Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl - Fig,

Hovenkamp PH & Miyamoto F, 2005, A conspectus of the native and naturalized species of Nephrolepis (Nephrolepidaceae) in the world, Blumea 50, pp. 279-322: 304-305

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Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl - Fig
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12. Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl - Fig  . 1h; Map 5; Plate 2f

Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Forst.) C. Presl (1836) 79  ; Brack. (1854) 211; Backer & Posth. (1939) 92; Copel. (1958) 188; Holttum (1968) 382; Tagawa & K. Iwats. (1985) 177. - Polypodium hirsutulum G. Forst. (1786) 81  , Nicolson & Fosberg (2003) 136. - Aspidium hirsutulum (G. Forst.) Sw. (1801) 32  ; (1806) 45, 241; Blume (1828) 146. - Polystichum hirsutulum (G. Forst.) Bernh. (1803) 16  . - Lepidonevron hirsutulum (G. Forst.) Fee (1852) 301  . - Nephrodium hirsutulum (G. Forst.) Desv. (1827) 253  ; C. Presl (1830) 32. - Type: Forster 278 ( BM), without locality. 

Nephrolepis duffii T. Moore (1878b) 622, f. 113  ; Backer & Posth. (1939) 89. - Type: Anon. s.n. ( K), in cult. Hort. Veitch. 

Aspidium pilosum Langsd. & Fisch. (1810) 14, t. 16  . - Nephrolepis pilosa (Langsd. & Fisch.) C. Presl (1836) 79  . - Type: Langsdorff s.n. ( BM). 

Nephrodium multifidum A. Rich. (1834) xxxix  . - Nephrolepis multifida (A. Rich.) Mett. (1856) 100  . - Type: Lesson (Astrolabe) s.n. ( P). 

Habit, rhizome morphology. Plants forming tufts of 4-8 fronds (or more). Runners often forming stilts supporting the erect rhizome, 1-2 mm thick, branching angle narrow. Scales on runners sparse or dense, appressed or spreading. Tubers absent. Fronds 90-210 by 15-20 cm, stipe 32-80 cm long. Lamina base reduced, tapering over 15-30 cm (or more), basal pinnae 3.5-8 cm long, 2-5 cm distant, middle pinnae straight (sometimes recurved). Sterile pinnae 8-10 by 1.2-1.6 cm, herbaceous, thick, base strongly unequal, basiscopic base truncate or rounded, acroscopic base truncate, strongly auricled (with narrow auricle), margin in basal part entire, towards apex crenate, apex acute. Fertile pinnae 7.5-11 by 0.9-1.1 cm, more strongly crenate than the sterile pinnae. Indument. Basal scales peltate, appressed, 1.5-23.5 by 1 mm, central part dark brown or blackish, shining, hyaline margin wide, ciliate, marginal glands, absent apex obtuse. Rachis scales very dense, with a well-developed protracted acumen, spreading or squarrose, rufous, acumen strongly dentate. Scales on lamina usually persistent. Hairs absent from lamina and costae. Sori submarginal to nearly medial, 24-33 pairs on fully fertile pinnae, round, not impressed. Indusium reniform, with open sinus, attached at sinus.

Distribution - Indochina, throughout Malesia, to Queensland and Pacifc.

Habitat & Ecology - Usually at low elevations (sea level to 500 m, rarely to 1000 m), at forest margins and other disturbed places, often in coconut plantations, apparently preferring light shade, terrestrial, only rarely reported as epiphyte.

Note - Nephrolepis hirsutula  differs from N. brownii  ( N. multiflora  auct.), with which it has been extensively confused, in the sori placed less close to the margin, sometimes nearly medial; the dense, rufous rachis scales with very strongly dentate acumen; and the glabrous upper surface of costae. In contrast, N. brownii  has usually sparser, paler rachis scales, with a longer, nearly always entire narrow apex. The combination of the rufous, dense, rachis indument and glabrous upper surface of the costae is characteristic for N. hirsutula  , while the position of the sori is more variable. In case of doubt, the glabrous upper costa-surface is usually decisive.