Tegopalpus conicus Womersley, 1940,

Beard, Jennifer J., Seeman, Owen D. & Bauchan, Gary R., 2014, Tenuipalpidae (Acari: Trombidiformes) from Casuarinaceae (Fagales), Zootaxa 3778 (1), pp. 1-157: 128-141

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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3778.1.1

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lsid:zoobank.org:pub:20D5DCD9-17F5-4863-B627-42B7C349B9A7

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http://treatment.plazi.org/id/194C87D0-FF99-FF56-F387-FC55FE89FE3F

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scientific name

Tegopalpus conicus Womersley, 1940
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Tegopalpus conicus Womersley, 1940 

( Figs 107–123View FIGURE 107View FIGURE 108View FIGURE 109View FIGURE 110View FIGURE 111View FIGURE 112View FIGURE 113View FIGURE 114View FIGURE 115)

Tegopalpus conicus Womersley, 1940: 242  , fig. 4.

Tegopalpus conicus, Smiley et al. 2009: 168  , figs 1–6.

Type material examined. Holotype female ex. C asuarina sp. ( Casuarinaceae  ), AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Avalon Beach, 26 August 1934, coll. Womersley ( SAM, N 1970401). Paratypes. 1 male and 1 larva, same data as holotype (1 slide; SAM, N 1970400).

Non-type material examined. 10 females, 2 deutonymphs, 2 protonymphs, and 4 larvae ex. Swamp She-Oak C asuarina glauca  ( Casuarinaceae  ), AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Des Creagh Reserve, 35 km N of Sydney, Avalon Beach, 33 º 37 ’ 59 ” S 151 º 19 ’ 56 ” E, 24 January 2012, coll. J.J. Beard (QM, SAM, ANIC, USNM; many more in alcohol); 1 female ex. same host, AUSTRALIA: New South Wales, Dee Why, 18 km N of Sydney, Hawkesbury Avenue, 33 º 45 ’00” S 151 º 17 ’ 37 ” E, 24 January 2012, coll. J.J. Beard (QM); 4 females, 2 males, 2 deutonymphs, 1 protonymph, and 1 larva, ex. same host, AUSTRALIA: Queensland, Beachmere, Bayside Drive, 27 °05’ 50 ’’S, 153 °05’ 20 ’’E, 15 February 2009, coll. O.D. Seeman (QM); 3 females, 1 male, 1 protonymph, and 1 larva ex. same host, AUSTRALIA: Dutton Park State School, 27 º 29 ’ 38 ’’ S 153 º01’ 43 ’’ E, 16 June 2011, coll. O.D. Seeman (QM).

Diagnosis. Prodorsal shield with fine longitudinal to oblique folds centrally, with weak reticulate pattern posterolaterally. Opisthosomal shield with fine oblique folds sublaterally; with fine longitudinal folds posterior e 1 - e 1; with stronger transverse folds just anterior d 1 -d 1 and between d 1 -e 1. Lateral cuticle weakly to coarsely papillate. Dorsal cuticle finely punctate. Dorsal setae concave in shape (scoop-shaped).

FEMALE (n = 19). Dorsum. ( Figs 107View FIGURE 107 a, 108, 109, 110b, 111 a) Body measurements: distance between setae v 2 -h 1 305–335 [320]; sc 2 -sc 2 105–125 [115]; other measurements: v 2 -v 2 26–36 [32], sc 1 -sc 1 88–100 [89], c 1 -c 1 15–25 [20], c 3 -c 3 130–145 [140], d 1 -d 1 18–24 [21], d 3 -d 3 115–125 [115], e 1 - e 1 19–28 [21], e 3 -e 3 105–120 [107], f 3 -f 3 83–97 [87], h 1 -h 1 21–34 [21], h 2 -h 2 54–67 [54]. Gnathosoma completely concealed beneath anterior margin of prodorsum ( Figs 109View FIGURE 109, 110View FIGURE 110 a, 111). Cuticle between gnathosoma and prodorsum produced into 1 pair of blunt, broadly triangular membranous lobes ( Figs 110View FIGURE 110, 111View FIGURE 111) (with median notch formed between lobes); median notch anterior and ventral to setae v 2 (notch internal depth 19–26); lobes can sometimes be retracted beneath anterior margin of prodorsum ( Figs 110View FIGURE 110, 111View FIGURE 111 a); setae v 2 inserted just ventral to, or on edge of, anterior margin of prodorsum ( Figs 107View FIGURE 107 a, 108, 110 a, 111 a). Prodorsum with 6–8 strong longitudinal to oblique folds running almost entire length of shield centrally; cuticle with many fine folds and finely punctate, with some fine folds and weak reticulation in posterior lateral corner. Opisthosoma finely punctate with 2 transverse to oblique folds across shield, between c 1 - d 1 and d 1 -e 1; cuticle laterad c 1 -c 1 and d 1 -d 1 finely reticulate and folded; cuticle in general with many fine oblique folds and wrinkles, becoming longitudinal posteriorly. Soft cuticle laterad shield strongly colliculate-papillate (sculpturing on Queensland material much weaker than material from type locality). All dorsal setae short, weakly spatulate, barbed; dorsal setae with distinctly concave ventral surface, forming a scoop ( Figs 107View FIGURE 107, 113View FIGURE 113 b, 119 b); setae d 1 and e 1 much smaller than other dorsal setae. Setal lengths: v 2 16–20 [17], sc 1 14–18 [not measurable], sc 2 15–20 [not measurable], c 1 10–16 [not measurable], c 3 15–20 [16, 18], d 1 6–9 [not measurable], d 3 15–19 [17], e 1 4 –8 [not measurable], e 3 15 –18 [18], f 3 15–19 [17], h 1 11–16 [not measurable], h 2 13–19 [16, 17]. Palps. ( Figs 107View FIGURE 107 b, 110 a) Setal formula 0, 0, 2 (1 s+ 1 e); seta-like tarsal eupathidium 5–12 long [not measurable]; solenidion 6–9 long [not measurable]. Venter. ( Figs 110View FIGURE 110 a, 112 a, 113) Cuticle between 1 b - 1 b with transverse striae; 1 b - 1 a with longitudinal striae; 1 a - 3 a with transverse striae; 3 a - 4 a with longitudinal striae; cuticle posterior to 4 a with small area of transverse to mixed striae becoming longitudinal to ag and coarse around genital region; cuticle on anal plates with weak oblique striae. Genital setae inserted in more-or-less transverse row on genital flap, with g 1 slightly posterior to g 2. Anal setae ps 1–3 short, fine, inserted along medial margin of anal plates in more-or-less longitudinal line. Coxal setae fine; setae 1 a, 3 a, 4 a finely tapered. Setal lengths: 1a 35 – 62 [56], 1 b 12–22 [19], 2 b 11–24 [21], 2 c 11–21 [21], 3a 31 – 61 [31], 3 b 12–21 [15], 4a 21 – 59 [42], 4 b 14–20 [16], ag 1 6–15 [15], g 1 12–20 [20], g 2 11–20 [20], ps 1 8–13 [11], ps 2 8–12 [10], ps 3 5–11 [9, 10]. Spermatheca. ( Fig. 112View FIGURE 112 b) Not visible in holotype. Spermathecal tube narrow, coiled, maximum 1 wide, ca. 75–100 long, ending in small rounded vesicle 2 long, 2 wide, subtended by small sac 1 long, 1 wide. Genital opening just anterior to setae ps 3. Legs. ( Fig. 114View FIGURE 114) Setal formula for legs I –IV (coxae to tarsi) 1 - 0-3 - 0-3 - 8 (1), 2 - 0-3 - 0-3 - 8 (1), 1 - 1-2 - 0-2 - 4, 1 - 0-1 - 0-2 - 4. Tarsi I and II each with 1 antiaxial solenidion ω" (ta I 8–11 [8, 9] long, ta II 9–12 [9] long) and 2 eupathidia pζ'-pζ" (6–8 [6] long). Solenidia are of similar size to the male ( Fig. 115View FIGURE 115). One specimen with an aberrant setal count of 3 on 1 ge III. Leg setation as in Table 1 except: cx I without 1 c; tr I –IV without v ′ (l' present on tr III); ge I –IV nude; ti I –IV without v′′; ta I –IV without tc′′.

MALE (n = 2). Dorsum. ( Figs 116, 117View FIGURE 117, 119View FIGURE 119 a). Paratype measurements in brackets. Body measurements: distance between setae v 2 -h 1 220–230 [230]; sc 2 -sc 2 80–91 [91]; other measurements: v 2 -v 2 22–25 [25], sc 1 -sc 1 63–72 [72], c 1 -c 1 14–16 [14], c 3 -c 3 95–98 [98], d 1 -d 1 10–11 [10], d 3 -d 3 73–79 [79], e 1 - e 1 14–17 [17], e 3 - e 3 70– 76 [76], f 3 -f 3 56–63 [63], h 1 -h 1 11–15 [15], h 2 -h 2 34–42 [42]. Gnathosoma completely concealed beneath anterior margin of prodorsum. Anterior margin of prodorsum with a deep medial notch forming 1 pair of blunt, broadly triangular lobes as in female, can appear to be retracted beneath anterior margin of prodorsum; setae v 2 inserted just ventral to, or on edge of, anterior margin of prodorsum ( Figs 116, 117View FIGURE 117, 119View FIGURE 119 a). Prodorsal cuticle with multiple longitudinal to oblique folds running along almost entire length of shield. Opisthosoma with mesonotal and pygidial shields, separated by a band of transversely folded soft cuticle; shields with weak reticulate and folded cuticle. Soft cuticle laterad shield strongly colliculate-papillate (sculpturing on Queensland material much weaker than material from type locality). All dorsal setae short, weakly spatulate, barbed; dorsal setae with distinctly concave ventral surface forming a scoop ( Fig. 119View FIGURE 119 b); setae d 1 and e 1 much smaller than other dorsal setae. Setal lengths: v 2 15–20 [18, 20], sc 1 13–15 [14, 15], sc 2 15–18 [17, 18], c 1 13–14 [13], c 3 14–15 [14, 15], d 1 5–8 [6], d 3 14–15 [15], e 1 5 –6 [4, 5], e 3 14 –16 [15, 16], f 3 14–15 [14, 15], h 1 12–14 [12, 13], h 2 11–15 [15]. Palps. Palps similar to female. Solenidion 8–11 [11] long, seta-like eupathidium 7–13 [13] long. Venter. ( Figs 118View FIGURE 118 a, 119 b) Cuticle mostly with fine striae between 1 a - 4 a; broadly separated transverse striae between 4 a -ag; weak, broadly separated transverse striae between ag -g 1–2. Genital setae inserted in more-or-less transverse row. Anal setae ps 2– 3 fine, inserted in transverse row laterad ps 1; ps 1 modified into thick, straight, spur-like setae ( Figs 118View FIGURE 118 a, 119 b). Coxal, genital and anal setae fine; setae 1 a, 3 a, 4 a finely tapered and difficult to determine total length. Setal lengths: 1a 45 – 63 [50, 65], 1 b 14–19 [19], 2 b 11–18 [18], 2 c 13–16 [16], 3a 30 – 53 [50, 53], 3 b 8–17 [17], 4a 37 – 67 [67], 4 b 10–18 [18], ag 1 9–10 [9, 10], g 1 7–10 [10], g 2 8–13 [12, 13], ps 1 5–13 [13], ps 2 7–11 [7], ps 3 5–8 [7, 8]. Aedeagus. ( Fig. 118View FIGURE 118 b) Narrow, sclerotised, tapering to a point, 41–42 [42] long (bent tip is possibly artefact of slide mounting). Membranous duct runs from inside aedeagus for about 55, reaching partially distinguishable membranous sac, at least 10 wide, 10 long (not visible in paratype). Legs. Setal formula for legs I –IV (coxae to tarsi) same as female: 1 - 0-3 - 0-3 - 8 (1), 2 - 0-3 - 0-3 - 8 (1), 1 - 1-2 - 0-2 - 4, 1 - 0-1 - 0-2 - 4. Tarsi I and II each with 1 antiaxial solenidion ω" (ta I 8–10 [10] long, ta II 8–10 [9, 10] long) and 2 eupathidia pζ'-pζ" (5–7 [7] long). Solenidia similar in size to female ( Fig. 115View FIGURE 115).

DEUTONYMPH (n = 4). Dorsum. Body measurements: distance between setae v 2 -h 1 210–245, sc 2 -sc 2 75– 100; other measurements: v 2 -v 2 17–23, sc 1 -sc 1 68–87, c 1 -c 1 17–21, c 3 -c 3 87–125, d 1 -d 1 16–21, d 3 -d 3 67–99, e 1 - e 1 19–23, e 3 - e 3 61–97, f 3 -f 3 53–82, h 1 -h 1 15–21, h 2 -h 2 41–54. Prodorsal shield with 7–9 longitudinal creases; setae v 2 inserted on anterior margin of prodorsal shield. Opisthosoma with setae c 1 on paired, weak, irregular platelets, d 1 -d 3 on paired, weak, irregular platelets; pygidial shield weak, including setae e 1, f 3, h 1, h 2. Otherwise coarse transverse striae between areas of smooth to wrinkled cuticle. At least 6 small pores present on dorsum, 2 pairs on prodorsal shield mesad sc 2, pair between c 1 -c 3, pair between d 1 -d 3, pair anterolaterad e 1, pair posterior e 1. Setal lengths: v 2 15–21, sc 1 12–18, sc 2 12–17, c 1 9–11, c 3 12–17, d 1 4–7, d 3 15–19, e 1 2 –6, e 3 14 –19, f 3 14– 20, h 1 7–13, h 2 14 –19. 1 specimen lacks setae c 1, e 1 and h 2 on the right hand side. Palps. Palps similar to adult. Solenidion 3–5 long, seta-like eupathidium 5–8 long. Venter. Cuticle between 1 b- 1 a with longitudinal striae; 1 a to level with leg III with transverse striae; between legs III –IV with longitudinal striae; cuticle posterior to leg IV transverse becoming longitudinal and broader in genital region. Coxal setae fine. Setae ag 1, g 1, ps 1–3 smooth. Setal lengths: 1a 22 – 44, 1 b 9–16, 2 b 9–13, 2 c 9–16, 3 a 26–38, 3 b 8–18, 4 a 25–34, 4 b 10–13, ag 1 6–8, g 1 9–14, ps 1 4–6, ps 2 4–6, ps 3 5–7. Legs. Setal formula for legs I –IV same as adult female. Tarsi I and II each with 1 antiaxial solenidion ω" (3–5 long) and 2 eupathidia pζ'-pζ" (4–6 long).

PROTONYMPH (n = 4). Dorsum. Body measurements: distance between setae v 2 -h 1 185–200, sc 2 -sc 2 69– 77; other measurements: v 2 -v 2 18–20, sc 1 -sc 1 62–67, c 1 -c 1 15–16, c 3 -c 3 82–89, d 1 -d 1 15–16, d 3 -d 3 66–71, e 1 - e 1 12–15, e 3 - e 3 63–68, f 3 -f 3 50–52, h 1 -h 1 7–14, h 2 -h 2 27–33. Dorsum similar to deutonymph. Prodorsal shield with 6–7 longitudinal creases; setae v 2 inserted just ventral to anterior margin of prodorsal shield. Opisthosomal shields similar to deutonymph except pygidial shield excludes f 3. At least 5 small pores present on dorsum, pair on prodorsal shield mesad sc 2, pair between c 1 -c 3, pair between d 1 -d 3, pair anterolaterad e 1, pair posterior e 1. Setal lengths: v 2 14–20, sc 1 11–14, sc 2 14–16, c 1 6–8, c 3 13–15, d 1 4–5, d 3 13–15, e 1 3 –5, e 3 13 –16, f 3 13–16, h 1 5– 10, h 2 13–16. Palps. Palps similar to adult. Solenidion 3 long, seta-like eupathidium 5–7 long. Venter. Cuticle and setae similar to deutonymph. Setal lengths: 1a 25 – 32, 1 b 10–16, 2 b 10–12, 3 a 22–31, 3 b 8–12, ag 1 3–6, ps 1 3–5, ps 2 3–5, ps 3 3–5. Legs. Setal formula for legs I –IV (coxae to tarsi) 1 - 0-3 - 0-3 - 8 (1), 1 - 0-3 - 0-3 - 8 (1), 1 - 1-2 - 0-2 - 4, 0- 0- 1 - 0-2 - 3. Tarsi I and II each with 1 antiaxial solenidion ω" (3–4 long) and 2 eupathidia pζ'-pζ" (4–5 long). Leg setation as in deutonymph, except: setae 2 c, 4 b absent; tarsi IV without seta tc ′. Setae l' added to tr III.

LARVA (n = 8). Dorsum. ( Fig. 120View FIGURE 120 a) Body measurements: distance between setae v 2 -h 1 120–180 [paratype: 165], sc 2 -sc 2 57–69 [63]; other measurements: v 2 -v 2 16–22 [19], sc 1 -sc 1 51–61 [54], c 1 -c 1 13–17 [17], c 3 -c 3 71– 95 [83], d 1 -d 1 15–18 [15], d 3 -d 3 50–69 [61], e 1 - e 1 9–13 [11], e 3 - e 3 36–60 [50], f 3 -f 3 27–41 [38], h 1 -h 1 4–7 [4], h 2 -h 2 14–18 [17]. Anterior margin of prodorsum smoothly rounded without medial notch. Prodorsal shield smooth, weak with few oblique folds; opisthosomal dorsum with a few transverse folds and striations between c 1 - e 1. Lateral cuticle mesad c 3 with oblique folds and striations. At least 5 pairs of pores present on dorsum, pair mesad sc 2, pair between c 1 -c 3 and d 1 -d 3, 2 pairs laterad e 1. Setae h 1, h 2 inserted posteroventrally. Setal lengths: v 2 13–23 [19], sc 1 10–14 [12, 13], sc 2 11–16 [13], c 1 4–7 [5, 6], c 3 9–15 [12], d 1 3–5 [4, 5], d 3 11–18 [16, 18], e 1 2 –4 [4], e 3 11 –17 [15], f 3 12–18 [16], h 1 4–7 [6, 7], h 2 12–19 [17, 19]. Palps. ( Fig. 120View FIGURE 120 b) Palps 3 -segmented; setalike tarsal eupathidium 3–8 [7, 8] long; solenidion 2–3 [3] long. Venter. Ventral cuticle finely striate, similar to deutonymph. Pseudanal setae ps 1–3 on smooth cuticle. Coxal setae fine. Setal lengths: 1a 15 – 36 [36], 1 b 10–18 [12], 3a 19 – 35 [24], ps 1 2–4 [4], ps 2 2–4 [4], ps 3 2–4 [4]. Legs. Setal formula for legs I –III (coxae to tarsi) 1 - 0-3 - 0-3 - 7 (1), 0- 0-3 - 0-3 - 7 (1), 0- 0-2 - 0-2 - 3. Tarsi I and II each with 1 antiaxial solenidion ω" (ta I 2–4 [3, 4], ta II 2–3 [2, 3]) and 2 eupathidia pζ'-pζ" (3–5 [5] long). Leg setation as in protonymph, except: setae 2 b, 3 b absent; tr III without l ′; ta I –III without seta tc ′.

Remarks. Individual mites are found wedged within the natural grooves present on the stems and branchlets of the host plant ( Fig. 122View FIGURE 122), where they feed and moult. Eggs are also laid within these grooves, lined up in a row ( Fig. 121View FIGURE 121). The eggs have a short stipe and thick sculptured outer coating ( Fig. 121View FIGURE 121 b).

Although Womersley (1940) stated the sex as “probably female”, the original description and illustrations of T. conicus  were unquestionably based on a male. Womersley stated that there were four specimens; however, to date only three specimens have been located (on two slides, in poor condition). Even though Womersley technically never designated a holotype, the female slide is marked with the traditional red indicative of a holotype specimen, and the male slide (with larva) is marked with the traditional blue of a paratype. There is no indication of when this was done, or by whom. The female was described much later by Smiley et al. (1996) from what they stated was the holotype. The ‘type’ slides are now supplemented by new material collected on the type host plant from both the type locality and an additional locality further north along the eastern Australian coastline.

Both the original description ( Womersley 1940) and re-description (Smiley et al. 1996) were lacking several key details, due to the poor preservation of the type specimens. However, after close examination of the types, we were able to discern certain key characters, e.g. setae e 1 and three pairs of pseudanal (ps) setae, in addition to details of the leg setation. We also note, with the help of the new material, that the palp is three-segmented, not two-segmented as originally described.

The Queensland specimens have some minor differences to the specimens from the type locality: the dorsal sculpturing is weaker, there are fewer lateral papillae (ca. 25 vs 50) and most ventral, genital and anal setae are shorter. There is a chance that they may represent another species, but because they came from the same host plant, and without an assessment of variation from several populations or genomic analysis, we tentatively consider them the same species. The use of low temperature scanning electron microscopy (LT-SEM) revealed that the specimens from both localities have very similar pattern of “microplate” (sensu Welbourn et al. 2003) development on the cuticle ( Fig. 123View FIGURE 123).

SAM

South African Museum

ANIC

Australian National Insect Collection

USNM

Smithsonian Institution, National Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Arachnida

Order

Prostigmata

Family

Tenuipalpidae

Genus

Tegopalpus

Loc

Tegopalpus conicus Womersley, 1940

Beard, Jennifer J., Seeman, Owen D. & Bauchan, Gary R. 2014
2014
Loc

Tegopalpus conicus

Womersley 1940: 242
1940