Azotoctla femorata, Cardona-Duque, Juliana & Franz, Nico M., 2012

Cardona-Duque, Juliana & Franz, Nico M., 2012, Description and phylogeny of a new Neotropical genus of Acalyptini (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Curculioninae) associated with the staminodes of Cyclanthaceae, Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society 166 (3), pp. 559-623 : 594-599

publication ID 10.1111/j.1096-3642.2012.00851.x

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scientific name

Azotoctla femorata


AZOTOCTLA FEMORATA CARDONA- DUQUE & FRANZ SP. NOV. ( FIGS 22–24 View Figure 22 View Figure 23 View Figure 24 )

Diagnosis: Medium-sized; light to dark yellowish brown; antennal club elongate, apically pointed; aedeagus without paired lateral, longitudinally orientated plates; aedeagal margins rounded, without projection; endophallus with a T-shaped, longitudinally orientated sclerite projecting beyond dorsal margin. Azotoctla femorata is the largest amongst the species herein treated and is most readily separated from the remaining Azotoctla species by the elongate antennal funicular segments and elongate and pointed antennal club; by the nearly straight and oblique anterior margin of the metanepisternum; and by the distinctly stout metafemora, which are ventrally widened for their apical three quarters. This species shares with A. curvirostra a sexually dimorphic rostrum and a partly sclerotized aedeagal tectum with two convergent subtriangular sclerites. However, males of A. femorata have a long and subrectate rostrum in lateral view, whereas those of A. curvirostra have a dorsally arcuate and ventrally subrectate rostrum.

Description: Male ( Fig. 22A View Figure 22 ): medium-sized, length 2.5–3.0 mm, width 1.2–1.6 mm, oval l/w = 1.8–2.0 (N = 4). Colour light to dark yellowish brown; vestiture very long, dense, golden, most conspicuous on prothorax, elytra, thoracic sternites, epipleura, femora, tibia, tarsi, and ventrites, very dense on elytra. Rostrum long, 0.7–0.9 mm; r/p = 1.2–1.4, yellowish brown; in lateral view subrectate; in dorsal view slightly pilose and even between antennal insertion and eyes; antennal insertion near apical quarter, scrobe subrectate, basally shallow. Antennal scape slender; funicular segments III- VII long, progressing from elongate to subcircular; club elongate, longer than III- VII of funicle, apically pointed, I, II, and III similar in length. Head yellowish brown; ventrally and dorsally slightly pilose. Eyes distant from pronotal margin by nearly one third of their diameter; interocular distance slightly shorter than interantennal distance at insertion point. Pronotum l/w = 0.7, yellowish brown, in dorsal view suboval, anterior margin 0.6¥ width of posterior margin, lateral margins rounded, greatest width near to anterior third, vestiture long; posterior margin subrectate; in lateral view subquadrate. Mesepimeron ventrally slightly projected; anterior margin of metanepisternum nearly straight, oblique, width slightly narrowed backward. Prosternum scarcely pilose; procoxal cavities inserted on posterior three quarters; prosternal process narrowly rounded; metaventrite densely pilose, even, centrally slightly concave, posterolateral depression abrupt (excavate); metacoxal cavities separated by distance similar to mesocoxal diameter. Ventral vestiture dense and long. Prothoracic legs yellowish brown; procoxa apically truncate, distinctly pilose; profemur strongly stout f/p = 1.3–1.4, distinctly sinuate; protibia t/f = 0.8–0.9; protarsus with very long and dense setae dorsad; tarsal claws basally stout. Metafemur stout, ventrally widened for apical three quarters, angulate; meso- and metatibiae anteroventrally pubescent along apical third. Scutellum triangular, yellowish brown. Elytra semicircular, elongate, l/w = 1.4–1.6, anterior margins sinuate; lateral margins subparallel throughout anterior two thirds, thereafter evenly rounded or nearly straight and converging; in lateral view dorsally flattened throughout anterior half, thereafter slightly convex; striae subequal to intervals, shallow; indistinct; strial punctures large, dark brown, suboval; intervals yellowish brown, vestiture long, erected. Abdomen nearly 2.5¥ length of lateral margin of metaventrite, vestiture long, similar to that of metaventrite, sparser anteriad; sternites 1 and 2 centrally concave; 1 and 2 similar in length; 5 slightly longer than 2. Tergites 1–5 incomplete; tergite 6 complete posteriad; tergite 7 complete; tergites 3 posteriorly, 4–6 lateroposteriorly and tergite 7 lateroanteriorly with paired strigatesculptured regions. Tergite 8 completely covered by elytra; distinctly wider than long (width nearly 1.5¥ its length), posterior margin straight, laterally rounded; in lateral view broad, on the same plane of tergites (subparallel to orientation of posterior portion of elytra). Distal angle of sternum 8 with six to eight large setae. Sternum 9 ( Fig. 24A View Figure 24 ) with basal portion of basal plate sinuate, Y-shaped; apical portion subquadrate, mesally slightly projected; apodeme nearly one times width of aedeagal apodemes, slightly widened at its apical end. Tegminal plate reduced, basal piece Y-shaped; tegminal apodeme deflexed, nearly one quarter length of aedeagus. Aedeagus ( Fig. 24B View Figure 24 ) medium, l/w = 3.1–3.4 (N = 4), simple (as opposed to with paired lateral, longitudinally orientated variously shaped plates); basal margin narrowly rounded, diffuse, apex rounded, simple; tectum mesally partly sclerotized with two convergent subtriangular, elongate sclerites (base and apex opened); endophallus with a longitudinal, central, sinuate, T-shaped sclerite; in lateral view wide, longitudinal sclerite standing out from dorsal margin, ventral margin subrectate, slightly sinuate; aedeagal apodemes in lateral view sinuate throughout.

Female: length 2.3–2.8 mm, width 1.2–1.5 mm, l/w = 1.8–2.0 (N = 3). Rostrum longer than in male, 0.8–1.0 mm; r/p = 1.7–2.0, slender, distinctly arcuate throughout, in cross-section circular, glabrous throughout, punctures shallow, dorsolaterally rounded; antennal insertion at middle; scrobe arcuate, weakly projected to apex. Head yellowish to reddish brown. Interocular distance slightly shorter than interantennal distance at insertion point. Pronotum l/w = 0.6–0.8, anterior margin 0.6¥ width of posterior margin, greatest width at midpoint; in lateral view subquadrate. Mesoventral process narrow. Prothoracic legs f/p = 1.3–1.6; t/f = 0.8–0.9. Elytra l/w = 1.3–1.6. Abdominal suture between sternites 1 and 2 slightly evident laterad; sternite 5 slightly shorter than 3 + 4. Tergites 1–3 incomplete; lateroposterior part of tergites 4–6 and lateroanterior part of tergite 7 with paired strigate-sculptured regions. Tergite 8 semilunar; slender; posterior margin slightly angulate, plicate, with small setae; anterior margin emarginate; lateral margin simple. Sternum 8 ( Fig. 24C View Figure 24 ) with lamina mesally deeply emarginate; furcal arms subtriangular, inner corners of furcal arms strongly projected, with one seta. Coxites nearly as long as apodeme of sternite 8, styli subcircular (as opposed to elongate), apically with one to three long setae. Spermatheca ( Fig. 24D View Figure 24 ) with corpus tubular; cornu deflexed, apex broadly rounded; ramus and collum widely separated; ramus not protruded; collum slightly protruded, slightly rugulose.

Variation: The examined specimens vary in the density and length of the elytral vestiture. Specimens from Colombia have distinctly more sparse and shorter setae on the elytra. The Colombian specimens are furthermore darker than the Costa Rican specimens, and the rostrum and head of the former can be reddish brown, although some of the observed variation is because of different stages of pigmentation following emergence (i.e. teneral vs. fully pigmented). Specimens from Ecuador have a centrally positioned oval macula on the elytra. Females taken from the Colombian localities may have divided tergites 4–6 and a slightly swollen spermathecal corpus. Finally, there is an appreciable size variation throughout the species’ distributional range, with the Central American specimens being larger than those from northern South America.

Type material: Holotype male (dissected) ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], San Luis, Río Claro , 5°53′32,1″ N; 74°51′17,8″ W, 324 m, bosque, en inflorescencia en fase masculina de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón, Ago. 2/2009, leg. Bota, Cardona, Franz & Mazo, CEUA 47820 ’ ( CEUA) GoogleMaps . Paratypes, same label information as holotype male except ‘ CEUA 47821 ’, ‘ CEUA 47830 ’, ‘ CEUA 47836 ’, ‘ CEUA 47848 ’, ‘ CEUA 49323 ’, ‘ CEUA 49324 ’, ‘ CEUA 49325 ’, ‘ CEUA 49326 ’, ‘ CEUA 49327 ’, ‘ CEUA 49328 ’, ‘ CEUA 49329 ’, ‘ CEUA 49330 ’ ( CEUA: four males, eight females; three dissected); ‘COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], San Rafael, Vda. [Vereda] La Rápida , Finca Cantarrana , 6°15′27,6″ N; 75°01′41,5″ W, 1041 m, en estaminodios recogidos en el suelo de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón , May. 25/2007, leg. Cardona & Tuberquia, CEUA 47826 ’, ‘ CEUA 49331 ’, ‘ CEUA 49332 ’, ‘ CEUA 49333 ’, ‘ CEUA 49334 ’, ‘ CEUA 49335 ’, ‘ CEUA 49336 ’, ‘ CEUA 49337 ’, ‘ CEUA 49338 ’, ‘ CEUA 49339 ’ ( CEUA: three males, seven females; one dissected) and ‘ ICN- 048275 ’, ‘ ICN-048276 ’, ‘ ICN-048277 ’ and ‘ ICN-048278 ’ ( ICN: two males, two females) GoogleMaps ; ‘ COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], Remedios, Vereda La Cruz, Finca La Brillantina 6°54′57.2″ N; 74°33′59.5″ W, 500 m, potrero, en inflorescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón, Dic. 28/2009, leg. C. Bota, CEUA 49355 ’, ‘ CEUA 49356 ’, ‘ CEUA 49357 ’, ‘ CEUA 49358 ’, ‘ CEUA 49359 ’, ‘ CEUA 49360 ’, ‘ CEUA 49361 ’ ( CEUA: two males, five females) GoogleMaps ; ‘ COant. [ Colombia, Antioquia], Anorí, Vda. [Vereda] El Zafiro , Finca El Pital , 7°1′48.7″ N; 75°4′25.6″ W, borde de bosque cerca a arrollo, en inflorescencia de Carludovica palmata Ruiz & Pavón , Nov. 24/2009, leg. C. Bota, CEUA 49362 ’, ‘ CEUA 49363 ’, ‘ CEUA 49364 ’ ( CEUA: one male, two females) GoogleMaps ; ‘ COcal. [ Colombia, Caldas], Supía, Qda. [Quebrada] Piedras (desembocadura en el río Cauca), 05°24′43″ N; 74°35′43″ W, en inflorescencia de Carludovica palmata, Mar. 2/2009, leg. C. Bota & N. Uribe, CEUA 47829 ’, ‘ CEUA 49340 ’, ‘ CEUA 49341 ’, ‘ CEUA 49342 ’, ‘ CEUA 49343 ’, ‘ CEUA 49344 ’, ‘ CEUA 49345 ’, ‘ CEUA 49346 ’, ‘ CEUA 49347 ’, ‘ CEUA 49348 ’, ‘ CEUA 49349 ’ and ‘ CEUA 49350 ’ ( CEUA: one male, 11 females; one dissected) GoogleMaps ; ‘ Costa Rica, Puntarenas, Las Cruces , 1150 m, 8°47′3″ N, 82°57′36″ W, on Carludovica palmata , VI-21–1998, leg. R. Anderson’ ( ASUT: seven males, one female; three dissected) GoogleMaps ; ‘ Costa Rica, Heredia, La Selva, 40 m, on Carludovica sulcata , 23.VIII.1997, leg. N. Franz’ ( ASUT: two males, six females) ; ‘ Costa Rica, Heredia, La Selva, 40 m, on Carludovica sulcata , 25.VIII.1997, leg. N. Franz’ ( ASUT: nine males and nine females) ; ‘ Est. [Estación] Q. [Quebrada] Bonita, R. B. Carara, Prov. Punta , COSTA RICA. 50 m. Dic. 1993. R. Guzmán, L N 194500_469850 #2499/INBIO CRI001 712925’ ( INBIO: 1 female) ; ‘ COSTA RICA, Puntarenas. Est. [Estación] Biol. [Biológica] Las Cruces , 4 km S. San Vito, 1150 m 08°47′03″ N, 82°57′36″ W, 21.VI.1998, R. Anderson, on staminodes of Carludovica palmata flowers, 98–107’ ( CMNC: eight males, seven females) GoogleMaps ; ‘ COSTA RICA, Puntarenas. Las Cruces Biol. Stn., Coto Brus , 1100 m, I.1994, L. D. Gómez, on inflor Carludovica palmata ’ ( CMNC: two males, two females) ; ‘ COSTA RICA, Puntarenas. San Vito , 1200 m, V.1993, L. D. Gómez, on inflor Carludovica palmata & C. drudei ’ ( CMNC: two males, one female) ; ‘ COSTA RICA, Provincia Heredia, 11 km ESE La Virgen , 250–350 m, 10°21′ N, 84°03′ W 6–12- IV, INBio2004 View Materials -OET-ALAS transect’ ( CMNC: one female) GoogleMaps ; ‘ Costa Rica, Limón, San Clemente , 40 m, 09°49′10″ N, 82°54′20″ W, on Carludovica palmata , leg. H. Do & N. Franz, 5/Jun/2003 ’ ( ASUT: one male, one female) GoogleMaps ; ‘ Ecuador, Pichincha, 47 km S [south] Santo Domingo, Río Palenque , on palm flowers, V-18/ 30–1975 leg. S. & J. Peck’ ( ASUT: two males, two females; two dissected) ; ‘ Panamá, provincia de Colón, Fuerte Sherman , Carludovica drudei , 25.VII.1995, H. Barrios’ ( CMNC: one male) . ‘ COSTA RICA, Her. Biol. Sta. La Selva 50m. IX-1-1998 C.W. O’Brien /ex Carludovica sulcata flowers’ ( CWOB: 2 males, 2 females; 2 dissected) .

Etymology: Named in reference to the widened hind femora, based on the Latin word femur, which means ‘thigh’ ( Brown, 1956).

Natural history: According to the available data, Azotoctla femorata is the most widely distributed species of the genus ( Fig. 37 View Figure 37 ); occurring in Costa Rica, Panama, Colombia, and Ecuador. Large numbers of adults of this species have been collected crawling on the staminodes of the inflorescences of several species of Carludovica ; including C. palmata in Colombia; C. drudei Masters , C. palmata , and C. sulcata Hammel in Costa Rica; and C. drudei in Panama. Label data (Pichincha, Ecuador) reporting this species on ‘palm flowers’ is probably to represent misidentifications. Adults have been observed both on the extended staminodes of open inflorescences and on detached staminodes that have fallen from the plant.


Instituto de Ciencias Naturales, Museo de Historia Natural


Frank M. Hasbrouck Insect Collection













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