Oodera formosa (Giraud, 1863)
Werner, Jennifer & Peters, Ralph S., 2018, Taxonomic revision of the genus Oodera Westwood, 1874 (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Pteromalidae, Cleonyminae), with description of ten new species, Journal of Hymenoptera Research 63, pp. 73-123: 87-92
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|Oodera formosa (Giraud, 1863)|
Heydenia formosa Giraud, 1863: 21-22.
Stellophora formosa ; Hedqvist 1957: 44-46.
Oodera formosa ; Bouček 1958: 375.
Oodera bestia Nikol’skaya, 1952: 487-488. Synonymy by Bouček 1958: 375-380.
BOTH SEXES (N = 35). Usually small-sized (3.60-7.12 mm, with only 1 of 27 medium-sized). Head and mesosoma dark green and coppery. Fore wing partly infumate. Body robust to slender (mesonotum 1.19-1.47 × as long as wide). Head usually round (1.30-1.48 × as high as long, with only 3 of 32 with head oval). Eyes usually large (0.55-0.68 × as high as head, with only 4 of 32 with eyes small) (Fig. 8f View Figure 8 ). Corona thick to medium (3.20-6.67 × as long as wide), structure continuous (Fig. 5f View Figure 5 ). Pronotum pentagonal with posterior part distinctly narrowing towards mesoscutum, with broadest part at midlength (Fig. 11f View Figure 11 ). Mesoscutellum normal to slender (0.63-0.95 × as long as wide), anterior margin usually convex (part anterior to imaginary transverse line connecting posterior margins of axillae more than 1/3 mesoscutellum length; 0.24-0.47, with only 8 of 32 with anterior margin of mesoscutellum hardly convex), mesoscutellum lineate in anterior half to anterior two-thirds, with median lines converging, rugulose in posterior half or third (Fig. 14f View Figure 14 ). Propodeum usually medium (0.08-0.18 × as long as mesoscutum, with only 5 of 28 with propodeum large) (Fig. 14f View Figure 14 ). Profemur usually medium to elongated (1.94-2.33 × as long as wide, with only 5 of 31 with profemur robust). Marginal vein short to medium (0.85-1.00 × as long as postmarginal vein).
FEMALE. Metasoma short to long (0.43-0.55 × as long as body). Ovipositor usually short (0.09-0.17 × as long as metasoma, with only 2 of 26 with metasoma rather long) (Fig. 2f View Figure 2 ).
BOTH SEXES. Colour (Figs 2f View Figure 2 , 5f View Figure 5 , 8f View Figure 8 , 11f View Figure 11 , 14f View Figure 14 ). Scape yellow, darkening apically, rest of antenna dark brown. Procoxa and profemur dark green, all other parts of legs dark brown, except for brown last tarsal segments. Metasoma brown to black.
Head (Figs 5f View Figure 5 , 8f View Figure 8 ). Face completely reticulate. Head 1.29-1.73 × as wide as long. Head width 3.00-3.78 × eye distance. Malar space 0.33-0.45 × head height. Corona 0.56-0.84 × as long as eye height. POL 0.5-1.33 × OOL. Scape 1.95-3.16 × as long as pedicel. Clava 0.13-0.20 × as long as funicle. Flagellum 1.12-1.66 × as long as head width.
Mesosoma (Figs 11f View Figure 11 , 14f View Figure 14 ). Pronotum 0.86-1.05 × as long as wide. Pronotum 0.49-0.64 × as long as mesonotum. Mesonotum 1.38-1.55 × as long as mesoscutum. Mesoscutum 0.82-1.02 × as long as wide. Mesoscutellum 0.38-0.55 × as long as mesoscutum. Profemur 1.19-1.71 × as long as protibia.
Wings (Fig. 2f View Figure 2 ). Fore wing 2.56-3.86 × as long as wide. Costal cell 0.28-0.39 × as long as fore wing. Marginal vein 0.17-0.21 × as long as fore wing. Marginal vein 2.24 -4.25 × (2.24-3.29 × if two outliers with very short stigmal vein are removed) as long as stigmal vein. Postmarginal vein 2.40-4.50 × (2.40-3.29 × if two outliers with very short stigmal vein are excluded) as long as stigmal vein.
Europe. Bulgaria: male, Slencev Brjag, leg. Kocourek, 26.07.1968, det. Z. Bouček 1976 ( BMNH) (OFo04) . France: female, Landes , leg. Reinhard, det. Z. Bouček 1958 ( MFNB) (OFo03) . Germany: three females, MTB 6315 Flörsheim-Dalsheim, Rheinland-Pfalz, BRD RP 49°39'16"N- 8°12'51"E, "Garten am Haus", leg. G. Reder, 11.06, 19.06 and 04.07.2014 ( ZFMK) (OFo33-35) GoogleMaps . Romania: female, Herculeana , leg. T.E. Leiler, 1921 ( BMNH) (OFo07) . Russia: male paratype O. monstrum , Taganrog, leg. K. Anger, 20.06.1929, det. N. Nikol’skaya ( BMNH) (OFo12); female holotype O. monstrum , USSR, VI.1935 (ZIRAS, examined from photographs); female syntype O. bestia , Ul’yanovsk Aksinin, 19.04.1905 (ZIRAS, examined from photographs); female, USSR, Adigea, Soci , leg. K. Pospisil, 23.06.1957, det. Z. Bouček 1958 ( BMNH) (OFo13) . Slovenia: two males, one ? sex, Vipava, Carniolia, Wippach, leg. Handl, 16.07.1986, det. Z. Bouček 1958 ( NHMW) (OFo09-11) . Spain: female, Villaviciosa , 8.1969 ( BMNH) (OFo08) . Switzerland: female, Genève, Miolan, leg. C. Besuchet, 07.08.1991, det. H. Baur 1994 ( NMBE) (OFo03) . Turkey: female, G.antep, Gaziantep, leg. M Yasar Celik, 14.07.1971 (MNP) (OFo32). Former Yugoslavia: two females, leg. T.E. Leiler, 1955 ( BMNH) (OFo05-06); without location: female holotype O. formosa , labelled " Heydenia formosa Gir." (plus unreadable addition) ( MNHN) (OFo01). North America . Canada: Ontario: female, Ottawa, Fletcher Garden , 45°23'11.58"N, 75°42'12.84"W, Boudreault, Goulet & Ferdandez, 28.VII-18.VIII.2016, MT ( CNC) (collected subsequent to study, not included in diagnosis and description, no specimen ID assigned) GoogleMaps . USA: Kentucky: female, Owen County, Herndorn Farm, Hym Institute, 22.06- 08.07.2009 ( CNC) (OFo31). New Jersey: 11 females, one ? sex, Camden County, Merchantville , leg. H.A. Hespenheide, 1969 ( CNC) (OFo19-30). Virginia: five females, Clarke County, Univ. Va. Blandy Exptl. Farm 2 miD Boyce, leg. D.R. Smith, 17.- 30.06.1993, 01.- 14.07.1993, 25.06- 05.07.1994 and 25.07.- 08.08.1995 ( CNC) (OFo14-18) .
Hosts: Buprestidae ( Agrilus sp., A. graminis , A. suvorovi , A. viridis , Capnodis sp.), Cleridae ( Tillus unifaciatus ), Ptinidae ( Ptinus germanus ), Scolytinae ( Hylesinus sp.); Plant associates: Fabaceae ( Robinia sp.). The host and associates records are taken from Noyes (2017) (and references therein) and are not verified.
Southern and Central Europe, northernmost location in Germany, Rhineland-Palatinate, representing first record from Germany; Russia. Introduced to the eastern United States (Kentucky, Virginia, New Jersey) and recently found in eastern Canada (Ontario).
Comparison of the female holotype (examined from images) and the male paratype of O. monstrum (Figs 4c View Figure 4 , 7c View Figure 7 , 10c View Figure 10 , 13c View Figure 13 , 16c View Figure 16 ) with the holotype of O. formosa indicates the specimens are conspecific, resulting in the new synonymy of O. monstrum under O. formosa . The characters used by Nikol’skaja (1952) to separate O. monstrum and O. formosa (as O. bestia ) cannot be confirmed as valid. The first diagnostic character used to differentiate O. monstrum from O. formosa was "pedicel length of first funicular segment" (interpreted as pedicel being as long as first funicular segment) versus "pedicel slightly longer than first funicular segment". This variation is characteristic of almost all Oodera species. The second character, "ovipositor shorter than first hind tarsal segment" versus "equal in length to first hind tarsal segment" is equally variable in O. formosa . Other differences between the two putative species included colour differences of the body, metasoma, antennae and legs. We found the rather slight differences in colouration to be within the variation of what we interpret as O. formosa . In general, differences in intensity or hue of colour, especially in the weaker sclerotised parts such as legs, antennae, and metasoma, are mostly unsuitable to differentiate between species in Chalcidoidea (e.g., Peters and Baur 2011), though differences in colour pattern of different structures can be important. Bouček (1958) provided some more characters to differentiate O. monstrum , which he considered a valid species, and O. formosa . These differences, mainly of the surface sculpture of the head and mesoscutellum are accurate when examining the respective type specimens. However, we consider the differences to constitute intraspecific variation when taking into account all specimens we include in O. formosa . In all additional diagnostic characters we use in this revision, there is no difference between O. monstrum and O. formosa . The synonymy of O. bestia Nikol’skaja, 1952 under O. formosa by Bouček (1958) is confirmed after examination of one of the syntypes.
The specimens from North America were assumed to be O. formosa by Gibson (2003). Our examination of a number of specimens from North America and com parison with European O. formosa , including the holotype, revealed that the North American specimens are in fact introduced O. formosa .
In general, we found distinguishing O. formosa from many other species of Oodera to be rather difficult. This is mainly due to the fact that O. formosa is the only species of Oodera represented by a significant number of specimens from several series (except for O. longicollis (Cameron) which is, however, very easily distinguished from all other Oodera species). The specimens show intraspecific variation that can be quite staggering for some characters. Only examination of this larger series allowed us to recognise the variation as intraspecific. For many other species, only single or a few specimens were available or (small) uniform series that originate from the same host or region. The variation of O. formosa is reflected in several diagnostic characters for which we add the term “usually” if the vast majority of examined specimens exhibits this character but a minority does not. We made these additions (also in the diagnoses of few other species) to make diagnoses and key more easily applicable for the reader. With a combination of characters, O. formosa is well separated from all other species.
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