Epimetopus trogoides ( Sharp, 1875 )

Perkins, Philip D., 2012, 3531, Zootaxa 3531, pp. 1-95 : 73

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Epimetopus trogoides ( Sharp, 1875 )


Epimetopus trogoides ( Sharp, 1875)

Figs. 111 (habitus), 112 (aedeagus), 126 (map)

Sepidulum trogoides Sharp 1874: 249 .

Epimetopus trogoides: Bedel 1880: 73 ; catalog.

Epimetopus trogoides: Balfour-Browne (1949: 13 , fig.1); misidentification.

Epimetopus trogoides : Rocha (1969: 176, fig.13); misidentification.

Epimetopus trogoides: Oliva (1986: 9) ; misidentification.

Type material: Holotype (male): "Type H. T. [red disc]; Amer. mer.; Sharp Coll. 1905-313; Aedeagus drawn by P. D. Perkins 1993" ( BMNH).

New collection records: Brazil: Mato Grosso, Caceres , MT., 16° 4' S, 57° 41' W, 2–4 xii 1955, M. Alvarenga (1 CAS) GoogleMaps ; Jacaré, Parque Nacional do Xingu , 15° 16' S, 57° 42' W, 1–30 xi 1965, M. Alvarenga & Werner (1 FMNH) GoogleMaps . Sao Paulo, Piracicaba , collected at black light, 22° 44' S, 47° 39' W, 7 x 1965, C. A. Triplehorn (2 USNM) GoogleMaps .

Differential diagnosis. This species is very similar externally to E. clandestinus ( Figs. 111, 115); it is larger (ca. 2.88 vs. 2.50 mm) and the pronotal lateral lobes are shaped slightly differently. Reliable determinations will require dissection of males. The aedeagus is superficially similar to that of E. deceptus ( Figs. 112, 114). It differs in several respects, including the following: 1) the parameres apically are narrowed and pointed, have the lateral margin curved subapically, and have very thin walls; 2) the dorsal processes are longer; 3) the distance from the apex of the dorsal processes to the tip of the median lobe is shorter; 4) the tip of the median lobe is more acute; 5) the distance that the apex of the paramere extends beyond the tip of the dorsal process is less; 6) the basal piece is less arcuate; and 7) the oriface of the basal piece is larger.

Description. Size: holotype (length/width, mm): body (length from anterior margin of pronotum to elytral apices) 2.88/1.53; head (width) 0.80; pronotum 0.95/1.20; elytra 2.53/1.53. Habitus as illustrated ( Fig. 111). Head dark brown to piceous, maxillary palpi light brown; dorsum dark brown with lighter fascia at about midlength of elytra; venter and coxae piceous, remainder of legs reddish brown. Pronotum with hood carinae straight, converging and very narrowly separated anteriorly; secondary lateral lobe moderately large. Elytron with four strong granulate carinae, third interrupted anteriorly for distance of ca. 4–5 punctures; punctures round or oval, large, each with small granule at anterior margin, non-carinate intervals without granules. Protibiae slightly emarginate on inner margin, outer margin arcuate. Metaventral depression small, ca. 7 granules along base.

Distribution. Currently known (reliable determinations) from three localities in Brazil ( Fig. 126). According to Sharp (1875), in the original description, the holotype is from “South America, or possibly Mexico."

Notes. This species has a long history of misidentifications. These errors are the result of the external similarity of several species related to E. trogoides , combined with the failure to examine the holotype aedeagus, or uncritical examination of the aedeagus of the holotype. Balfour-Browne (1949; fig. 1) illustrated an aedeagus supposedly of E. trogoides . However, it is not, and may represent the aedeagus of E. lanceolatulus n. sp., but the detail is inadequate to be sure. Rocha (1969; fig. 13) illustrated an aedeagus supposedly of E. trogoides . However, it is not, nor is it the same species as illustrated by Balfour-Browne (1949); the detail of the illustration is inadequate to positively determine what other species it represents. Likewise, Oliva (1986; fig. 5), illustrated an aedeagus supposedly of E. trogoides . However, it also is not, and appears instead to be the aedeagus of E. lanceolatulus . The distribution records given by Rocha (1969) and Oliva (1986) for E. trogoides are therefore invalid until proven, by careful examination of the aedeagi, to actually be E. trogoides . The aedeagus of the holotype of E. trogoides is illustrated herein ( Fig. 112).


California Academy of Sciences


Field Museum of Natural History


Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History














Epimetopus trogoides ( Sharp, 1875 )

Perkins, Philip D. 2012

Epimetopus trogoides: Oliva (1986: 9)

Oliva, A. 1986: )

Epimetopus trogoides

Rocha, A. A. 1969: 176

Epimetopus trogoides: Balfour-Browne (1949: 13

Balfour-Browne, J. 1949: 13