pilosity, particularly in lateral regions; dark brown. Protibia with 3 evenly spaced denticles; apical tooth large, acute, with rounded apex; medial tooth rounded, acute; basal tooth obtuse, short, brown; distal surface with medial carina, coarsely punctate with long, ginger pilosity; proximal surface coarsely punctate in irregular lines with 3–4 rows of microsetae on proximal region. Protarsi longer than tibial length; claws 4 / 5 length of tarsomere 5; brown; apices of tarsomeres with short stout setae, shorter on tarsomere 5. Mesofemur widest at midlength; anterior margin linear; posterior margin convex; dark brown; evenly rugose; clothed with long, ginger pilosity, becoming stouter in apicoposterior region. Mesotibia; posterior margin bidentate, with short, acute denticle at midlength and smaller, acute denticle toward base; distal surface punctured; proximal surface rugose, setose. Mesotarsi elongate, longer than tibial length; claws almost length of tarsomere 5; brown; apices of tarsomeres with short, stout setae, shorter on tarsomere 5. Metafemur widest at midlength; anterior margin convex; posterior margin linear; dark brown; distal surface evenly, moderately punctate, clothed with sparse pilosity, row of shorter ginger setae parallel with posterior margin. Metatibia; posterior margin with small acute spine pre midlength; 2 short, apical spines separated by shallow, straight interval; apical spurs unequal length, clearly surpassing tibial apex; distal surface partially rugose, bearing scattered, short, stout, ginger setae; proximal surface with stout setae, longer basally; brown. Metatarsi elongate, same length as tibia; claws almost length of tarsomere 5; brown; apices of tarsomeres with short stout setae, shorter on tarsomere 5. Abdomen. Abdominal segments with broad, shallow, medio-longitudinal impression, concave in lateral view; black, segments 3–6 brown apically; moderately punctate across all segments becoming rugose laterally; scarcely clothed with silver pilosity, becoming scarcer medially. Parameres ( Fig. 6 View FIGURES 3 – 6 ) elongate, slightly convergent past midlength, apex ending in rearward facing blunt denticle, dark brown; dorsal cleft narrow, widest in apical third; dorsal projection on each paramere emanating from near apex, slightly diverging at base then wider, forming loop which appears closed apically due to overlap, apices of projections flat, structurally weak and curled when dry. Holotype parameres damaged and incomplete, apex of projection missing on both sides.

Variation in paratypes. Length 16–19 mm, width 8–10 mm. Color variability. Light color form 1 ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 2 a). Entirely light brown except these black areas: base of head, area adjacent to eyes, small spot in center of each side of pronotal disk, in some specimens a small spot in center of pronotal base, scutellum sometimes muddled black, suture and sometimes juxtascutellar area of elytron, distinct spot on anteapical umbone, apex, base and spines of legs, apices of all tarsi, at least base of all coxae, dorsal surface of mesepimeron, mesosternum, metasternum, apex and sides of all abdominal segments, large macula on either side of anal sternite. Light color form 2 ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 2 b). Brown except these black areas: base of head, area adjacent to eyes, pronotum with black M-shaped macula, small macula in center of pronotum near lateral margin, suture broadly extending past scutellum, covering base of elytra, subhumeral umbone darkened, anteapical umbone, base and spines of legs, apices of all tarsi, at least base of all coxae, dorsal surface of mesepimeron, mesosternum, metasternum, except mesometasternal process, base of all abdominal segments. Melanic color form ( Fig. 2 View FIGURES 1 – 2 c). Entirely black except orange-brown area around eyes, dark redbrown pedicel and antennal club, elytra in some specimens dark brown-orange from intrahumeral impression toward mediodiscal or postdiscal area. Intermediate color forms exist, almost all specimens marked uniquely (6 specimens on single card in ANIC provide marking range). Females are unknown.

Discussion. In Table 1 Octocollis   is compared to the species Pseudoclithria fossor (Lea, 1914)   rather than all members of the genus because Pseudoclithria fossor   is unique in this genus and will be placed in a new genus by the authors in a separate paper. The remainder of the species in Pseudoclithria   are not homogenous and also in need of revision.

Eleven examined specimens of this new species carry a blue paratype label, which was most likely attached by Bacchus. These original labels have been retained. No specimen with a holotype label could be located.

Etymology. The informal name ‘setosus’, which refers to the pilosity of the beetle, has been retained in honor of entomologist M.E. Bacchus’ recognition of this species.

Ecology and geographical distribution. Octocollis setosus   was found in an area of dry, open, approximately 15 m tall eucalypt forest with sparse grass and some small bushes on stony hills formed by decomposing granite ( Figs. 7–9 View FIGURES 7 – 9 ). Specimens were found 12–24 km west of Paluma, Queensland, Australia at elevations of 642– 775 m. This habitat lies in the rain shadow along the hilly western slope of the Great Dividing Range. Rainforest at the top of the range is replaced by up to 60 m tall and dense eucalypt forest as the terrain descends towards the west. Vegetation then changes to dry and open eucalypt forest –the region where Octocollis setosus   were found. From this zone the terrain drops into rolling, open, very dry country with sparse eucalypt trees. It is clear that locations on labels given by collectors as “Paluma” or “Mt. Spec” were simplified to the nearest named location. The collectors that were contacted confirmed that the area where specimens were found is west of Paluma and Mt. Spec in the habitat indicated.

Adult male Octocollis setosus   were found feeding on the pollen and nectar of flowering eucalypt trees. According to labels some specimens were collected on Yellow Jacket. The name is ambiguous but most likely refers to Eucalyptus similis Maiden   or Corymbia leichhardtii (F.M. Bailey) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson   , which occur in this area ( Fig. 9 View FIGURES 7 – 9 ). When mapped, most collection locations fall within the Dominant Broad Vegetation Group 13 c, “Woodlands of Eucalyptus crebra F.Muell.   , E. drepanophylla F.Muell. ex Benth.   , E. fibrosa F.Muell.   , E. shirleyi Maiden   on granitic and metamorphic ranges”. One of the specimen labels reads “ Eucalyptus ochrophloia F.Muell.   ” This is surely a misidentification since in Queensland the tree occurs only in the southwest of the state. On the Eucalyptus   flowers, Octocollis setosus   can be found together with Bisallardiana variabilis Macleay, 1863   , Eupoecilia   sp., and other cetoniines. One of the collectors (D.K.) noted that he never observed this species in flight. Females are unknown and it is possible that they do not readily fly, like some other female cetoniines, and hence are not flower feeders. Based on observations of females of Pseudoclithria   and several undescribed species it seems likely that females might be encountered in debris between the rocky outcrops, detritus and the top soil layer. Searching of similar or adjoining habitats could lead to an extension of the known range.

Most years since the first record in 1964, fewer than four specimens were collected and in some years no specimens were found despite collecting effort. One of the collectors observed that Octocollis setosus   appeared to be common in the first years of collecting (J. Hasenpusch, Australian Insect Farm, Innisfail, Queensland, Australia; personal communication). Fluctuations in the numbers of collected specimens due to variation of temperature and rainfall between years have not been studied and could be the cause. Intentional burning of undergrowth, as practiced in this area especially during the dry season when the beetles are in the non-mobile pupal stage, is probably a significant threat to the species. Octocollis setosus   has been collected in November, December, and January. However, all except two specimens were found within the 4 -week period between 29 December and 23 January. It could not be determined whether this is due to collectors visiting the habitat during these times or the beetles occurring only at that time.


Centro de Estudios Tropicales


Mar Ivanios College (Zoology museum)


Juniper Hall Field Centre


Australian National Insect Collection