Canthon (Peltecanthon) haroldi, Nunes & Nunes & Vaz-De, 2020

Nunes, Luis Gabriel de O. A., Nunes, Rafael V. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z., 2020, Taxonomic revision of the South American subgenus Canthon (Peltecanthon) Pereira, 1953 (Coleoptera: Scarabaeidae: Scarabaeinae: Deltochilini), European Journal of Taxonomy 594, pp. 1-27: 9-13

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.594

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:53DE5999-628D-47F5-9973-67CC54D06BC6

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3664191

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/36733D04-FFFD-FFD4-FDB2-FC53FE41F97A

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Canthon (Peltecanthon) haroldi
status

nom. nov.

Canthon (Peltecanthon) haroldi  nom. nov.

Figs 3–4View FigView Fig

Canthon prasinus Harold, 1867: 78  .

Peltecanthon sulcatus – Pereira 1953: 399 

Canthon prasinus – Harold 1868: 14  , 77 (species list); 1869: 992 (catalogue); 1875: 59 (catalogue) — Gillet 1911: 32 (catalogue) — Schmidt 1920: 125 (species list, first time as a synonym).

Canthon sulcatus  [error] — Castelnau, 1840: 69 (catalogue) — Gillet 1911:34 (catalogue) — Schmidt 1920: 125 (species list); 1922: 69, 81 (key) — Balthasar 1939: 203 (key).

Canthon prasinum – Blackwelder 1944: 201  (catalogue).

Canthon sulcatum  [error] – Blackwelder 1944: 202 (catalogue).

Peltecanthon sulcatus  [error] – Vulcano & Pereira 1964: 574 (catalogue) — Halffter & Martínez 1967: 80 (monograph).

Canton (Peltecanthon) sulcatus  [error] – Halffter & Martínez 1977: 75.

Canton (Peltecanthon) sulcatum  [error] – Vaz-de-Mello 2000: 191 (species list) — Cupello & Vaz-de- Mello 2018: 46 — Vaz-de-Mello & Cupello 2018a: 46.

Diagnosis

In the subgenus, Canthon haroldi  can be separated by the following combination of characters. Elytra and pronotum dorsally green with shades of yellow and red ( Fig. 3AView Fig). Metafemora with sulcus extending from the base and up to ⅓ of the total femur length ( Fig. 3BView Fig). Hypomere with no carina between the anterior and posterior portion ( Fig. 3CView Fig). Propygidium with uniform line between pygidium and propygidium, without any central carina ( Fig. 3DView Fig). Parameres flattened in lateral view ( Fig. 4AView Fig); slightly sinuous apex never strongly sinuous or truncated, with a slight depression near the upper angle; rounded upper angle; lower angle slightly less than 90°. In dorsal view ( Fig. 4BView Fig): membranous portion separates the parameres, wider in the central region and narrower at the base and apex. Internal sac ( Fig. 4View Fig C–D) with the peripheral fronto-lateral sclerite (FLP) involving the axial sclerite (A), with the two structures forming a complex with a central duct, wider at the base, becoming abruptly tapered toward the apex; subaxial sclerite (SA) absent; peripheral medial sclerite (MP) lateral in relation to FLP + A, this with the sharper part passing within a semiduct formed by MP; MP with a central appendage at the inner margin ( Fig. 4CView Fig); superior right peripheral sclerite (SRP) circular and with lateral prolongation.

Material examined

Types

BRAZIL • ♂, lectotype of Canthon prasinus Harold, 1867  , here designated; 1 (white label) “ prasinus Har  ” / 2 (white label) “ Bahia ” / 3 (white label) “ Ex-Museo E. Harold ” / 4 (red label) “Type” / 5 (white label with black margins) “ Peltecanthon sulcatus (Castelnau)  , det. G. Halffter, 67 ” / 6 (green label) “Museum París, ex Coll. R. Oberthur ” / 7 (red label, black border) “ LECTOTYPE Canthon prasinus Harold  , des. F. Z. Vaz-de-Mello, 2014 ( MNHN)”  .

Other material (304 specs)

BRAZIL – Alagoas • 1 ♂; Rio Largo ; 16 Sep. 2011; A. M. Melo leg.; CEMT  1 ♂; Rio Largo ; 16 Mar. 2012; R.C. Nascimento leg.; CEMT  1 ♀; Rio Largo ; 15 Mar. 2013; M.B. Junior leg.; CEMT. – Bahia  1 ♂; Nilo Peçanha, Mata do Jatimane ; UTM24L0495129/8486655 [39º02′42″ W, 13º41′21″ S], 10 Feb. 2015; G.R.G. Sila et al. leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; Costa do Sauípe ; 14 Nov. 2004; I. Castro leg.; CEMT  1 ♀; Ituberá ; 1 Jul. 2003; I. Castro leg.; CEMT  4 ♂♂, 1 ♀; Piraí do Norte ; 39º22′54″ W, 13º52′55″ S; 18 Feb. 2016; P.P. Lopes leg.; pitfall human faeces; CEMTGoogleMaps  6 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; Ibirapitanga, Mata do Ppuã ; UTM24L0450355/8462777 [39º27′34″ W, 13º54′17″ S]; 14 Nov. 2014; G.R.G. Sila et al. leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 spec.; Rio Una ; Oct. 1937; CEAH  1 spec.; Rio Una ; 23 Oct. 1937; Zellibor-Hauff leg.; CEAH  1 ♀; Simões Filho, CIA Reserva ; 17 Feb. 1987; D.H. Smith leg.; CEMT  3 ♂♂; Igrapiuna, Vila 5; 39º10′13″ W, 13º48′8″ S; 19 May 2010; R. Carvalho leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; Santa Cruz de Cabrália ; 39º01′20″ W, 16º19′21″ S; Jan. 2007; L Veira leg.; CEMTGoogleMaps  3 ♂♂; Porto Seguro, RPPN Veracel ; Nov. 2004; J.C.N. Louzada leg.; pitfall human faeces; CEMT  1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; Feb. 2006; F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello leg.; pitfall human faeces; CEMT  7 ♀♀; Eunápolis, RPPN Veracel ; Feb. 2006; F.Z. Vaz-de-Mello leg.; CEMT  2 ♀♀; Reserva do Maraú; 26 Jun. 2017; A. C.Amorim and Laboratório de Biodiversidade e Genética de Insetos leg.; CEMT. – Minas Gerais  1 ♂; Viçosa ; 11 Jul. 1994; Almeida leg.; CEMT  1 ♀; P.E. do Rio Doce ; Oct. 1991; J.C.N. Louzada leg.; CEMT  1 ♀; P.E. do Rio Doce ; Feb. 1992; J.C.N. Louzada leg.; CEMT  1 ♂, 2 ♀♀; P.E. do Rio Doce ; 11 Oct. 1992; J. Louzada leg.; CEMT  1 ♀; Marliéria, P.E. do Rio Doce ; 14 Sep. 2001; S.S.P. Almeida leg.; CEMT  1 ♂; Marliéria, P.E. do Rio Doce ; 22 Sep. 2000; J.P. Soares leg.; CEMT  1 ♂, 3 ♀♀; Leopoldina, Recreio  ; Dec. 1999; C. Lopes Andrade leg.; CEMT  2 ♂♂; Leopoldina ; Dec. 1999; CEMT  2 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀, Recreio ; Jan. 2000; Lopes-Andrade and Vaz de Mello leg.; CEMT  1 ♂; same collection data as for preceding; C. Lopes leg.; CEMT  1 ♂; PFERD; 9 Feb. 1993; R.G. Collevatti leg.; CEMT. – Espírito Santo  1 ♂; Vitoria ; 25 Mar. 1986; R.P. Moure leg.; CEMT  1 ♀; Jacaranema, B. Jucu ; Apr. 1985; A. P. Aguiar leg.; restinga; CEMT  2 ♂♂; Linhares, Faz. Lagoa do Macuco ; 10 m a.s.l.; 39º58′43″ W, 19º3′50″ S; 27 Jan. 2000; F. Génier and S. Ide leg.; prim. lowland Atlantic for., sandy ex. dung tp 4, day 1, FG 2000-40; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂, 1 ♀; Regência, Reserva Biológica de Comboios ; 39º53′5″ W, 19º39′57″ S; Jan. 2007; L. Vieira; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; Matataízes; Jan. 2007; L Vieira leg.; CEMT. – Espírito Santo, Linhares, Reserva Natural Vale   22 ♂♂, 13 ♀♀; 39º55′34″ W, 19º10′9″ S; 13 May 2016; F. Cassar leg.; PPBio; pitfall human faeces, PT50, PT150 and PT200 F1500; CEMTGoogleMaps  12 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀; 39º54′59″ W, 19º10′7″ S; pitfall human faeces, PT0, PT50 and PT100 F500; CEMTGoogleMaps  23 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀; 39º56′43″ W, 19º10′10″ S; pitfall human faeces, PT0, PT50 and PT150 F3500; CEMTGoogleMaps  12 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀; 39º56′8″ W, 19º10′10″ S; pitfall human faeces, PT0, PT50, PT100 and PT200 F2500; CEMTGoogleMaps  21 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀; 39º57′18″ W, 19º10′11″ S; pitfall human faeces, PT0, PT50, PT100 and PT150 F4500; CEMTGoogleMaps  2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; 40º01′35″ W, 19º8′48″ S; 25 Jul. 2016; pitfall human faeces; PT50, PT200, O2500; CEMTGoogleMaps  11 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; 39º57′52″ W, 19º6′18″ S; 25 Jul. 2016; PT0, PT150, I2500; CEMTGoogleMaps  5 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; 39º57′18″ W, 19º10′11″ S; 25 Jul. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT50, PT200 and PT250 I4500; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♂; 40º2′9″ W, 19º8′49″ S; 25 Jul. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT100, O3500; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; 39º57′17″ W, 19º6′19″ S; 25 Jul. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT0, I3500; CEMTGoogleMaps  3 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; 39º58′52″ W, 19º6′17″ S; 10 Apr. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT100, PT200, I500; CEMTGoogleMaps  1 ♀; 39º58′27″ W, 19º6′18″S; 10 Apr. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT250, I1500; CEMTGoogleMaps  3 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; pitfall human faeces, PT100, PT250, I1500; CEMTGoogleMaps  18 ♂♂, 5 ♀♀; 39º57′40″ W, 19º13′38″ S; 6 Apr. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT0, PT50, PT100, PT150, PT200 and PT250 B1950; CEMTGoogleMaps  3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; 40º1′1″ W, 19º8′45″ S; 25 Jul. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT0, PT100, PT150 and PT200 O1500; CEMTGoogleMaps  3 ♂♂, 1 ♀; 39º57′42″ W, 19º13′5″ S; 22 Jul. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT100, PT150 and PT250 B2950; CEMTGoogleMaps  3 ♂♂, 2 ♀♀; 39º57′39″ W, 19º14′10″ S; 6 Apr. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT100 B950; CEMTGoogleMaps  4 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀; 40º0′27″ W, 19º8′44″ S; 16 Apr. 2016; pitfall human faeces, PT0 and PT150 O500; CEMTGoogleMaps  2 ♂♂; Linhares ; 40º5′8″ W, 19º17′45″ S; 14 Oct. 2012; R.C. Lima leg.; CEMT – Rio de JaneiroGoogleMaps  1 ♂; Campos dos Goytacazes, Fazenda Babilônia ; 20 Apr. 2008; J.S. Multani leg.; CEMT  1 ♂; no collecting data; CEMT  .

Remarks

This species has a complex and confusing nomenclatural history. The name Canthon prasinus  was first established by Klug (1833) for a new species from Madagascar. However, Klug’s species was not described in a suitable genus since Canthon  is entirely Neotropical in occurrence. Four years later, Dejean (1836) transferred that species to his new genus Epilissus  , of which Reiche (1841) subsequently designated it as the type species.

More than three decades after Reiche’s work, Harold (1867a) established a primary junior homonym C. prasinus  for a Brazilian species that, according to Harold (1868), had been misidentified as Canthon sulcatus Perty, 1830  by Castelnau (1840); Perty’s actual species, in fact, belonged to Canthidium Erichson, 1847  , where it had already been transferred by Harold (1867b) and still remains (Cupello 2018). In his 1869 catalogue of the world Scarabaeinae, Harold (1869: 992)  maintained that stance by including ‘ C. sulcatus  Castelnau’ as a junior synonym of C. prasinus Harold. Harold (1875)  used C. prasinus  as valid again in his list of the dung beetles of the municipality of Cantagalo, Rio de Janeiro state, Brazil.

Gillet (1911) listed Canthon prasinus Harold  and ‘ Canthon sulcatus  Castelnau’ as valid species; however, in the same work, he also considered the two names as synonyms.

In most of the ‘recent’ literature, only one author followed Gillet’s view ( Blackwelder 1944), while many others followed Schmidt’s ( Balthasar 1939; Pereira 1953; Vulcano & Pereira 1964), but all those authors were wrong. This included the descriptive work of the new South American genus Peltecanthon ( Pereira 1953)  .

Applying Article 23.9.5 of the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, there are arguments that both names can be preserved, since they have not been considered congeneric after 1899. However, to invoke that Article, we would have to consider that C. prasinus  is currently in use, which is not the case, or that C. sulcatus  was first published by Schmidt, not Castelnau (which is also not the case). Considering this context, we propose Canthon haroldi  as a new replacement name, in homage to Edgar Von Harold, who made the most correct evaluation regarding the application of those names, and was misinterpreted by subsequent authors.

Distribution

Atlantic Forest in the Brazilian coast, in the states of Bahia, Espírito Santo, Minas Gerais and Rio de Janeiro ( Fig. 10View Fig).

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Coleoptera

Family

Scarabaeidae

Genus

Canthon

Loc

Canthon (Peltecanthon) haroldi

Nunes, Luis Gabriel de O. A., Nunes, Rafael V. & Vaz-De, Fernando Z. 2020
2020
Loc

Peltecanthon sulcatus – Pereira 1953: 399

Loc

Canthon prasinus –

Schmidt A. 1920: 125
Gillet J. J. E. 1911: 32
Harold E. 1868: 14
Loc

Canthon sulcatus

Balthasar V. 1939: 203
Schmidt A. 1920: 125
Castelnau Comte 1840: 69
Loc

Canthon prasinum –

Blackwelder R. 1944: 201
Loc

Canthon sulcatum

Blackwelder R. 1944: 202
Loc

Peltecanthon sulcatus

Halffter G. & Martinez A. 1967: 80
Vulcano M. A. & Pereira F. S. 1964: 574
Loc

Canton (Peltecanthon) sulcatus

Halffter G. & Martinez A. 1977: 75
Loc

Canton (Peltecanthon) sulcatum

Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. & Cupello M. 2018: 46
Vaz-de-Mello F. Z. 2000: 191