Anisophlugis appendicula ( Gorochov, 2015 )

Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana & Olivier, Renan Da Silva, 2017, A new genus of Phlugidini (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae: Meconematinae) with asymmetrical mandibles, Zootaxa 4286 (3), pp. 391-400: 392-398

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Anisophlugis appendicula ( Gorochov, 2015 )

n. comb.

Anisophlugis appendicula ( Gorochov, 2015)  n. comb. Orthoptera ( Figs. 1–6View FIGURE 1View FIGURE 2View FIGURE 3View FIGURE 4View FIGURE 5View FIGURE 6)

Phlugiola appendicula Gorochov, 2015: 499  (original deScription), 500 (FigS. 82–84).

Etymology. The specific epithet “ appendicula  ” refers to the characteristic soft appendix on the female subgenital plate ( Gorochov 2015).

Holotype. Female. Bolivia, southeastern part of Santa Cruz Prov. 4–5 February 2014, A. Gorochov. Measurements (mm): TL 15; PL 3.8; exposed part of tegmina 2.2; HF 10.7; OL 6.5. 

Depository. Zoological Institute, Saint Petersburg, Russia. 

Description. Male and female as shown in Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A, B, 2A, B, and 4A, B. Head. ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 C, D, E and 2C, D, E). Face a little longer than broad ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 C, 2C). Eyes vertically elongated, large in relation to the size of the head, and weakly protruding ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 C, D, E and 2C, D, E). Frons flat and smooth. Thorax and wings. Pronotal disc very convex and metazona strongly projecting behind ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 D). Anterior margin of pronotum straight; posterior margin strongly convex ( Fig. 1View FIGURE 1 E). Lateral lobes rounded. Humeral sinus poorly developed ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A and D). Mesosternum with two tubercles with rounded tips. Metasternum unarmed. Fore femora (n=4) armed ventrally with 2 spines on inner and 3 on outer margins; mid and hind femora unarmed. Foretibiae armed ventrally with 5 movable spines on inner and 6 on outer margins. Mid tibiae armed ventrally with 2–4 movable spines on inner and 4–5 on outer margins. Hind tibiae armed dorsally with 21–28 spines on inner and 20–28 on outer margins. Genicular lobes unarmed. Tarsal claws of all legs similar, with little denticles ventrally. Tympana on fore tibiae open; tympanal slits facing laterally ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 F and G). Abdomen. Dorsal surface of tergites smooth, unmodified.

Genus Mandibles Tegmen Cerci Paraprocts Subgenital plate Titillator Description of male. Head in frontal view more rounded than in female. Mandibles strongly asymmetrical; left mandible longer ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 C and D). Pronotum is more bulging than in female, reaching the second abdominal tergite ( Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 A and D). Prosternum armed. Thoracic auditory spiracle was not observed. Tegmina as shown in Figs. 1View FIGURE 1 H and I, almost entirely covered by pronotum. Stridulatory region well-developed, and both tegmina translucent. Left stridulatory file (n=1) 0.346 mm long, with 59 teeth; width of the smallest teeth 0.009 mm and of the largest ones 0.032 mm. Right stridulatory file 0.446 mm long; width of the smallest teeth 0.016 mm and of the largest ones 0.024 mm; number of teeth 33 ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 E and F). Right mirror rectangular. Tergite X as long as the remaining tergites. Epiproct modified in two elongated ramifications, projecting behind, as long as the cerci, and apically covered with coarse bristles ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 B and C); the two ramifications are subapically in contact. Paraprocts modified in an elongated sclerite, longer than epiproct and covered with coarse bristles. The two paraprocts are apically in contact and located below the epiproct ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 B). Cercus simple, curved inward, width decreasing from the base to the apex; apical portion strongly sharpened ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 A, B, and C). Subgenital plate as long as cerci, with a short and V-shaped emargination at apex ( Fig. 3View FIGURE 3 D). Styli as long as the subgenital plate ( Figs. 3View FIGURE 3 C and D). Phallus devoid of titillators.

Redescription of female. Head in frontal view more triangular than in male. Mandibles symmetrical ( Fig. 2View FIGURE 2 C). Pronotal disc reaching the first abdominal tergite; tegmina partially covered by pronotum ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 B, D, and E). Prosternum armed with two tubercles with rounded tips. Thoracic auditory spiracle is composed by a tiny cavity which is partially covered by a bilobed sclerite. Subgenital plate strongly modified and saclike, with a long appendix ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 F and G). Ovipositor shorter than hind femur, upcurved; dorsal valves about three times as wide as ventral ones; apex of ovipositor narrowly rounded ( Figs. 2View FIGURE 2 A, F, H and I).

Coloration. General coloration light greenish ( Fig. 4View FIGURE 4). Metazona, tegmina, mandibles, movable spines of fore- and middle tibiae, tarsomeres and apex of male cerci light brownish. Flagellomeres and apical part of ovipositor dark brownish. Immature with little brownish spots on pronotum, on head above the eyes, and legs ( Fig. 5View FIGURE 5).

Measurements (mm). Two males: TL 11.5–12; PL 4–4.8; PW 2.8; TegL 3.5; FF 3–3.5; FT 4; HF 10–11; HT 9.5–10. Two females: TL 11–14; PL 4–4.2; PW 2.8–3; TegL 2; FF 3.5; FT 4–4.3; HF 11; HT 11; OL 4.5.

Distribution. This species was originally described from near Puerto Suares in Bolivia, very close to the border with Brazil and Mato Grosso do Sul. Recently, additional specimens were collected in the Estância Sossego in the municipality of Campo Grande, and at the Morro do Paxixi in the municipality of Aquidauna, both in the state of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil ( Fig. 6View FIGURE 6).

Examined material. One male labeled—Brazil, Mato Grosso do Sul, Campo Grande , Estância Sossego , 640 m, 20º29'12.0"S / 54º30'11.9"W, 18. II.2017GoogleMaps  . Chamorro, J. & Olivier, R. col. \ Anisophlugis  n. gen. Chamorro- Rengifo & Olivier Det. (April.2017) \ Anisophlugis appendicula ( Gorochov, 2015)  \ ZUFMSORT00643; One male and one female labeled—Brazil, MS, Campo Grande , Estância Sossego , 640 m, 20º29'12.0"S / 54º30'11.9"W, 22. II.2017GoogleMaps  . Chamorro, J. & Olivier, R. col. \ Anisophlugis  n. gen. Chamorro-Rengifo & Olivier Det. (April.2017) \ Anisophlugis appendicula ( Gorochov, 2015)  \ ZUFMSORT00644 and 645; One female and one immature—Brazil, MS, Aquidauana , Camisão , Morro do Paxixi , 349 m, 20º27'00.5"S / 55º37'20.8"W, 04.III.2017GoogleMaps  . Chamorro, J. & Olivier, R. col. \ Anisophlugis  n. gen. Chamorro-Rengifo & Olivier Det. (April.2017) \ Anisophlugis appendicula ( Gorochov, 2015)  \ ZUFMSORT00646 and 647. 

Comments on morphology. Males of katydids are rarely differentiated from females by conspicuous or exaggerated features. Nonetheless, in a very small number of species, males bear enlarged mandibles, even with asymmetric development. Males of Gnathoclita Haan, 1843  , Disceratus Scudder, 1869  ( Pseudophyllinae  ) and Arachnoscelis Karny, 1911  ( Listroscelidinae  ) bear symmetric but overdeveloped mandibles (see images of these species in Cigliano et. al. 2017). Males of Cerberodon Perty, 1832  , some species of Listroscelis Serville, 1831  and Carliella mandibularis Karny, 1911  have the left mandible overdeveloped like A. appendicula  . It is apparently a convergent character. The function of this asymmetric mandible is still unknown, but could be used for interactions between males, as occurs in males of Anostostomatidae ( Kelly 2004)  .

Comments on biology. During several surveys carried out in the same two localities since 2015, no individuals of A. appendicula  n. comb. were seen until February and March 2017. In each locality, individuals were caught close to each other.

In the Estância Sossego, specimens were found on herbaceous vegetation, near to the ground, in an open area with scattered trees and pasture, very close to a fragment of Cerrado vegetation. On Morro do Paxixi individuals were found on a Piperaceae  bush. This place is more humid than Campo Grande, and presents a transition between plateau and lowlands; there are Seasonal Semideciduous Forest and Deciduous Seasonal Forest, with presence of species typical of the Cerrado.














Anisophlugis appendicula ( Gorochov, 2015 )

Chamorro-Rengifo, Juliana & Olivier, Renan Da Silva 2017

Phlugiola appendicula

Gorochov 2015: 499