Loxosceles tolantongo

Navarro-Rodríguez, Claudia Isabel & Valdez-Mondragón, Alejandro, 2020, Description of a new species of Loxosceles Heineken & Lowe (Araneae, Sicariidae) recluse spiders from Hidalgo, Mexico, under integrative taxonomy: morphological and DNA barcoding data (CO 1 + , European Journal of Taxonomy 704, pp. 1-30: 7-17

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.5852/ejt.2020.704

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:8C465C60-7228-4051-AFFD-96E1EBE1A67A

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/1A4A87D7-FFEC-FF86-3D7B-43F3B571F9BD

treatment provided by

Valdenar

scientific name

Loxosceles tolantongo
status

sp. nov.

Loxosceles tolantongo  sp. nov.

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:C49E731B-3592-4AF2-8C3B-7DA78E4E2D47

Figs 1–9View Figs 1–5View Figs 6–9, 16–33View Figs 16–19View Figs 20–25View Figs 26–29View Figs 30–35, 36–39View Figs 36–43

Differential diagnosis

Loxosceles tolantongo  sp. nov. morphologically resembles L. jaca Gertsch & Ennik, 1983  , also from Hidalgo. However, in lateral view, the palp tibia of the male L. tolantongo  sp. nov. is slightly longer than in L. jaca  and the curvature of the basal-ventral part of the tibia is less pronounced than in L. jaca  ( Figs 20, 22View Figs 20–25, 30, 33View Figs 30–35), where it is prominent and totally curved ( Figs 34–35View Figs 30–35, 44, 46View Figs 44–49). In dorsal view, the palp tibia of L. tolantongo  sp. nov. is thinner and longer ( Fig. 21View Figs 20–25), whereas in L. jaca  it is wider and shorter ( Fig. 45View Figs 44–49). In the new species, in lateral view, the embolus is slightly wider basally than that of L. jaca  ( Figs 20, 22View Figs 20–25 vs Figs 44, 46View Figs 44–49). In lateral and dorsal views, the tip of the embolus in L. tolantongo  sp. nov. is slightly curved ( Figs 20, 22, 24View Figs 20–25), whereas in L. jaca  it is sigmoid ( Figs 44, 46, 48View Figs 44–49). The seminal receptacles of the females of both species are similarly S-shaped ( Figs 36–39, 40–43View Figs 36–43). However, the shape of the base of the receptacles is different: in L. tolantongo  sp. nov. it is oval-shaped ( Figs 28View Figs 26–29, 36–39View Figs 36–43), whereas in L. jaca  it is square-shaped ( Figs 40–43View Figs 36–43). Also, the base of seminal receptacles is more sclerotized in L. tolantongo  sp. nov. than in L. jaca  ( Figs 28View Figs 26–29, 36–39, 40–43View Figs 36–43).

Etymology

The species name is a noun in apposition and refers to the type locality of the new species: the Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo, located in the Mezquital Valley, Hidalgo, Mexico.

Material examined

Holotype

MEXICO – Hidalgo • ♂; Municipality of Cardonal, Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo ; 20.6503° N, 99.0047° W; 1315 m a.s.l.; 17 Mar. 2017; A. Valdez, E. Briones, J. Valerdi, A. Juárez and M. Sánchez leg.; night collecting; CNAN-T01317.GoogleMaps 

Paratypes

MEXICO – Hidalgo • 1 ♂; same collection data as for holotype; CNAN-T01319GoogleMaps  1 ♂; same collection data as for holotype; 22 May 2018; A. Valdez, J. Valerdi, A. Cabrera, P. Solís and I. Navarro leg.; diurnal collecting; CNAN-T01320GoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; CNAN-T01321, CNAN-T01324GoogleMaps  1 ♂; Municipality of Cardonal, Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo, 500 m west of entrance No. 5; 20.6446° N, 98.9973° W; 1481 m a.s.l.; 22 May 2018; A. Valdez, J. Valerdi, A. Cabrera, P. Solís and I. Navarro leg.; diurnal collecting; CNAN-T01318GoogleMaps  2 ♀♀; same collection data as for preceding; CNAN-T01322, CNAN-T01323GoogleMaps  .

Other material

MEXICO – Hidalgo • 1 ♂, 5 immatures; Municipality of Cardonal, Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo, 500 m west of entrance No. 5; 20.6446° N, 98.9973° W; 1481 m a.s.l.; 22 May 2018; A. Valdez, J. Valerdi, A. Cabrera, P. Solís and I. Navarro leg.; diurnal collecting; LATLAX Ara-0488GoogleMaps  1 ♂, 1 immature; same collection data as for holotype; 23 May 2018; LATLAX Ara-0490GoogleMaps  2 immatures; same collection data as for holotype; 22 May 2018; A. Valdez, J. Valerdi, A. Cabrera, P. Solís and I. Navarro leg.; diurnal collecting; LATLAX Ara-0489GoogleMaps  1 ♂, 2 immatures; same collection data as for holotype; LATLAX Ara- 0137GoogleMaps  6 ♀♀, 4 immatures; Municipality of Cardonal, Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo, ʻEl Paraisoʼ trail ; 20.6502° N, 99.0002° W; 1312 m a.s.l.; 24 Jan. 2019; A. Valdez, P. Solís, M. Cortez, J. Sánchez and D. Montiel leg.; LATLAX Ara-0527, Ara-0528GoogleMaps  .

Description

Male (holotype CNAN-T01317)

Specimen collected manually, preserved and observed in 80% ethanol.

MEASUREMENTS. Total length 5.60. Carapace: 2.60 long, 2.30 wide. Clypeus length 0.25. Diameter of AME 0.20, PME 0.17, PLE 0.13; AME-PME 0.11. Labium: length 0.44, width 0.50. Sternum: length 1.40, width 1.25. Leg lengths: I (total 14.80): femur 4.0/ patella 0.9/ tibia 4.6/ metatarsus 4.1/ tarsus 1.2; II (15.20): 4.4/ 0.7/ 4.6 /4.4 / 1.1; III (12): 3.6/ 0.6/ 3.2/ 3.6 /1; IV (14.60): 4 /0.7 / 3.7/ 4.9/ 1.3. Leg formula: 2-1-4-3.

PROSOMA. Carapace reddish, longer than wide, pyriform, dorsally with slightly dark brown ʻviolinʼ pattern ( Figs 1–5View Figs 1–5, 16View Figs 16–19, 26View Figs 26–29), which is darker brown than rest of body ( Figs 1–5View Figs 1–5, 16View Figs 16–19, 26View Figs 26–29). Carapace without lateral spots like other species. Six eyes in three groups, clypeus reddish brown ( Figs 1–5View Figs 1–5, 16View Figs 16–19, 26View Figs 26–29). Sternum pale reddish, longer than wide ( Fig. 17View Figs 16–19). Labium reddish brown, wider than long, fused to the sternum ( Fig.17View Figs 16–19). Endites pale brown basally, reddish brown distally and white apically. Endites longer than wide, rounded basally ( Fig.17View Figs 16–19).

LEGS. Coxae, trochanters, femora and patella reddish brown, paler on femora III and IV ( Figs 1–5View Figs 1–5, 16–17View Figs 16–19), and the rest of the leg browner ( Figs 1–5View Figs 1–5, 16View Figs 16–19).

CHELICERAE. Fused basally, reddish brown, stridulatory lines laterally. Fangs reddish brown, with thin setae around them ( Fig. 17View Figs 16–19).

OPISTHOSOMA. Dark gray, paler posteriorly ( Fig 1–5View Figs 1–5, 16View Figs 16–19), oval, longer than wide, and high ( Figs 1–5View Figs 1–5, 16–17View Figs 16–19). Region of gonopore pale gray, with small setae. Colulus reddish brown, conical ( Fig. 17View Figs 16–19). Spinnerets reddish brown, cylindrical; anterior lateral spinnerets longest, posterior median spinnerets smallest, with long setae. Tracheae opening near posterior margin of opisthosoma.

PALPS. Trochanters and femora pale reddish, paler ventrally in femora; patellae, tibiae reddish brown, longer than wide, wider in distal half than basal half ( Figs 20, 22View Figs 20–25, 30–33View Figs 30–35). Tarsus oval, reddish brown, bulb spherical, embolus short, thick at base, narrowed to fine point ( Figs 20–25View Figs 20–25).

Female (paratype CNAN-T01264)

Specimen collected manually, preserved and observed in 80% ethanol.

MEASUREMENTS. Total length 6.64. Carapace: 2.71 long, 2.56 wide. Clypeus length 0.34. Diameter of AME 2, PME 1.8, PLE 1.8; AME-PME 0.2. Labium: length 0.42, width 0.57. Sternum: length 1.56, width 1.36. Leg lengths: I (total 12.42): femur 3.6/ patella 0.88 / tibia 3.36 / metatarsus 3.40 / tarsus 1.18; II (16.65): 3.8/ 1.0/ 3.8 /3.45 / 4.6; III (11.72): 3.60 / 0.96 / 3.04 / 3.06 /1.06; IV (13.23): 3.44 / 0.96 / 3.52 /4.0 / 1.31. Leg formula: 2-4-1-3.

Differs from male as follows:

PROSOMA. Carapace brown and pale brown, with less defined dark brown ʻviolinʼ pattern ( Figs 6–9View Figs 6–9, 18View Figs 16–19, 27View Figs 26–29). Larger carapace. Sternum paler brown ( Fig. 19View Figs 16–19). Labium more reddish brown. Endites more reddish brown.

LEGS. Coxae, trochanters, femora, patella and tibiae brown ( Figs 6–9View Figs 6–9, 18–19View Figs 16–19). Metatarsi and tarsi dark brown ( Figs 6–9View Figs 6–9, 18–19View Figs 16–19).

CHELICERAE. Darker reddish brown.

OPISTHOSOMA. Brown and pale brown ( Figs 6–9View Figs 6–9, 18–19View Figs 16–19). Spinnerets paler brown.

PALPS. Trochanters, femora and patellae pale brown, tibiae and tarsi reddish brown. Tibiae cylindrical, tarsi conical ( Figs 18–19View Figs 16–19).

GENITAL AREA. Seminal receptacles asymmetric, S-shaped ( Fig. 28View Figs 26–29). Base of seminal receptacles oval and wide, sclerotized ( Fig. 28View Figs 26–29). See variation section for more details ( Figs 36–39View Figs 36–43).

Variation

Males

Males collected from the Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo and from 500 m west of entrance No. 5 are pale brown, with legs the same color as carapace; in some cases the legs are darker than the body. The male holotype is darker brown that all other specimens. The male collected from ʻEl Paraisoʼ trail is dark reddish brown, with legs the same color as body. Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo, Municipality of Cardonal (N = 5): Tibia I 4.1–5.4 (x = 5); carapace length (CL) 2.2–2.6 (x = 2.5), carapace width (CW) 2.1–2.3 (x = 2). 500 m west of entrance No. 5, Municipality of Cardonal (N = 2): Tibia I 4.1–4.3 (x = 4), CL 2.2–2.4 (x = 2), CW 2.0–2.2 (x = 2). ʻEl Paraisoʼ trail, Municipality of Cardonal (N = 1): Tibia I 5.2, CL 2.7, CW 2.4.

The male palps present a little variation. In the case of the holotype the palp has more marked coloration and the embolus is wider at the base ( Figs 20–25View Figs 20–25, 30–33View Figs 30–35).

Females

The female collected from the Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo is pale brown on carapace and legs. Females from 500 m west of entrance No. 5 are dark brown on carapace and legs. Females from ʻEl Paraisoʼ trail are dark brown on carapace, with light brown legs. Tourist Center Grutas de Tolantongo, Municipality of Cardonal (N = 2): Tibia I 3.3–3.3 (x = 3), CL 2.2–2.7 (x = 3), CW 2.0–2.5 (x = 2). 500 m west of entrance No. 5, Municipality of Cardonal (N = 2): Tibia I missing–3.2, CL 2.6–2.6 (x = 3), CW 2.2–2.3 (x = 2). ʻEl Paraisoʼ trail, Municipality of Cardonal (N = 6): Tibia I 3.1–3.9 (x = 3), CL 2.4–2.7 (x = 3), CW 2.2–2.4 (x = 2).

The seminal receptacles of females are S-shaped, asymmetrical and broadly variable in shape, even in specimens from the same locality ( Figs 36–39View Figs 36–43). The apical lobes are rounded in some specimens, oval in

others, or even with a sharp tip ( Figs 28View Figs 26–29, 36–39View Figs 36–43). The base of the seminal receptacles is variable, in some specimens it is wider, more rounded and more sclerotized than in others ( Figs 28View Figs 26–29, 36–39View Figs 36–43).

Natural history

The specimens of L. tolantongo  sp. nov. were collected in a xerophytic forest, the native vegetation type around the Touristic Center Grutas de Tolantongo ( Figs 10–15View Figs 10–15). The microhabitat where the specimens were collected was under big rocks, and from inside rotten and dry agave plants ( Figs 12–15View Figs 10–15). Some specimens were collected close to each other.

Distribution

MEXICO: Hidalgo ( Figs 50–51View Figs).

Molecular analyses and species delimitation

The analyzed matrices include 49 individuals of ten species of Loxosceles  , 38 individuals for the CO1 data set and 42 individuals for ITS2 ( Table 1, Figs 52–56View FigView FigView FigView FigView Fig). Specimens used in this study, GenBank accession numbers and localities of the specimens are listed in Table 1. The average genetic p- distance among analyzed species was 15.9% for CO1 and 8.4% for ITS2 ( Figs 52–53View FigView Fig). Corrected p- distances from the CO1 and ITS2 data recovered nine species of Loxosceles  , both with high bootstrap support values ( Figs 52–53View FigView Fig). Based on the genetic analyses, L. tolantongo  sp. nov. is closely related to L. jaca  + L. tenango  with CO1 ( Fig. 52View Fig), and with L. jaca  with ITS2 ( Fig. 53View Fig); with an average p -distance between L. tenango  and L. tolantongo  sp. nov. of 9.6%, and between L. jaca  and L. tolantongo  sp. nov. of 10.5% for CO1 and 1.8% for ITS2 ( Tables 3–4). Molecular analyses with CO1 and the concatenated matrix (CO1 + ITS2) ( Figs 54View Fig, 56View Fig) indicate that four different species delimitation methods, including the morphology, were congruent to delimit L. tolantongo  sp. nov. as a valid and different species, and recovered a total of nine species. However, using the ABGD species delimitation method under recursive partitions (RP), 14, 11 and 10 species were recovered ( Fig. 54View Fig). The molecular analyses are consistent with the morphology; the nine species of Loxosceles  used in this study were previously described only with morphological characters, except for L. tenochtitlan  which was described with different lines of evidence (morphological and molecular) by Valdez-Mondragón et al. (2019). Molecular analyses with ITS2 indicate that of the four different molecular species delimitation methods, only NJ and GMYC (Yule) were consistent with the morphology for delimitation of L. tolantongo  sp. nov. ( Figs 53View Fig, 55View Fig). ABGD and bPTP species delimitation methods do not recover L. totaltongo  as a different species, but they recover other species, such as L. zapoteca Gertsch, 1958  , L. colima Gertsch, 1958  (except with initial partitions (IP) (ABGD)) and L. malintzi  ( Fig. 55View Fig). The haplotype network analysis with CO1 data is concordant with the results of the different species delimitation analyses ( Fig. 57View Fig). There were>10 mutations between haplotypes under CO1 for all the species ( Fig. 57View Fig). Regarding L. tolantongo  sp. nov. and L. jaca  + L. tenango  , the haplotype network was concordant with the species delimitation, and showed a total of 39 and 36 mutations respectively between haplotypes under CO1 ( Fig. 57View Fig).

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Araneae

Family

Sicariidae

Genus

Loxosceles