Conilithes antidiluvianus ( Bruguière, 1792 ),

Harzhauser, Mathias & Landau, Bernard, 2016, A revision of the Neogene Conidae and Conorbidae (Gastropoda) of the Paratethys Sea, Zootaxa 4210 (1), pp. 1-178: 46-48

publication ID

http://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4210.1.1

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scientific name

Conilithes antidiluvianus ( Bruguière, 1792 )
status

 

Conilithes antidiluvianus ( Bruguière, 1792) 

Figs 3 C, 5J1–J3, 5K1, 6A1–A3.

Conus antediluvianus Brug.  —Hörnes 1851: 38, pl. 5, figs 2a –e.

Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus Bruguière, 1792  —Kojumdgieva in Kojumdgieva & Strachimirov 1960: 209, pl. 49, fig. 3. Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus Bruguière, 1792  — Strausz 1966: 451, pl. 16, fig. 10., pl. 17, fig. 1. Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus Bruguière—Atanacković 1969: 215  , pl. 12, figs 14–15.

Conus (Lithoconus) antediluvianus  Bruguière—Csepreghy-Meznerics 1972: 34, pl. 17, fig. 14. Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus Bruguière—Steininger 1973: 447  , pl. 9, fig. 4 (strongly compressed specimen). Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus Bruguière—Schultz 1998: 72  , pl. 29, fig. 9.

Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus Bruguiere—Chira & Voia 2001: 156  , pl. 1, figs 6a –b.

Conolithus antidiluvianus ( Bruguière, 1792)  —Harzhauser et al. 2011: 217, fig. 4.5. Conilithes antidiluvianus ( Bruguière, 1792)  — Kovács & Vicián 2013: 89, fig. 149.

non Conus antidiluvianus Bruguière—Dubois de Montpéreux 1831: 23  , pl. 1, fig. 1 [= Conilithes exaltatus ( Eichwald, 1830)  ]. non Conus (Conuspira) antideluvianus Bruguière var. buiturica  var. nov  . — Moisescu 1955a: 162, pl. 14, figs 7–8 [= Conilithes exaltatus ( Eichwald, 1830)  ].

non Conus (Lithoconus) antediluvianus anomalus  n. spp.— Csepreghy-Meznerics 1972: 34, pl. 17, figs 9–10 (nomen nudum) [= Conilithes exaltatus ( Eichwald, 1830)  ].

Type material. Neotype: collection of Museo Civico di Storia Naturale (Milano), registration number MSNM i 28027 Badagnano , Rio dei Carbonari ( Italy), designated by Janssen et al. (2014); Pliocene. 

Studied material. 3 spec. NHMW A1615, Windpassing ( Austria); 5 spec  . NHMW 1973/1615/0300, 4 spec. NHMW 1989/0089/0058, 14 spec. NHMW 2013/0078/0524, 4 spec. NHMW 1869View Materials /0001/0161, Baden ( Austria), including illustrated specimens of Hörnes (1851, pl. 5, figs 2a –e); 4 spec  . NHMW1997z0178/1615, 5 spec. NHMW 1872/0030/0019, 13 spec. NHMW 2013View Materials /0300/0524, Baden-Sooß ( Austria); 11 spec  . NHMW 1855/0045/ 0 860, 30 spec. NHMW 2010/0004/1338, 3 spec. NHMW 1970/1396/1225, 4 spec. NHMW 1997z0178/1199, 15 spec. NHMW 2010View Materials /0004/1338, Bad Vöslau ( Austria); 10 spec  . NHMW 2012View Materials /0229/0223, Traiskirchen ( Austria); 4 spec  . NHMW 2013View Materials /0479/1604, Gainfarn ( Austria); 9 spec  . NHMW 1997z0178/1590, 20 NHMW spec. NHMW 1869View Materials /0001/0247, Möllersdorf ( Austria), including specimen illustrated in Schultz (1998, pl. 29, fig. 9). 

Illustrated material. Figs 5View FIGURE 5 J1–J3: Baden ( Austria): SL: 56.3 mm, MD: 20.5 mm, NHMW 1869/0001/0161, illustrated in Hörnes (1851, pl. 5, fig. 2); Fig. 5View FIGURE 5 K1: Möllersdorf ( Austria): SL: 66.9 mm, MD: 23.7 mm, NHMW 1869/0001/0247; Figs 6AView FIGURE 6 1View FIGURE 1 –A3: Bad Vöslau ( Austria): SL: 61.6 mm, MD: 23.0 mm, NHMW 2010/0004/1338; Fig. 3 C: Möllersdorf ( Austria): SL: 25.6 mm, MD: 9.1 mm, NHMW 1869/0001/0247.

Description. Medium sized to moderately large, elongate shells. Protoconch high and conical comprising 3.5 smooth, moderately convex whorls with delicate spiral thread at upper suture; depressed, slightly sunken nucleus  . First teleoconch whorl with indistinct angulation passing into a carina with blurred nodes on the first 2 spire whorls. Teleoconch consisting of 9–11 whorls; spire moderately high; gradate to scalariform with distinctly beaded carina placed below mid-whorl. Maximum diameter at carina or slightly below. Sutural ramp flat to slightly concave, devoid of spiral sculpture, bearing densely spaced, raised growth lines. Two to four spiral threads below carina may intersect the slightly axially elongated beads. The beads are very prominent and regular on early spire whorls and may become subobsolete on the last two teleoconch whorls. Last whorl elongate conical, weakly constricted at base; siphonal canal long, slightly twisted. Outer, lip simple, straight, prosocyrt; columella straight, columella callus not thickened, restricted to narrow glossy margin. Deep spiral grooves on lower third of last whorl; apical part of last whorl glossy and faintly striate in some specimens.

Shell measurements and ratios. n = 17 adult specimens: largest specimen: SL: 81.9 mm, MD: 30.1 mm, mean SL: 59.2 mm (σ = 2.4), mean MD: 21.8 mm (σ = 4.6), spire angle: µ = 61.4° (σ = 7.0°), last whorl angle: µ = 29.4° (σ = 1.4°), LW: µ = 2.69 (σ = 0.2), RD: µ = 0.52 (σ = 0.03), PMD: µ = 0.88 (σ = 0.05), RSH: µ = 0.27 (σ = 0.04).

Discussion. The complex taxonomic history of this species was discussed in great detail by Janssen et al. (2014), who proposed a neotype from the Pliocene of Badagnano (Italy). Still, however, it remains to be proven if all the Miocene and Pliocene specimens listed as C. antidiluvianus  are conspecific. The adult shells of Pliocene Mediterranean specimens range around 69.7 mm (n = 14, σ = 10.8, NHMW collection) and are distinctly larger than those from the middle Miocene Paratethys. A further difference is the regularly beaded sculpture of the carina on the earliest teleoconch whorls in C. antidiluvianus  from the Pliocene of Italy and Sicily, whereas the majority of Paratethyan specimens develop a carina with indistinct and more irregular nodes. The protoconch of Miocene North Sea specimens develop 5.5 whorls ( Janssen et al. 2014), whereas the Pliocene Italian ones have 3.5 whorls (own data and Muñiz-Solís 1999). Similarly, the few Paratethyan Miocene specimens with preserved protoconch develop only 3.5 protoconch whorls. This may indicate that that the North Sea specimens represent a closely related but distinct species. A statistical analysis of the shell ratios (LW, RD, PMD, RSH) of Pliocene Mediterranean and Miocene Paratethyan specimens, however, does not support a clear separation of both groups. Moreover, establishing a new (chrono-sub)species name for the Paratethyan specimens is not advisable given the large number of available names introduced by Sacco (1893a) for Miocene specimens from Italy. Therefore, we refrain from separating the Miocene specimens as a distinct taxon.

Two subspecies names are found in Paratethyan literature: Moisescu (1955a) introduced Conus antidiluvianus buiturica  for an incomplete specimen from Bujtur in Romania. This specimen is clearly unrelated to Conilithes antidiluvianus  and might rather represent a stout C. exaltatus ( Eichwald, 1830)  , which lacks the anterior canal. Conus antediluvianus  [sic] anomalus was proposed by Csepreghy-Meznerics (1972) for a single fragment from the Bükk Mountains in Hungary, without description. Therefore, Conus antidiluvianus anomalus  is a nomen nudum. The specimen is most probably an aberrant C. exaltatus  with a high spire.

Paleoenvironment. The species is mainly found in offshore clays suggesting middle shelf to upper bathyal settings (e.g. Harzhauser et al. 2011).

Distribution in Paratethys. Ottnangian (early Miocene): North Alpine Foreland Basin: Ottnang-Schanze ( Austria) ( Hoernes 1875; Steininger 1973); Karpatian (early Miocene): Vienna Basin: Cerova ( Slovakia) (Harzhauser et al. 2011); Badenian (middle Miocene): Vienna Basin: Bad Vöslau, Baden, Baden-Sooß, Möllersdorf, Niederleis ( Austria), Hrušovany, Rudice ( Czech Republic); Alpine-Carpathian Foredeep: Grund, Windpassing ( Austria), Lysice, Jaroměřice nad Rokytnou ( Czech Republic); Eisenstadt-Sopron Basin: Forchtenau ( Austria) ( Hoernes & Auinger 1879; own data); Pannonian Basin: Balaton, Borsodbóta, Csermely, Csokvaomány, Hidas, Letkés ( Hungary) ( Strausz 1966; Csepreghy-Meznerics 1972; Kovács & Vicián 2013); southern Pannonian Basin: Miljevići ( Bosnia and Herzegovina) ( Atanacković 1969); Transylvanian Basin: Lăpugiu de Sus, Coşteiu de Sus ( Romania) ( Chira & Voia 2001; own data); Dacian Basin: Staropatica, Opanec ( Bulgaria) ( Kojumdgieva & Strachimirov 1960).

Proto-Mediterranean Sea and north eastern Atlantic. Conilithes antidiluvianus ( Bruguière, 1792)  sensu stricto occurs in the Tortonian of Italy (Sant'Agata Fossili, Stazzano, Montegibbio) ( Sacco 1893a; Davoli 1972) and becomes very common at Pliocene localities in Italy ( Hall 1966; Davoli 1972; Janssen et al. 2014). Further Pliocene occurrences are mentioned from southern France (Biot), the Hatay Basin in Turkey, Sicily and Syria ( Erünal-Erentöz 1958; Janssen et al. 2014) (see Robba 1968 for further occurrences).

MSNM

Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Milano

NHMW

Naturhistorisches Museum, Wien

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Mollusca

Class

Gastropoda

Order

Neogastropoda

Family

Conidae

Genus

Conilithes

Loc

Conilithes antidiluvianus ( Bruguière, 1792 )

Harzhauser, Mathias & Landau, Bernard 2016
2016
Loc

antidiluvianus ( Bruguière, 1792 )

Kovacs 2013: 89
2013
Loc

Conus (Lithoconus) antediluvianus anomalus

Csepreghy-Meznerics 1972: 34
1972
Loc

Conus antidiluvianus Bruguière—Dubois de Montpéreux 1831 : 23

Moisescu 1955: 162
Montpereux 1831: 23
1955
Loc

Conus (Conolithus) antediluvianus Bruguiere—Chira & Voia 2001 : 156

Voia 2001: 156