Spermophora minotaura Berland, 1920

Bernhard A. Huber & Charles M. Warui, 2012, East African pholcid spiders: an overview, with descriptions of eight new species (Araneae, Pholcidae), European Journal of Taxonomy 29 (29), pp. 1-44: 14-15

publication ID

http://dx.doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2012.29

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:28503B8D-9B2C-484D-A7A2-B44D4DC04F6D

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/1C1A87FF-1054-FFB5-F6FF-1552FBBAFEA4

treatment provided by

Jeremy

scientific name

Spermophora minotaura Berland, 1920
status

 

83. Spermophora minotaura Berland, 1920  . Kenya ( Berland 1920; Simon & Fage 1922; Huber 2003a).

Types

1 ♂, 1 ♀ syntypes and 2 juvs. from Kenya, Mount Kenya, “ st. no 39” [0°10.5’S, 37°08.9’E], Jan.-Feb. 1912 (Alluaud, Jeannel), in MNHN ( AR 10368), examined (not available in Huber 2003a)GoogleMaps  .

Note

This species shows slight morphological variation (male cheliceral apophyses) and conspicuous color variation. The position of the frontal male cheliceral apophyses varies from almost parallel to strongly diverging. Huber (2003a) mentioned color variation with respect to the epigynum but it also occurs on carapace and abdomen in both males and females. Below, specimens are divided into three morphs: light morph (median dark band on carapace, light sternum, two large marks on abdomen or monochromous light abdomen; Figs 55, 56View Figs 50 - 69. — 50 - 52); medium morph (pair of narrow dark stripes on carapace do not reach lateral margins, dark sternum; abdomen pattern in principle as in dark morph but less developed), and dark morph (wide black stripes on carapace reaching lateral margins, dark sternum; complex dark pattern on abdomen; Figs 53, 54View Figs 50 - 69. — 50 - 52). In Chogoria  Forest at 2460 m, light and medium morphs were found together, but in different microhabitats: the light morph among vegetation, with the apex of the domed web attached to the underside of a green leaf ( Fig. 8View Figs 1 - 15. — 1); the medium morph close to the ground, with the same type of web among mosses and in small cavities. However, in other localities, light and medium/dark morphs were collected by fogging (see below), suggesting that medium/dark morphs also occur higher in the vegetation (on mosses of trees?). Low molecular distances ( Dimitrov, Astrin & Huber 2012) and indistinguishable genitalia suggest that this might be a case of ecological speciation at an early stage.

New records

KENYA: Eastern Province: 1 ♂, 1 ♀ (medium morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8685), Mt. Kenya N.P., Chogoria Forest, “site 1” (0°12.1’S, 37°29.4’E), 2460 m a.s.l., 27 Jan. 2010 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 5 ♂♂, 6 ♀♀ (light morph) in ZFMK ( Ar 8686), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, 1 juv. (light morph) in pure ethanol, in ZFMK ( Ken 111), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 9 ♂♂, 8 ♀♀ (dark morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8687), Chogoria Forest, “site 2” (0°14.2’S, 37°34.0’E), 1950 m a.s.l., 27 Jan. 2010 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 3 ♀ in pure ethanol, in ZFMK ( Ken 120), same dataGoogleMaps  ; ~ 20 ♂♂, 20 ♀♀ (2 vials), in ZFMK ( Ar 8688-89), Mt. Kenya , Chogoria  Route [0°14.1’S, 37°33.1’E], 2000 m a.s.l., 21 Oct. 2002 (T. Wagner), fogging of Podocarpus latifolius  GoogleMaps  ; ~ 60 ♂♂, 60 ♀♀ (3 vials), in ZFMK ( Ar 8690-92), same data but 2500 m a.s.l. [0°11.8’S, 37°29.1’E], 19 Oct. 2002GoogleMaps  ; ~ 80 ♂♂, 80 ♀♀ (3 vials), in ZFMK ( Ar 8693-95), same data but 3000 m a.s.l. [0°09.1’S, 37°26.1’E], 16 Oct. 2002GoogleMaps  ; 4 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀ (medium morph), in MRAC ( 215189, 193, 198, 251), Chogoria Forest , bamboo forest at 2660 m a.s.l. [0°11.0’S, 37°27.9’E], 24 Apr. 2004 (R. Jocqué, C. Warui, van den Spiegel)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, in MRAC ( 161912), Sirimon track at 2650 m a.s.l. [0°00.2’S, 37°15.6’E], 23 Jul. 1975 (R. Bosmans)GoogleMaps  . Central Province: 13 ♂♂, 23 ♀♀ (dark morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8696-97), Mt. Kenya N.P., Naro Moru Forest , overhangs along road (0°10.2’-10.6’S, 37°12.0’-13.3’E), 2800-3200 m a.s.l., 29 Jan. 2010 (B.A. Huber)  ; 2 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ in pure ethanol, in ZFMK ( Ken 124), same data  ; 1 ♂, 2 ♀♀ (medium morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8698), same data  ; 2 ♀♀, 1 juv. (medium morph) in pure ethanol, in ZFMK ( Ken 125), same data  ; 11 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀ (dark morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8699), Mt. Kenya N.P., above Naro Moru Forest , small cave (0°10.0’S, 37°14.0’E), 3580 m a.s.l., 29 Jan. 2010 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, 2 juvs. in pure ethanol, in ZFMK ( Ken 127), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♂, 5 ♀♀ (4 vials; dark and medium morphs), in ZFMK ( Ar 8700-03), Mt. Kenya N.P. (West ) (0°10’S, 37°09’E), 2550 m a.s.l., fogging of Podocarpus latifolius, Feb.1999 (T. Wagner)  GoogleMaps  ; 3 ♀♀ (2 vials, medium and dark morphs), in ZFMK ( Ar 8704-05), same data but fogging of Afrocrania volckensii  GoogleMaps  ; 5 ♂♂, 9 ♀♀, 3 juvs. (light morph) and 1 ♀ (dark morph), in MRAC ( 215075, 125, 132, 133, 393), Castle Forest, 1.5 km S of lodge [0°23.5’S, 37°18.6’E], 1985 m a.s.l., 21 Apr. 2004 (R. Jocqué, C. Warui, van den Spiegel)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀ (light morph), in MRAC ( 215141), same data but clearing of forest near lodge [0°22.9’S, 37°18.7’E], 2025 m a.s.lGoogleMaps  .; 5 ♂♂, 23 ♀♀ (medium morph), in MRAC ( 215161), same data but bamboo forest at 2445 m a.s.l. [0°19.9’S, 37°19.0’E]GoogleMaps  ; 33 ♂♂, 77 ♀♀ (10 vials; mostly medium morph, few dark morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8706-15), Aberdare National Park at 2750 m a.s.l. (0°23’S, 36°46’E), fogging of Podocarpus latifolius, Jan.-Feb.1999  (T. Wagner)GoogleMaps  ; 9 ♂♂, 23 ♀♀ (5 vials; light, medium, and dark morphs), in ZFMK ( Ar 8716-17, 19-21), Kikuyu Escarpment, Gatamaiyu (0°58’S, 36°42’E), 2330 m a.s.l., mountain forest , fogging of Podocarpus latifolius, Feb. 1999 (T. Wagner)  GoogleMaps  ; 6 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀ (7 vials; light and dark morphs), in ZFMK ( Ar 8722-28), same data but fogging of Tabernaemontana stapfiana  , 18-23 Jan. 1999GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂♂, 10 ♀♀ (4 vials, light, medium, and dark morphs), in ZFMK ( Ar 8729-32), same data but fogging of Teclea nobilis  , 18-23 Jan. 1999GoogleMaps  . Western Province: 1 ♂, 3 ♀♀, 1 juv. (dark morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8733), Kakamega Forest N.P., near Isiukhu River Falls (0°21.1’N, 34°52.1’E), 1580 m a.s.l., 2-3 Feb. 2010 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 3 juvs. in pure ethanol, in ZFMK ( Ken 140), same dataGoogleMaps  . Rift Valley: 8 ♂♂, 11 ♀♀, juvs. (dark morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8734), Thompson Falls near Nyahururu , (0°02.7’N, 36°22.1’E), 2350 m a.s.l., 30 Jan. 2010 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 2 ♂♂, 3 ♀♀, 10 juvs. in pure ethanol, in ZFMK ( Ken 131), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 5 ♂♂, 4 ♀♀ (dark morph), in ZFMK ( Ar 8735), Mau Escarpment between Kericho and Molo , forest fragment near road (0°14.3’S, 35°32.7’E), 2130 m a.s.l., 4 Feb. 2010 (B.A. Huber)GoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, 5 juvs. in pure ethanol, in ZFMK ( Ken 137), same dataGoogleMaps  ; 1 ♀, in CJFM ( 1543), Kitale, Kaibos [1°12’N, 35°08’E?]GoogleMaps  .

MNHN

France, Paris, Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

ZFMK

Germany, Bonn, Zoologische Forschungsinstitut und Museum "Alexander Koenig"

MRAC

Belgium, Tervuren, Musee Royal de l'Afrique Centrale

CJFM

CJFM

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Pholcidae

Genus

Spermophora